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한국중국언어학회> 중국언어연구> 河北宽城 (铧尖) 方言的语流音变

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河北宽城 (铧尖) 方言的语流音变

The Mutation in Language Stream of Kuancheng (Huajian) Dialect in Hebei Province

闵庆万 ( Min¸ Kyung Man )
  • : 한국중국언어학회
  • : 중국언어연구 95권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 1-23(23pages)
중국언어연구

DOI

10.38068/KJCL.95.1


목차

1. 引言
2. 连读变调
3. 轻声
4. 儿化
5. 其他音变
6. 结语

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초록 보기

Huajian Township belongs to Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County of Chengde City, Hebei Province, and is located in the south of Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County. According to the “Chinese Language Atlas” (second Edition)(2012), The dialect of Huajian area belongs to the Jizun piece of the Baotang section of Jilu Mandarin. This paper takes the Huajian dialect(old) as the research object, on the basis of field investigation, combined with the research results of the predecessors, has carried out a comprehensive and detailed description of the mutation in language stream of the Huajian dialect. The mutation in language stream in this paper include tone sandhi, neutral tone and sound Patterns of Er-suffixation. The mutation in language stream in Huajian dialect is more abundant than that of Beijing dialect, and it has been internalized as a component of Huajian dialect.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 중어중문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 1229-554x
  • : 2733-4597
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2021
  • : 1426


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1新派民族风歌曲歌词中的修辞格与风格 ― 以“凤凰传奇”组合为例

저자 : 安云晖 ( An¸ Yunhui ) , 罗敏球 ( Na¸ Mingu )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-29 (29 pages)

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As a linguistic art, pop songs, like other linguistic forms, require not only clear expression of the lyrics, but also vocal and emotional development. Rhetoric, as a linguistic science, has naturally become an indispensable part of composing lyrics and emotions. In the present study, scholars focus on the rules and rhetorical means of the lyrics, and focus on the phoneme, words, syntax and various types of words, but they lack to combine these rhetorical means with the style of the lyrics. However, the means of rhetoric are inseparable from the style of the whole work, and the two interact as two components of rhetoric.
From the point of view of rhetoric, this paper probes into the relationship between rhetorical means and style of the lyrics of the new folk singing group Phoenix Legend. In this paper, the lyrics of the five songs of “The Legend of Phoenix”, “Best Ethnic Wind”, “Over the Moon”, “Lotang Moon Color”, “Free Flying” and “Luxury Fragrance Lady” are selected as the actual research medium.
This paper further studies the rhetorical methods and styles in the lyrics of “The Legend of Phoenix”, and proves that if we want to construct a speech style successfully, we should consider and coordinate it in all aspects of speech, vocabulary, and syntax. Rhetoric is a vast science and art, and we can use all kinds of rhetorical means to scientifically interpret and view the style of literary works and realize the research results from subjectivity to objectivity to sensibility to rationality.

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2“常常”词义中的时、动量因素分析

저자 : 贾宝书 ( Jia , Baoshu

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 31-48 (18 pages)

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The word “Changchang (often)” is generally regarded as a time adverb or a frequency adverb. Most dictionaries lay emphasis on its meanings of “large number of actions,” “short unit time” and “short time interval.” That is why the meanings of “Changchang (often)” include both factors of time quantity and motion quantity. Its motion quantity factor lies in the number of actions. Its time quantity factor is reflected in two ways: the length of “unit time” involved in frequency and the length of “time interval” of actions. The findings of this research paper suggest that in sentences that express the frequency of actions, there exists limit of “quantity value” in the meanings of “number of actions,” “no long unit time” and “short time interval” of “Changchang (often).” “Number of actions” is limited by maximum value and minimum value while “unit time” and “time interval” are limited by maximum value. The limit of maximum and minimum values is the logical basis the validity of “Changchang” clauses. Being out of the range of their quantity value would invalidate “Changchang (often).” The limit of quantity value of “Changchang (often)” should be paid special attention to when acquiring and applying “Changchang (often)” sentences.

KCI등재

3现代汉语类词缀“界”、“坛”、“圈”比较及教学研究

저자 : 闫慧娟 ( Yan¸ Huijuan )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 49-65 (17 pages)

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In the past, the research on the quasi-affixes “界”, “坛” and “圈” mainly focused on semantics and structure. So far no scholars have conducted more specific research on teaching strategies. This article refers to the “Modern Chinese Dictionary (Revised Edition)” and “Kangxi Dictionary”and modern Chinese corpus. The semantic evolution of “界”, “坛” and “圈” is analyzed. Then 350 relevant corpora were retrieved through PFR, CCL, BCC and other corpora, and the category difference between the three affix-like syllables and “X” was analyzed. “坛”is mainly combined with monosyllables to form a two-syllable vocabulary. “界” and “圈” are mostly combined with two syllables, and there are various combinations of syllables. “坛” often forms new words with vocabulary in the fields of sports and literature. “界” is easier combined with professional domain vocabulary. and “圈” is frequently combined with human-related vocabulary. And according to the characteristics of quasi-affixes, a teaching strategy is formulated. Including quasi-affix semantic development teaching method, schematic teaching method, morpheme expansion teaching method, cultural teaching method, analogy teaching method and semantic field teaching method (synonymous meaning field and upper and lower meaning field teaching methods), etc. teaching method.

KCI등재

4'聞'의 의미범주 변화에 관한 고찰

저자 : 한승 ( Han¸ Seung )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 67-91 (25 pages)

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This paper investigates on the diachronic change of the meaning of “聞 (wen)”. In ancient time, “聞(wen)” was the verbs of “hear”. At that time, The verbs of “hear” was “聞(wen)”, “聽(ting)”. “聞(wen)” among them was the main used from ancient to Yuan Dynasty. The verbs of “smell” was “聞(wen)”, “嗅 (xiu)”. “嗅(xiu)” among them was the main used from ancient to Yuan Dynasty.
“聽(ting)” had feature of active perception and passive perception, and took over “聞(wen)” from Ming Dynasty up to now. “聞(wen)” has transferred verbs of “hear” to verbs of “smell” and it was common word of “smell”.
This paper investigates how to meaning of “聞(wen)” change to “smell” and analyzes the historical replacement of “嗅(xiu)” with “聞”(wen) as well as its causes.
In addition, researched the relationship of verbs of “hear”, “smell” and “見 (jian)”,“到(dao)”, and found the reason why the words for the concept of “hear”, “smell” often collocate with “見(jian)”.

KCI등재

5BCC 코퍼스를 기반으로 한 중국어 동의어 분석 ― '刚'과 '刚刚', '刚才'를 중심으로

저자 : 최향란 ( Cui¸ Xianglan ) , 박흥수 ( Park¸ Heungsoo )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 93-114 (22 pages)

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本文利用BCC语料库提供的统计功能和多种检索式, 探索辨析同义词'刚'、'刚刚'、'刚才'的词频分布差异, 单词搭配差异和语义韵的差异等方面的特征的具体方法, 以助于恰当使用同义词, 进而更好的发挥汉语交际功能。
语料库语言学途径的同义词辨析主要通过考察同义词在不同语域中的词频分布差异。统计各搭配词与关键词共现的显著程度, 观察检索行中所呈现的同义词搭配特征, 揭示出它们不同的类联结、搭配关系和语义韵等语言特征。得益于巨大库容的语料库所提供的翔实的证据, 语料库索引可对同义词群提供丰富的用法和语境, 使研究者能够比较和掌握同义词之间细微的语义语用差异, 实现对同义词的细微差异进行客观和全面的描述。


This paper makes use of the statistical function and various retrieval methods provided by BCC corpus to explore the specific methods of distinguishing the differences of word frequency distribution, word collocation and semantic rhyme of synonyms such as 刚, 刚刚and 刚才, so as to help the proper use of synonyms and give better used to the Chinese communicative function.
The corpus approach to synonym discrimination is mainly based on the study of synonym frequency distribution differences in different domains. The significance of co-occurrence of each collocation word and keyword was counted, and the synonym collocation features presented in the retrieval lines were observed to reveal their different linguistic features such as class association, collocation relationship and semantic rhyme. Thanks to the abundant evidence provided by the huge corpus, corpus index can provide abundant usage and context for synonym groups, enabling researchers to compare and grasp the subtle semantic and pragmatic differences between synonyms, and realize an objective and comprehensive description of the subtle differences between synonyms.

KCI등재

6'來著'에 대한 소고 ― 그의 기본 의미를 중심으로

저자 : 송승남 ( Song , Sheng-nan

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 115-142 (28 pages)

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在關於“來著”的先行研究中, 針對其基本意義研究者們提出了很多方案, 但是針對其意義的研究很少, 到目前為止, “來著”的基本意義到底是什麼也沒有定論。基於此, 本研究對先行研究中提到的來著的代表性意義, 如:“近過去/過去”, “回想”, “過去完成/過去進行”, “對事實存在的確定性肯定”, “言據性意義”進行了詳細周密的探討分析, 並得出了“言據性意義”是其基本意義的結論。


In the previous research on “來著(laizhe)”, lots of plans based on its meaning have been proposed by researchers, but there are few specialized researches on the meaning. Up to now, the basic meaning of “來著(laizhe)” is far from conclusive. Under this background, this paper has carried on the detailed thorough discussion analysis on the previous research in relevant representative meaning, for example, 'nearly past/past' and 'recall', 'past perfect tense/past continuous tense', 'certain affirmation of the existence of facts' and 'evidentiality', then it is concluded that the 'evidentiality' is the basic meaning.

KCI등재

7중국어 '坐(SIT)'의미장의 어휘유형론 연구

저자 : 고은미 ( Ko¸ Eun-mi )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 143-172 (30 pages)

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Based on the theoretical framework of MLexT, this study examined the conceptualization and extended meaning of the 'SIT' semantic field, resulting in the following lexical-typological conclusions.
Cross-linguistically, the semantic domain of posture is a parament of supporting area, motion pattern, and face direction, consisting of six basic frames, 'ZUO', 'ZHAN', 'TANG', 'GUI', 'PA', 'DUN', of which 'SIT' frame is lexicalized as a parament in the supporting area.
The 'SIT' frame has a detailed frame 'PERCH' with a supporting object, which is meaning-based on stability, while the 'PERCH' frame represents instability.
In ancient China, people have traditionally sat on the floor, and the introduction of sedentary equipment after the Old Middle Ages has created a modern concept of 'SIT'. As a result, the Chinese 'SIT' frame does not have a 'PERCH' frame with support as a parament, unlike cross-linguistic phenomena, but the 'SIT' frame with action pattern as a parament(e.g. Old Chinese 'JU', Modern Chinese 'PANJU').
From a cross-linguistic perspective, the Chinese 'SIT' frame has no extended meaning to indicate the location or existence of inanimate objects based on the shape of the posture, but a metonymy meaning to represent related behaviors based on the sitting posture.
The meaning of < rest > < stop > is based on the function of resting in the sitting position, and the meaning of < work > < carry > is based on the social function of the sitting position, the meaning of < stay > < live > < do porridge >, which represents the fixation in a particular place, is based on the accompanying characteristics of sitting position 'contact'.

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8汉语否定辖域的界定问题

저자 : 贾梦阳 ( Jia¸ Mengyang )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 173-198 (26 pages)

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本文从汉语否定词在语序上的高度无标记性, 否定词在特指问句中的否定指向, 否定指向对语义的影响, 否定句的语义预设几个角度证明了否定词的否定辖域只能在否定词之后。 说明了否定词之前出现的对比重音成分, “是”强调的成分, “就、只”等唯量词限定的成分在句中的作用, 以及它们与否定词之间的关系。最后论述了“否定辖域可扩展到否定词前”这一错误认识产生的原因。


This paper demonstrated that Chinese negative scope can only after the negator and the reasons of the assertion: Chinese negators are highly unmarked in word order, the Chinese negator can't negate the negative pronouns which in the special questions(Wh- questions), the negative orientation has influence on semantics, and the negator can be a part of the presupposition. It also explains the role of the contrastive stress components that appear before the negator, the components emphasized by “是” or “就,只”, as well as the relationship between them and the negator. The reason for the misunderstanding that “the negative scope can be extended to the front of the negator” is also discussed.

KCI등재

9언해문(諺解文)을 활용한 『飜譯老乞大』와 『老乞大諺解』의 '時' 구문(構文) 연구(硏究)

저자 : 소열녕 ( Seow¸ Yuening )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 199-222 (24 pages)

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語言學界很早就有人發現近代漢語中的“時”字句能表示假設。這類用法見於元末明初的中國小説, 在朝鮮時代刊行的漢語教材裡亦頻繁出現。本文以≪翻譯老乞大≫和≪老乞大諺解≫爲研究對象, 利用其諺解文 (韓文譯文) 來分析“時”字句在韓語中的對譯情況, 借此考察當時的朝鮮譯官及其他漢語學習者是否準確掌握“時”字句的功能。筆者從漢文原文中一共找到199條帶“時”字結構的例句, 根據其韓文對譯進行分類、統計。結果發現, 這類譯文大致上可以分成三類:甲類表時間, 乙類表示假設或條件, 其餘的則列入丙類。三種“時”字句中, 乙類所占百分比最高, 在≪翻譯老乞大≫和≪老乞大諺解≫中分別為84.5%及85%。這顯示當時的朝鮮譯官能較好地掌握“時”字句表假設的功能, 沒有一律按照字面理解爲時間義。本文根據語法化程度, 將這三類的“時”進一步細分為五類, 分別是:“時₁”, 語法化程度最低, 用於表示時間的甲類;“時₂”, 語法化程度高於“時₁”, 可在已發生的事情被當作條件時使用;“時₃”, 比“時₂”更加虛化, 可用於表示現實的條件;“時₄”則比“時₃”更加語法化, 用來表示説話人的推測。以上“時₂”、“時₃”及“時₄”均屬於乙類。最後一個“時₅屬於丙類, 語法化程度最高, 既不表示時間, 也和假設、條件無關, 其功能較接近語氣詞。


Contrary to Modern Chinese, 'shi' (時) can be used in conditional statements in Early Mandarin. This usage is widely found in texts written during the Early Mandarin period, including Chinese textbooks published in Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. This paper studies the 'shi' (時) sentence in Beonyeok Nogeoldae (翻譯老乞大) and Nogeoldae Eonhae (老乞大諺解) by referring to the Korean translation text. There are 199 'shi' sentences found from the Chinese original text. These sentences are then analyzed according to their Korean equivalents and divided into 3 categories. Category A is 'shi' that shows the time, while category B referred to 'shi' that shows conditions. 'Shi' sentences with other usage are included in category C. 'Shi' from category B which is used in conditional statements shows the highest percentage with 84.5% in Beonyeok Nogeoldae and 85% in Nogeoldae Eonhae. The 'shi's can also be divided into five stages to show their different level of grammaticalization. 'Shi1' with the lowest level of grammaticalization, is one that is used to show the time. 'Shi2' is more grammaticalized than 'shi1' because it appears in sentences that refers to something that already happened. 'Shi3' is used to show a 'realistic condition' while 'shi4' expresses guessing. Finally 'shi5' which is used directly after the noun phrase, seems to be the most grammaticalized one and is quite similar to a mood marker.

KCI등재

10현대중국어 “太A” 명사 수식 제약의 인지적 원인 연구

저자 : 김현주 ( Kim¸ Hyun Ju )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 96권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 223-247 (25 pages)

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The adverbs 'tai1', 'tai2' all contain the meaning of high degree in the semantic meaning but differences are still existing amang them. This paper makers a comparative analysis on the three words from views of cognitive analysis through massive modern language materials in oredr to highlight the similarities and difference among them on the noun formula constraints. The main subjectivity of this article is the cognitive reason why “太1A” cannot modify the head of a noun and why “太2A” can modify the head of a noun. In order to investigate this question, first analyze the characteristics of “太1A” and “太2A” And the partial positive structure “FA的N (adverb of degree + adjective + de + noun)” has the cognitive characteristics. The result is that the subjective “太1A” and “太2A” cannot correspond to the objectivity of “FA的N” and “FA”, while the objective “太2(2)A” can correspond to “FA”.

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KCI등재

1河北宽城 (铧尖) 方言的语流音变

저자 : 闵庆万 ( Min¸ Kyung Man )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-23 (23 pages)

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Huajian Township belongs to Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County of Chengde City, Hebei Province, and is located in the south of Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County. According to the “Chinese Language Atlas” (second Edition)(2012), The dialect of Huajian area belongs to the Jizun piece of the Baotang section of Jilu Mandarin. This paper takes the Huajian dialect(old) as the research object, on the basis of field investigation, combined with the research results of the predecessors, has carried out a comprehensive and detailed description of the mutation in language stream of the Huajian dialect. The mutation in language stream in this paper include tone sandhi, neutral tone and sound Patterns of Er-suffixation. The mutation in language stream in Huajian dialect is more abundant than that of Beijing dialect, and it has been internalized as a component of Huajian dialect.

KCI등재

220세기 이래 중국 상고음(上古音) 연구의 성과 및 방향

저자 : 張莉莉 ( Zhang¸ Lili )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 25-59 (35 pages)

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이 글의 목표는 20세기 초부터 지금까지의 중국 上古音에 대한 연구 성과, 특히 최근에 나온 연구에 주목하여 정리하고, 上古音 연구 동향을 파악하기 위한 것이다. 이를 위해 약 백 년 동안의 연구사를 간략하게 살펴본 후, 上古音 연구에 있어서 논쟁거리인 음절 유형, 운미, 모음체계, 介音의 존재 여부, 기본 자음체계, 복자음체계, 그리고 관련된 형태 연구를 중심으로 살펴보았다. 최근 주류 입장에 따르면 上古漢語의 陰聲 운미에는 유성 폐쇄운미가 없었고 개음절을 지니며, 또한 성조가 없었고, 후치운미가 중고시기에 성조를 이루게 된다. 모음체계의 경우 대략 'i, Щ, u, e, a, o'와 같이 6개 모음으로 이루어진 것으로 볼 수 있으며, 上古漢語에는 모음성 介音이 존재하지 않고 介音 /r/가 많은 역할을 했다. 한편, 기본 자음 체계에서 논의된 來母와 喉音 계열 및 무성 비음과 무성 유음에 대한 관점은 최신 이론에서 큰 차이를 보이지 않지만, 精母 파찰화 등에 관하여는 아직 異論이 존재하며, 자음군의 경우는 대개 전치자음과 후치자음을 통하여 복자음 체계를 해석하고 있다. 또한, 上古漢語의 재구에 있어서 형태의 기능과 음운 형식에의 대응 관계가 최근의 연구에서 관심을 받고 있다. 마지막으로 上古音의 연구 방법, 연구 자료, 연구 범위를 살펴봄으로써 앞으로의 연구 방향을 제시하여 보았다.

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3现代汉语中“稍微+数量”结构的再认识

저자 : 焦毓梅 ( Jiao¸ Yumei )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 61-83 (23 pages)

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“稍微”是现代汉语系统中一个非常重要的副词, 一般认为其是客观程度副词。而事实上, “稍微”与典型的程度副词相比具有较大差异。文章考察“稍微”的语义、句法特征, 并将其与语义、用法相近的“稍”、“微微”、“更”、“好”等相比较, 指出“稍微”的主要功能是强调、凸显句中的客观小量, 表达说话人的主观认知。并据此为“稍微”及用法类似的词语提出教学建议。

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4'심(深)'과 '천(淺)'의 의미 대립 분포 양상 연구 ― 코퍼스 연어분석을 중심으로

저자 : 권희정 ( Gwon¸ Hee-joung )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 85-113 (29 pages)

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This work extracts and analyzes collocation that emerges with the modern Chinese multiple meaning word '深(deep)/淺(shallow)', using the index function of corpus built on practical use. This is to study the use of multiple meanings for each syntactic type of modern Chinese words '深(deep)' and '淺(shallow)', and the distribution of meanings.

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5노걸대 3종 판본 내 중국어 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성에 대한 통시적 연구

저자 : Maeng¸ Junghwan

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 115-137 (23 pages)

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본 논문은 원명청(元明清)대에 걸쳐 출판된 노걸대 3종 판본을 바탕으로 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성의 역사적 변천 과정에 관한 연구를 진행하였다. 노걸대는 당시 구어체 북방 관화를 기록한 자료로써 원대부터 청대에 이르기까지의 언어적 변화를 담고 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 노걸대 3종 판본을 코퍼스 자료로 사용하여 명사 접미사의 형태론적 생산성을 분석하였다. 형태론적 생산성은 각 명사 형태소가 생성해낼 수 있는 새로운 어휘의 종류의 수를 바탕으로 측정되었다. 분석 결과 -儿이 원대부터 청대에 걸쳐 가장 높은 생산성을 지니고 있는 것으로 판명된 반면, 명사 접미사 -子와 -們의 경우 이 기간 동안 생산성이 지속적으로 감소하는 양상을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구의 결과는 형태론적 생산성과 어휘화의 밀접한 관련성에 대한 실증적 근거를 제시함과 동시에 형태론적 법칙을 통해 생성된 어휘와 어휘 목록에 등록된 어휘가 서로 독립적인 영역에 속해 있음을 시사하고 있다.

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6영상도식을 통한 현대중국어 '진(進)', '출(出)'류 방향보어의 의미 확장 연구

저자 : 이선희 ( Lee¸ Sun Hee )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 139-168 (30 pages)

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This study investigated the correlation between language and body by examining the semantic extension of directive complements in the Modern Chinese Language, including 进 and 出, through corpus analysis, and analyzing the mechanism based on the image schema and conceptual metaphor theory of cognitive linguistics. The results are as follows:
First, the basic meaning of directive complements of 进 and 出 is the direction that a human subject takes: moving in or out of a space. The extended semantics, however, show the movement of not only humans but also animals, objects, and abstract objects. Such aspects are the same as the sequence of the semantic extension suggested by Heine et al (1991: 48-49) that it transitions from the categories closest to human experience to abstract.
Second, the semantic extension of 进 and 出 has a deep correlation with our experiences and cognitive systems. This is the result of our repeated experience of moving in and out of a space in our daily life, having created patterns in our cognition and given the same meaning to other objects that have similarities.
Third, although 进 and 出 have the opposite basic meaning, their extended meanings are asymmetrical. While 进 carries the meaning of a result (sunken) and a result (understanding and acceptance), 出 has no such meaning but more diverse patterns of results, quantity, and degree: hidden (隐) → appear (显) and nothing (无) → existence (有). This is because the movement of 出, wherein an object is exposed out of a space in terms of the resultant movement, is more cognitively significant.

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7'VV간(看)'의 주관화와 화용론적 분석

저자 : 이운재 ( Lee¸ Woonjae )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 169-193 (25 pages)

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In this paper, we discussed the subjectification process of “VV-kan” to represent an attempt and the pragmatic function of “VV-kan”. “VV-kan” is a structure that combines verb overlap VV and tentative particle “Kan(看)”, and in this composition, verb overlap VV is the central meaning and “Kan(看)” is a grammar function word that strengthens the meaning of attempt. Based on theory of subjectivity of Traugott and Langacker, we can see the tendency to develop from objective to subjective in the process of changing tentative particle from verb. Changes in the meaning of “Kan” resulted in grammatical variations, which resulted in object elimination as object components changed from concrete components to abstract components, and eventually changed to the tentative particle “Kan(看)”. While the original meaning of “Kan” rather than “from afar” causes objective interpretation, as “Kan” is subjective, it develops into an observation meaning, a test meaning, and an attempt, resulting in a more and more subjective interpretation. The use environment of 'VV' has the characteristics of fieldality in which speakers and listeners are present in the same time·space position. As a result, it will not only serve as a consideration to the speaker or the other party, but also serve as pragmatic function that increases the feasibility of the attempt.

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8유형론적 관점으로 본 중국어 사실성부사 '진(真)'과 '진적(真的)'의 기능 확장과 그 범주적 특성

저자 : 박정구 ( Park¸ Jungku ) , 소영 ( Xiao¸ Ying ) , 박성하 ( Park¸ Seongha )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 195-222 (28 pages)

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本文对现代汉语真实性副词“真”、“真的”复杂多样的分布特征进行了深入细致的调查, 并通过比较分析探究真实性副词除情态义外, 还具有的其他范畴的功能, 并揭示这些功能扩展的机制。
本文首先用一个模式展现“真”和“真的”的认识情态, 并在该模式中, 把认识情态设定为区别于现实世界(Real World)的可能世界(Possible World)。认识情态表示说话者的断, 判断被设定于可能世界中的事件或状态与现实世界的符合程度, 而“真”和“真的”这两个副词都表示坚定地确信可能事件符合现实事件。以该模式为基础, 还可解释“真”表示“程度的加强”这一扩展功能, 其扩展机制为认知推理, 即“强调事态的真实性”功能通过认知推理过程, 类推为“状态的程度加强”。
此外, 本文还提出了“真”其他范畴的特征。最值得关注的成果是本文提出“真”具有“示证性”(evidentiality)和“意外性”(mirativity)的范畴属性, 并利用语言类型学来阐释其机制。 “真”的“示证性”特征是指命题所表示的信息不是说话者间接所得, 而是切身体验后直接获取的信息。“真”的“意外性”特征是指说话者所传递的信息是出乎意料的或与预设相悖的新信息, 也表示对意外事件感到惊讶之义。通过这些范畴特征, 可以对“真”所独具的功能从语言类型学的角度进行解释说明。
从语言类型学视角来看, 认识情态、示证性、意外性等范畴在不同的语言中通过不同的手段或方式来呈现。在有些语言中呈现为语法标记, 而在有些语言中则不然;有些语言明确地将各范畴区分开来, 而有些语言则不然。汉语中这些语法标记不发达, 各范畴难以区分。本文证明了这些范畴的属性对汉语真实性副词的功能产生影响, 并且借助所搭配的成分或语境呈现出来, 这具有积极意义。

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9“相等”詞性及相關問題新探

저자 : 金鐘讚 ( Kim¸ Jongchan )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 223-240 (18 pages)

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Xiandai Hanyu Cidian is one of the dictionaries that is popular among Chinese scholars. Although the dictionary is well written, we can still find some problems in it, and one of them is about “Xiangdeng”. It describes “Xiangdeng” as a verb. At present, lots of dictionaries published in China also follow Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, such as Xuesheng Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, Dangdai Hanyu Cidian, Xiandai Hanyu Guifan Cidian, Xiandai Hanyu Tujie Cidian, HSK Ciyu Yongfa Xiangjie, Hanyu Jiao Yu Xue Cidian, and Xiandai Hanyu Fenlei Cidian. But I do not agree with them.
According to my research, “Xiangdeng” is not related with actions or behaviors, so it can not be an intransitive verb. “Xiangdeng” can not be a transitive verb, because it can not take objects. If we analyse the term “Xiangdeng”, “Xiang” has the character of adverbs, and “Deng” of adjectives, then the combine of “Xiang” and “Deng” can be analysed as an adjective. Actually, there are many examples similar to this in Modern Chinese.
Generally speaking, adjectives can be modified by degree adverbs like “Hen”, “Zui” and so forth. But not all the adjectives can be modified by these sorts of adverbs, for example “Xiangtong”, “Yiyang”. The term “Xiangdeng” is one of them. And when the “Xiangdeng” is followed by “Yu”, the function of “Xiangdengyu” is similar to a transitive verb. Therefore the structure of “Xiangdengyu” can take objects. In my opinion, the explanation of the term “Xiangdeng” should be translated as follows:
「【Xiangdeng】 xiāngděng Adjective (shumu, fsnliang, chengdu and so force) bici yiyang: mianji~〡Zhe liang jian fangzi de mianji~。」

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10『설문해자(說文解字)』 심부(心部) 감정 표현어의 어휘 변화

저자 : 김은희 ( Kim¸ Eun Hee )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 95권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 241-268 (28 pages)

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The 263 headwords compiled which include the radical 心 (heart) in the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字) are semantically classified into four categories: Emotion, Personality, Cognition and Virtue. Among them, this paper examines 124 headwords under the 'Emotion' category to review the lexical changes by comparative study with the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (現代漢語詞典, Modern Chinese Dictionary), 7th edition. This paper covers two main topics. In Chapter 2, we explain the types of emotion words and ways of defining the meanings contained in the radical 心 of the Shuowen Jiezi. In Chapter 3, the headwords and entries in the Shuowen Jiezi and the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian are compared to analyze the forms of the emotion words which include the radical 心 and how the meanings changed.
The findings of the analysis are summed up as follows:
First, about 71% (88 headwords) of the 124 emotion words with the radical 心 in the Shuowen Jiezi are included in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. Of these headwords, about 16% (14 headwords) are replaced with simplified Chinese, and about 22% (27 headwords) of the 124 emotion words, including 10 headwords that are listed as variants of Chinese characters, are incorporated into other characters.
Second, as a result of screening the Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典, Comprehensive Chinese Word Dictionary), it was found that 48 headwords (A) applying the direct interpretation (直訓) method are combined with 29 definitions (B) and lexicalized into 71 compound words (AB/BA). Of the total 71 compound words, about 41% (29 compound words) are included in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. Just 24% (17 compound words) of these compound words are passed down in full with none of the lexical composite elements replaced, while 15% (11 compound words) have lexical composite elements partly replaced.
Third, about 88% (77 headwords) of the emotion words with the radical 心 that have been passed into the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (現代漢語詞典) have been passed down along with definitions from the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字), of which about 49% (43 headwords) are used in contemporary written Chinese. About 13% (11 headwords) of the emotion words with the radical 心 are not traceable in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian to their original meaning contained in the Shuowen Jiezi (說文解字). This demonstrates a pattern of loss or changes of meaning and semantic changes in accordance to the incorporation of characters and frequency of use.
To expand the fields for analysis in this study, further study may be conducted to clarify causes of the change aspects of the various lexical changes, such as the lexicalization through coinages of monosyllable words, which is a key Chinese lexical change. Further studies may also include analysis on the loss, replacement, and incorporations of lexical forms as well as loss and changes of meaning.

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