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한국중국언어학회> 중국언어연구> 现代汉语中“稍微+数量”结构的再认识

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现代汉语中“稍微+数量”结构的再认识

The Re-understanding on the Structure “Shaowei(稍微)+Numeral Structure”

焦毓梅 ( Jiao¸ Yumei )
  • : 한국중국언어학회
  • : 중국언어연구 95권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 61-83(23pages)
중국언어연구

DOI

10.38068/KJCL.95.3


목차

1. 引言
2. 现代汉语中“稍微+数量”的语义与句法分析
3. 现代汉语中状语位置部分副词与“稍微”的比较
4. 结语

키워드 보기


초록 보기

“稍微”是现代汉语系统中一个非常重要的副词, 一般认为其是客观程度副词。而事实上, “稍微”与典型的程度副词相比具有较大差异。文章考察“稍微”的语义、句法特征, 并将其与语义、用法相近的“稍”、“微微”、“更”、“好”等相比较, 指出“稍微”的主要功能是强调、凸显句中的客观小量, 表达说话人的主观认知。并据此为“稍微”及用法类似的词语提出教学建议。
“Shaowei(稍微)” is a very important adverb in modern Chinese system, which is generally regarded as an objective degree adverb. In fact, “Shaowei(稍微)” is quite different from the typical degree adverbs. This paper examines the semantic and syntactic features of “Shaowei(稍微)” and compares it with “稍(Shao)” and “微微(Weiwei)”、“更(Geng)”、“好(Hao)” which have similar semantic and usage, and points out that the main function of “Shaowei(稍微)” is to emphasize and highlight the objective small quantity in the sentence, and to express the speaker’s subjective feelings. In view of the above, we put forward some educational suggestions for “Shaowei(稍微)” and words in similar usage to “shaowei(稍微)”.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 중어중문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 1229-554x
  • : 2733-4597
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2021
  • : 1407


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발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-23 (23 pages)

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Huajian Township belongs to Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County of Chengde City, Hebei Province, and is located in the south of Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County. According to the “Chinese Language Atlas” (second Edition)(2012), The dialect of Huajian area belongs to the Jizun piece of the Baotang section of Jilu Mandarin. This paper takes the Huajian dialect(old) as the research object, on the basis of field investigation, combined with the research results of the predecessors, has carried out a comprehensive and detailed description of the mutation in language stream of the Huajian dialect. The mutation in language stream in this paper include tone sandhi, neutral tone and sound Patterns of Er-suffixation. The mutation in language stream in Huajian dialect is more abundant than that of Beijing dialect, and it has been internalized as a component of Huajian dialect.

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저자 : 張莉莉 ( Zhang¸ Lili )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 25-59 (35 pages)

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이 글의 목표는 20세기 초부터 지금까지의 중국 上古音에 대한 연구 성과, 특히 최근에 나온 연구에 주목하여 정리하고, 上古音 연구 동향을 파악하기 위한 것이다. 이를 위해 약 백 년 동안의 연구사를 간략하게 살펴본 후, 上古音 연구에 있어서 논쟁거리인 음절 유형, 운미, 모음체계, 介音의 존재 여부, 기본 자음체계, 복자음체계, 그리고 관련된 형태 연구를 중심으로 살펴보았다. 최근 주류 입장에 따르면 上古漢語의 陰聲 운미에는 유성 폐쇄운미가 없었고 개음절을 지니며, 또한 성조가 없었고, 후치운미가 중고시기에 성조를 이루게 된다. 모음체계의 경우 대략 'i, Щ, u, e, a, o'와 같이 6개 모음으로 이루어진 것으로 볼 수 있으며, 上古漢語에는 모음성 介音이 존재하지 않고 介音 /r/가 많은 역할을 했다. 한편, 기본 자음 체계에서 논의된 來母와 喉音 계열 및 무성 비음과 무성 유음에 대한 관점은 최신 이론에서 큰 차이를 보이지 않지만, 精母 파찰화 등에 관하여는 아직 異論이 존재하며, 자음군의 경우는 대개 전치자음과 후치자음을 통하여 복자음 체계를 해석하고 있다. 또한, 上古漢語의 재구에 있어서 형태의 기능과 음운 형식에의 대응 관계가 최근의 연구에서 관심을 받고 있다. 마지막으로 上古音의 연구 방법, 연구 자료, 연구 범위를 살펴봄으로써 앞으로의 연구 방향을 제시하여 보았다.


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KCI등재

3现代汉语中“稍微+数量”结构的再认识

저자 : 焦毓梅 ( Jiao¸ Yumei )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 61-83 (23 pages)

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“稍微”是现代汉语系统中一个非常重要的副词, 一般认为其是客观程度副词。而事实上, “稍微”与典型的程度副词相比具有较大差异。文章考察“稍微”的语义、句法特征, 并将其与语义、用法相近的“稍”、“微微”、“更”、“好”等相比较, 指出“稍微”的主要功能是强调、凸显句中的客观小量, 表达说话人的主观认知。并据此为“稍微”及用法类似的词语提出教学建议。


“Shaowei(稍微)” is a very important adverb in modern Chinese system, which is generally regarded as an objective degree adverb. In fact, “Shaowei(稍微)” is quite different from the typical degree adverbs. This paper examines the semantic and syntactic features of “Shaowei(稍微)” and compares it with “稍(Shao)” and “微微(Weiwei)”、“更(Geng)”、“好(Hao)” which have similar semantic and usage, and points out that the main function of “Shaowei(稍微)” is to emphasize and highlight the objective small quantity in the sentence, and to express the speaker's subjective feelings. In view of the above, we put forward some educational suggestions for “Shaowei(稍微)” and words in similar usage to “shaowei(稍微)”.

KCI등재

4'심(深)'과 '천(淺)'의 의미 대립 분포 양상 연구 ― 코퍼스 연어분석을 중심으로

저자 : 권희정 ( Gwon¸ Hee-joung )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 85-113 (29 pages)

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This work extracts and analyzes collocation that emerges with the modern Chinese multiple meaning word '深(deep)/淺(shallow)', using the index function of corpus built on practical use. This is to study the use of multiple meanings for each syntactic type of modern Chinese words '深(deep)' and '淺(shallow)', and the distribution of meanings.

KCI등재

5노걸대 3종 판본 내 중국어 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성에 대한 통시적 연구

저자 : Maeng¸ Junghwan

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 115-137 (23 pages)

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본 논문은 원명청(元明清)대에 걸쳐 출판된 노걸대 3종 판본을 바탕으로 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성의 역사적 변천 과정에 관한 연구를 진행하였다. 노걸대는 당시 구어체 북방 관화를 기록한 자료로써 원대부터 청대에 이르기까지의 언어적 변화를 담고 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 노걸대 3종 판본을 코퍼스 자료로 사용하여 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성을 분석하였다. 형태론적 생산성은 각 명사 형태소가 생성해낼 수 있는 새로운 어휘의 종류의 수를 바탕으로 측정되었다. 분석 결과 -儿이 원대부터 청대에 걸쳐 가장 높은 생산성을 지니고 있는 것으로 판명된 반면, 명사 접미사 -子와 -們의 경우 이 기간 동안 생산성이 지속적으로 감소하는 양상을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구의 결과는 형태론적 생산성과 어휘화의 밀접한 관련성에 대한 실증적 근거를 제시함과 동시에 형태론적 법칙을 통해 생성된 어휘와 어휘 목록에 등록된 어휘가 서로 독립적인 영역에 속해 있음을 시사하고 있다.


This study focuses on the historical change in the productivity of Chinese nominal suffixes based on three versions of Laoqida (老乞大) published in the Yuan, Ming and Qing periods respectively. Because Laoqida transcribes spoken Chinese language at the time and also reflects language change over time spanning from the Yuan to Qing period, it serves as a corpus database that allows us to examine the premodern spoken Chinese language. Using Laoqida as a corpus database, this study used hapax-based analysis to examine morphological productivity of the nominal suffixes (-zi, -er, -men) under investigation based on the number of novel expressions created by each suffix. The findings of the study show that -er remains as the most productive suffix throughout the Yuan-Qing periods whereas the productivity of -zi and -men continues to decline over the same periods. The results of the study suggest that the morphological productivity and the lexicalization of derived words are closely associated with each other. Furthermore, the study provides evidence that lexicon and morphology should be considered as two independent domains.

KCI등재

6영상도식을 통한 현대중국어 '진(進)', '출(出)'류 방향보어의 의미 확장 연구

저자 : 이선희 ( Lee¸ Sun Hee )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 139-168 (30 pages)

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This study investigated the correlation between language and body by examining the semantic extension of directive complements in the Modern Chinese Language, including 进 and 出, through corpus analysis, and analyzing the mechanism based on the image schema and conceptual metaphor theory of cognitive linguistics. The results are as follows:
First, the basic meaning of directive complements of 进 and 出 is the direction that a human subject takes: moving in or out of a space. The extended semantics, however, show the movement of not only humans but also animals, objects, and abstract objects. Such aspects are the same as the sequence of the semantic extension suggested by Heine et al (1991: 48-49) that it transitions from the categories closest to human experience to abstract.
Second, the semantic extension of 进 and 出 has a deep correlation with our experiences and cognitive systems. This is the result of our repeated experience of moving in and out of a space in our daily life, having created patterns in our cognition and given the same meaning to other objects that have similarities.
Third, although 进 and 出 have the opposite basic meaning, their extended meanings are asymmetrical. While 进 carries the meaning of a result (sunken) and a result (understanding and acceptance), 出 has no such meaning but more diverse patterns of results, quantity, and degree: hidden (隐) → appear (显) and nothing (无) → existence (有). This is because the movement of 出, wherein an object is exposed out of a space in terms of the resultant movement, is more cognitively significant.

KCI등재

7'VV간(看)'의 주관화와 화용론적 분석

저자 : 이운재 ( Lee¸ Woonjae )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 169-193 (25 pages)

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In this paper, we discussed the subjectification process of “VV-kan” to represent an attempt and the pragmatic function of “VV-kan”. “VV-kan” is a structure that combines verb overlap VV and tentative particle “Kan(看)”, and in this composition, verb overlap VV is the central meaning and “Kan(看)” is a grammar function word that strengthens the meaning of attempt. Based on theory of subjectivity of Traugott and Langacker, we can see the tendency to develop from objective to subjective in the process of changing tentative particle from verb. Changes in the meaning of “Kan” resulted in grammatical variations, which resulted in object elimination as object components changed from concrete components to abstract components, and eventually changed to the tentative particle “Kan(看)”. While the original meaning of “Kan” rather than “from afar” causes objective interpretation, as “Kan” is subjective, it develops into an observation meaning, a test meaning, and an attempt, resulting in a more and more subjective interpretation. The use environment of 'VV' has the characteristics of fieldality in which speakers and listeners are present in the same time·space position. As a result, it will not only serve as a consideration to the speaker or the other party, but also serve as pragmatic function that increases the feasibility of the attempt.

KCI등재

8유형론적 관점으로 본 중국어 사실성부사 '진(真)'과 '진적(真的)'의 기능 확장과 그 범주적 특성

저자 : 박정구 ( Park¸ Jungku ) , 소영 ( Xiao¸ Ying ) , 박성하 ( Park¸ Seongha )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 195-222 (28 pages)

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本文对现代汉语真实性副词“真”、“真的”复杂多样的分布特征进行了深入细致的调查, 并通过比较分析探究真实性副词除情态义外, 还具有的其他范畴的功能, 并揭示这些功能扩展的机制。
本文首先用一个模式展现“真”和“真的”的认识情态, 并在该模式中, 把认识情态设定为区别于现实世界(Real World)的可能世界(Possible World)。认识情态表示说话者的断, 判断被设定于可能世界中的事件或状态与现实世界的符合程度, 而“真”和“真的”这两个副词都表示坚定地确信可能事件符合现实事件。以该模式为基础, 还可解释“真”表示“程度的加强”这一扩展功能, 其扩展机制为认知推理, 即“强调事态的真实性”功能通过认知推理过程, 类推为“状态的程度加强”。
此外, 本文还提出了“真”其他范畴的特征。最值得关注的成果是本文提出“真”具有“示证性”(evidentiality)和“意外性”(mirativity)的范畴属性, 并利用语言类型学来阐释其机制。 “真”的“示证性”特征是指命题所表示的信息不是说话者间接所得, 而是切身体验后直接获取的信息。“真”的“意外性”特征是指说话者所传递的信息是出乎意料的或与预设相悖的新信息, 也表示对意外事件感到惊讶之义。通过这些范畴特征, 可以对“真”所独具的功能从语言类型学的角度进行解释说明。
从语言类型学视角来看, 认识情态、示证性、意外性等范畴在不同的语言中通过不同的手段或方式来呈现。在有些语言中呈现为语法标记, 而在有些语言中则不然;有些语言明确地将各范畴区分开来, 而有些语言则不然。汉语中这些语法标记不发达, 各范畴难以区分。本文证明了这些范畴的属性对汉语真实性副词的功能产生影响, 并且借助所搭配的成分或语境呈现出来, 这具有积极意义。


By closely comparing and analyzing the various and complex distributional properties of Chinese actuality adverbs 'Zhen (真)' and 'Zhende (真的)', this paper tried to prove what categorical functions the actuality adverbs have in addition to their modal meaning and to reveal what mechanism causes the functional extension.
First of all, this paper presents a model of the epistemic modality of '真' and '真的', with two distinct worlds, the possible world and the real world. The epistemic modality expresses the speaker's judgment on the degree to which an event or state established in the possible world matches the real world, and these two adverbs express his strong convictions about the correspondence between the real event and the possible event. Based on this model, it is possible to explain the extension of the degree-intensifying function of 'Zhen (真)'. The mechanism reveals that the function of emphasizing the degree of a state was developed from cognitive reasoning inferred by the reinforcement of truth of an event or a state.
This paper also suggests a new categorical characteristic of 'Zhen (真)'. The most notable achievement is that we can suggest that 'Zhen (真)' has categorical properties such as evidentiality and mirativity, and explain the mechanism from linguistic typological perspective. The evidentiality of 'Zhen (真)' tells us that the information indicated by the proposition is not obtained indirectly, but that the speaker is the direct source of the information. In addition, the mirativity of 'Zhen (真)' indicates that the information conveyed by the speaker is unpredictable, new, contrary to the presupposition, and carrying the meaning of being surprised at the unexpected event. Through this analysis, this paper could logically and systematically explain the apparently exceptional and very complex function of 'Zhen (真)'.
The categories such as epistemic modality, evidentiality, and mirativity may or may not be expressed by grammatical markers cross-linguistically, and may or may not be clearly distinguished from each other. It can be said that Chinese is a type of language in which the grammatical markers rarely developed and the categories are not clearly distinguished from each other. This paper has great significance in proving that those categorial properties are involved in the functional development of actuality adverbs in Chinese and the categorial features can be captured by the co-occurring elements or context.

KCI등재

9“相等”詞性及相關問題新探

저자 : 金鐘讚 ( Kim¸ Jongchan )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 223-240 (18 pages)

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Xiandai Hanyu Cidian is one of the dictionaries that is popular among Chinese scholars. Although the dictionary is well written, we can still find some problems in it, and one of them is about “Xiangdeng”. It describes “Xiangdeng” as a verb. At present, lots of dictionaries published in China also follow Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, such as Xuesheng Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, Dangdai Hanyu Cidian, Xiandai Hanyu Guifan Cidian, Xiandai Hanyu Tujie Cidian, HSK Ciyu Yongfa Xiangjie, Hanyu Jiao Yu Xue Cidian, and Xiandai Hanyu Fenlei Cidian. But I do not agree with them.
According to my research, “Xiangdeng” is not related with actions or behaviors, so it can not be an intransitive verb. “Xiangdeng” can not be a transitive verb, because it can not take objects. If we analyse the term “Xiangdeng”, “Xiang” has the character of adverbs, and “Deng” of adjectives, then the combine of “Xiang” and “Deng” can be analysed as an adjective. Actually, there are many examples similar to this in Modern Chinese.
Generally speaking, adjectives can be modified by degree adverbs like “Hen”, “Zui” and so forth. But not all the adjectives can be modified by these sorts of adverbs, for example “Xiangtong”, “Yiyang”. The term “Xiangdeng” is one of them. And when the “Xiangdeng” is followed by “Yu”, the function of “Xiangdengyu” is similar to a transitive verb. Therefore the structure of “Xiangdengyu” can take objects. In my opinion, the explanation of the term “Xiangdeng” should be translated as follows:
「【Xiangdeng】 xiāngděng Adjective (shumu, fsnliang, chengdu and so force) bici yiyang: mianji~〡Zhe liang jian fangzi de mianji~。」

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10『설문해자(說文解字)』 심부(心部) 감정 표현어의 어휘 변화

저자 : 김은희 ( Kim¸ Eun Hee )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 241-268 (28 pages)

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The 263 headwords compiled which include the radical 心 (heart) in the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字) are semantically classified into four categories: Emotion, Personality, Cognition and Virtue. Among them, this paper examines 124 headwords under the 'Emotion' category to review the lexical changes by comparative study with the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (現代漢語詞典, Modern Chinese Dictionary), 7th edition. This paper covers two main topics. In Chapter 2, we explain the types of emotion words and ways of defining the meanings contained in the radical 心 of the Shuowen Jiezi. In Chapter 3, the headwords and entries in the Shuowen Jiezi and the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian are compared to analyze the forms of the emotion words which include the radical 心 and how the meanings changed.
The findings of the analysis are summed up as follows:
First, about 71% (88 headwords) of the 124 emotion words with the radical 心 in the Shuowen Jiezi are included in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. Of these headwords, about 16% (14 headwords) are replaced with simplified Chinese, and about 22% (27 headwords) of the 124 emotion words, including 10 headwords that are listed as variants of Chinese characters, are incorporated into other characters.
Second, as a result of screening the Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典, Comprehensive Chinese Word Dictionary), it was found that 48 headwords (A) applying the direct interpretation (直訓) method are combined with 29 definitions (B) and lexicalized into 71 compound words (AB/BA). Of the total 71 compound words, about 41% (29 compound words) are included in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. Just 24% (17 compound words) of these compound words are passed down in full with none of the lexical composite elements replaced, while 15% (11 compound words) have lexical composite elements partly replaced.
Third, about 88% (77 headwords) of the emotion words with the radical 心 that have been passed into the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (現代漢語詞典) have been passed down along with definitions from the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字), of which about 49% (43 headwords) are used in contemporary written Chinese. About 13% (11 headwords) of the emotion words with the radical 心 are not traceable in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian to their original meaning contained in the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字). This demonstrates a pattern of loss or changes of meaning and semantic changes in accordance to the incorporation of characters and frequency of use.
To expand the fields for analysis in this study, further study may be conducted to clarify causes of the change aspects of the various lexical changes, such as the lexicalization through coinages of monosyllable words, which is a key Chinese lexical change. Further studies may also include analysis on the loss, replacement, and incorporations of lexical forms as well as loss and changes of meaning.

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1河北宽城 (铧尖) 方言的语流音变

저자 : 闵庆万 ( Min¸ Kyung Man )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-23 (23 pages)

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Huajian Township belongs to Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County of Chengde City, Hebei Province, and is located in the south of Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County. According to the “Chinese Language Atlas” (second Edition)(2012), The dialect of Huajian area belongs to the Jizun piece of the Baotang section of Jilu Mandarin. This paper takes the Huajian dialect(old) as the research object, on the basis of field investigation, combined with the research results of the predecessors, has carried out a comprehensive and detailed description of the mutation in language stream of the Huajian dialect. The mutation in language stream in this paper include tone sandhi, neutral tone and sound Patterns of Er-suffixation. The mutation in language stream in Huajian dialect is more abundant than that of Beijing dialect, and it has been internalized as a component of Huajian dialect.

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220세기 이래 중국 상고음(上古音) 연구의 성과 및 방향

저자 : 張莉莉 ( Zhang¸ Lili )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 25-59 (35 pages)

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이 글의 목표는 20세기 초부터 지금까지의 중국 上古音에 대한 연구 성과, 특히 최근에 나온 연구에 주목하여 정리하고, 上古音 연구 동향을 파악하기 위한 것이다. 이를 위해 약 백 년 동안의 연구사를 간략하게 살펴본 후, 上古音 연구에 있어서 논쟁거리인 음절 유형, 운미, 모음체계, 介音의 존재 여부, 기본 자음체계, 복자음체계, 그리고 관련된 형태 연구를 중심으로 살펴보았다. 최근 주류 입장에 따르면 上古漢語의 陰聲 운미에는 유성 폐쇄운미가 없었고 개음절을 지니며, 또한 성조가 없었고, 후치운미가 중고시기에 성조를 이루게 된다. 모음체계의 경우 대략 'i, Щ, u, e, a, o'와 같이 6개 모음으로 이루어진 것으로 볼 수 있으며, 上古漢語에는 모음성 介音이 존재하지 않고 介音 /r/가 많은 역할을 했다. 한편, 기본 자음 체계에서 논의된 來母와 喉音 계열 및 무성 비음과 무성 유음에 대한 관점은 최신 이론에서 큰 차이를 보이지 않지만, 精母 파찰화 등에 관하여는 아직 異論이 존재하며, 자음군의 경우는 대개 전치자음과 후치자음을 통하여 복자음 체계를 해석하고 있다. 또한, 上古漢語의 재구에 있어서 형태의 기능과 음운 형식에의 대응 관계가 최근의 연구에서 관심을 받고 있다. 마지막으로 上古音의 연구 방법, 연구 자료, 연구 범위를 살펴봄으로써 앞으로의 연구 방향을 제시하여 보았다.

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3现代汉语中“稍微+数量”结构的再认识

저자 : 焦毓梅 ( Jiao¸ Yumei )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 61-83 (23 pages)

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“稍微”是现代汉语系统中一个非常重要的副词, 一般认为其是客观程度副词。而事实上, “稍微”与典型的程度副词相比具有较大差异。文章考察“稍微”的语义、句法特征, 并将其与语义、用法相近的“稍”、“微微”、“更”、“好”等相比较, 指出“稍微”的主要功能是强调、凸显句中的客观小量, 表达说话人的主观认知。并据此为“稍微”及用法类似的词语提出教学建议。

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4'심(深)'과 '천(淺)'의 의미 대립 분포 양상 연구 ― 코퍼스 연어분석을 중심으로

저자 : 권희정 ( Gwon¸ Hee-joung )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 85-113 (29 pages)

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This work extracts and analyzes collocation that emerges with the modern Chinese multiple meaning word '深(deep)/淺(shallow)', using the index function of corpus built on practical use. This is to study the use of multiple meanings for each syntactic type of modern Chinese words '深(deep)' and '淺(shallow)', and the distribution of meanings.

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5노걸대 3종 판본 내 중국어 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성에 대한 통시적 연구

저자 : Maeng¸ Junghwan

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 115-137 (23 pages)

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본 논문은 원명청(元明清)대에 걸쳐 출판된 노걸대 3종 판본을 바탕으로 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성의 역사적 변천 과정에 관한 연구를 진행하였다. 노걸대는 당시 구어체 북방 관화를 기록한 자료로써 원대부터 청대에 이르기까지의 언어적 변화를 담고 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 노걸대 3종 판본을 코퍼스 자료로 사용하여 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성을 분석하였다. 형태론적 생산성은 각 명사 형태소가 생성해낼 수 있는 새로운 어휘의 종류의 수를 바탕으로 측정되었다. 분석 결과 -儿이 원대부터 청대에 걸쳐 가장 높은 생산성을 지니고 있는 것으로 판명된 반면, 명사 접미사 -子와 -們의 경우 이 기간 동안 생산성이 지속적으로 감소하는 양상을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구의 결과는 형태론적 생산성과 어휘화의 밀접한 관련성에 대한 실증적 근거를 제시함과 동시에 형태론적 법칙을 통해 생성된 어휘와 어휘 목록에 등록된 어휘가 서로 독립적인 영역에 속해 있음을 시사하고 있다.

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6영상도식을 통한 현대중국어 '진(進)', '출(出)'류 방향보어의 의미 확장 연구

저자 : 이선희 ( Lee¸ Sun Hee )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 139-168 (30 pages)

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This study investigated the correlation between language and body by examining the semantic extension of directive complements in the Modern Chinese Language, including 进 and 出, through corpus analysis, and analyzing the mechanism based on the image schema and conceptual metaphor theory of cognitive linguistics. The results are as follows:
First, the basic meaning of directive complements of 进 and 出 is the direction that a human subject takes: moving in or out of a space. The extended semantics, however, show the movement of not only humans but also animals, objects, and abstract objects. Such aspects are the same as the sequence of the semantic extension suggested by Heine et al (1991: 48-49) that it transitions from the categories closest to human experience to abstract.
Second, the semantic extension of 进 and 出 has a deep correlation with our experiences and cognitive systems. This is the result of our repeated experience of moving in and out of a space in our daily life, having created patterns in our cognition and given the same meaning to other objects that have similarities.
Third, although 进 and 出 have the opposite basic meaning, their extended meanings are asymmetrical. While 进 carries the meaning of a result (sunken) and a result (understanding and acceptance), 出 has no such meaning but more diverse patterns of results, quantity, and degree: hidden (隐) → appear (显) and nothing (无) → existence (有). This is because the movement of 出, wherein an object is exposed out of a space in terms of the resultant movement, is more cognitively significant.

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7'VV간(看)'의 주관화와 화용론적 분석

저자 : 이운재 ( Lee¸ Woonjae )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 169-193 (25 pages)

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In this paper, we discussed the subjectification process of “VV-kan” to represent an attempt and the pragmatic function of “VV-kan”. “VV-kan” is a structure that combines verb overlap VV and tentative particle “Kan(看)”, and in this composition, verb overlap VV is the central meaning and “Kan(看)” is a grammar function word that strengthens the meaning of attempt. Based on theory of subjectivity of Traugott and Langacker, we can see the tendency to develop from objective to subjective in the process of changing tentative particle from verb. Changes in the meaning of “Kan” resulted in grammatical variations, which resulted in object elimination as object components changed from concrete components to abstract components, and eventually changed to the tentative particle “Kan(看)”. While the original meaning of “Kan” rather than “from afar” causes objective interpretation, as “Kan” is subjective, it develops into an observation meaning, a test meaning, and an attempt, resulting in a more and more subjective interpretation. The use environment of 'VV' has the characteristics of fieldality in which speakers and listeners are present in the same time·space position. As a result, it will not only serve as a consideration to the speaker or the other party, but also serve as pragmatic function that increases the feasibility of the attempt.

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8유형론적 관점으로 본 중국어 사실성부사 '진(真)'과 '진적(真的)'의 기능 확장과 그 범주적 특성

저자 : 박정구 ( Park¸ Jungku ) , 소영 ( Xiao¸ Ying ) , 박성하 ( Park¸ Seongha )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 195-222 (28 pages)

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本文对现代汉语真实性副词“真”、“真的”复杂多样的分布特征进行了深入细致的调查, 并通过比较分析探究真实性副词除情态义外, 还具有的其他范畴的功能, 并揭示这些功能扩展的机制。
本文首先用一个模式展现“真”和“真的”的认识情态, 并在该模式中, 把认识情态设定为区别于现实世界(Real World)的可能世界(Possible World)。认识情态表示说话者的断, 判断被设定于可能世界中的事件或状态与现实世界的符合程度, 而“真”和“真的”这两个副词都表示坚定地确信可能事件符合现实事件。以该模式为基础, 还可解释“真”表示“程度的加强”这一扩展功能, 其扩展机制为认知推理, 即“强调事态的真实性”功能通过认知推理过程, 类推为“状态的程度加强”。
此外, 本文还提出了“真”其他范畴的特征。最值得关注的成果是本文提出“真”具有“示证性”(evidentiality)和“意外性”(mirativity)的范畴属性, 并利用语言类型学来阐释其机制。 “真”的“示证性”特征是指命题所表示的信息不是说话者间接所得, 而是切身体验后直接获取的信息。“真”的“意外性”特征是指说话者所传递的信息是出乎意料的或与预设相悖的新信息, 也表示对意外事件感到惊讶之义。通过这些范畴特征, 可以对“真”所独具的功能从语言类型学的角度进行解释说明。
从语言类型学视角来看, 认识情态、示证性、意外性等范畴在不同的语言中通过不同的手段或方式来呈现。在有些语言中呈现为语法标记, 而在有些语言中则不然;有些语言明确地将各范畴区分开来, 而有些语言则不然。汉语中这些语法标记不发达, 各范畴难以区分。本文证明了这些范畴的属性对汉语真实性副词的功能产生影响, 并且借助所搭配的成分或语境呈现出来, 这具有积极意义。

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9“相等”詞性及相關問題新探

저자 : 金鐘讚 ( Kim¸ Jongchan )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 223-240 (18 pages)

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Xiandai Hanyu Cidian is one of the dictionaries that is popular among Chinese scholars. Although the dictionary is well written, we can still find some problems in it, and one of them is about “Xiangdeng”. It describes “Xiangdeng” as a verb. At present, lots of dictionaries published in China also follow Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, such as Xuesheng Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, Dangdai Hanyu Cidian, Xiandai Hanyu Guifan Cidian, Xiandai Hanyu Tujie Cidian, HSK Ciyu Yongfa Xiangjie, Hanyu Jiao Yu Xue Cidian, and Xiandai Hanyu Fenlei Cidian. But I do not agree with them.
According to my research, “Xiangdeng” is not related with actions or behaviors, so it can not be an intransitive verb. “Xiangdeng” can not be a transitive verb, because it can not take objects. If we analyse the term “Xiangdeng”, “Xiang” has the character of adverbs, and “Deng” of adjectives, then the combine of “Xiang” and “Deng” can be analysed as an adjective. Actually, there are many examples similar to this in Modern Chinese.
Generally speaking, adjectives can be modified by degree adverbs like “Hen”, “Zui” and so forth. But not all the adjectives can be modified by these sorts of adverbs, for example “Xiangtong”, “Yiyang”. The term “Xiangdeng” is one of them. And when the “Xiangdeng” is followed by “Yu”, the function of “Xiangdengyu” is similar to a transitive verb. Therefore the structure of “Xiangdengyu” can take objects. In my opinion, the explanation of the term “Xiangdeng” should be translated as follows:
「【Xiangdeng】 xiāngděng Adjective (shumu, fsnliang, chengdu and so force) bici yiyang: mianji~〡Zhe liang jian fangzi de mianji~。」

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10『설문해자(說文解字)』 심부(心部) 감정 표현어의 어휘 변화

저자 : 김은희 ( Kim¸ Eun Hee )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 241-268 (28 pages)

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The 263 headwords compiled which include the radical 心 (heart) in the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字) are semantically classified into four categories: Emotion, Personality, Cognition and Virtue. Among them, this paper examines 124 headwords under the 'Emotion' category to review the lexical changes by comparative study with the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (現代漢語詞典, Modern Chinese Dictionary), 7th edition. This paper covers two main topics. In Chapter 2, we explain the types of emotion words and ways of defining the meanings contained in the radical 心 of the Shuowen Jiezi. In Chapter 3, the headwords and entries in the Shuowen Jiezi and the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian are compared to analyze the forms of the emotion words which include the radical 心 and how the meanings changed.
The findings of the analysis are summed up as follows:
First, about 71% (88 headwords) of the 124 emotion words with the radical 心 in the Shuowen Jiezi are included in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. Of these headwords, about 16% (14 headwords) are replaced with simplified Chinese, and about 22% (27 headwords) of the 124 emotion words, including 10 headwords that are listed as variants of Chinese characters, are incorporated into other characters.
Second, as a result of screening the Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典, Comprehensive Chinese Word Dictionary), it was found that 48 headwords (A) applying the direct interpretation (直訓) method are combined with 29 definitions (B) and lexicalized into 71 compound words (AB/BA). Of the total 71 compound words, about 41% (29 compound words) are included in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. Just 24% (17 compound words) of these compound words are passed down in full with none of the lexical composite elements replaced, while 15% (11 compound words) have lexical composite elements partly replaced.
Third, about 88% (77 headwords) of the emotion words with the radical 心 that have been passed into the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (現代漢語詞典) have been passed down along with definitions from the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字), of which about 49% (43 headwords) are used in contemporary written Chinese. About 13% (11 headwords) of the emotion words with the radical 心 are not traceable in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian to their original meaning contained in the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字). This demonstrates a pattern of loss or changes of meaning and semantic changes in accordance to the incorporation of characters and frequency of use.
To expand the fields for analysis in this study, further study may be conducted to clarify causes of the change aspects of the various lexical changes, such as the lexicalization through coinages of monosyllable words, which is a key Chinese lexical change. Further studies may also include analysis on the loss, replacement, and incorporations of lexical forms as well as loss and changes of meaning.

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