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중국사학회> 중국사연구> 『송형통(宋刑統)』「명례율(名例律)」에 보이는 당(唐) 후기∼북송(北宋) 초 형벌체계(刑罰體系)의 변화 ―제1권에 수록된 추가(追加) 조문(條文)(영(令)·격(格)·칙(敕)·기청(起請)·여조준차조(餘條准此條))을 중심으로―

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『송형통(宋刑統)』「명례율(名例律)」에 보이는 당(唐) 후기∼북송(北宋) 초 형벌체계(刑罰體系)의 변화 ―제1권에 수록된 추가(追加) 조문(條文)(영(令)·격(格)·칙(敕)·기청(起請)·여조준차조(餘條准此條))을 중심으로―

Changes in Punishment System from the Late Tang to the Early North Song in Songxingtong Minglilü

전영섭 ( Jun Youngseop )
  • : 중국사학회
  • : 중국사연구 133권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 1-36(36pages)
중국사연구

DOI

10.24161/CHR.133.1


목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 『宋刑統』의 體系 및 追加 條文의 形式·構成과 分布
Ⅲ. 제1권 「名例律」에 보이는 追加 條文의 構成·分布와 規定 內容 分析
Ⅳ. 맺음말

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초록 보기

The laws of the Tang Dynasty had lost their original function after the An Shi Rebellion, and Song Dynasty was compiled when it was sent out. In addition to the existing laws, new laws have been added to this Songxingtong. These provisions were added between the late Tang Dynasty and the early Song Dynasty.
The Songxingtong's legal system added new content consisting of 209 provisions. In addition, the newly added provisions were focused on the general theory of criminal law, the theft law, and the enforcement law.
Among them, the general theory of criminal law (Minglilü) in the Songxingtong consisted of 10 provisions. In addition, the period at which the additional provisions were legislated was from the late Tang Dynasty until the fifth year of Emperor Xiande of Northern Zhou. These points reflect the changes in the form of laws and provisions since the late Tang Dynasty.
On the other hand, some of the additional clauses had the common characteristic of starting with a sentence “Servants say that”, and in some cases the clause “Servants say this with deliberation” was included in the beginning and middle of the sentence. The additional provisions attached to the general opinion of the Criminal Law were particularly focused on areas related to family, property, trial, and punishment. This suggests that during the late Tang Dynasty and North Song Dynasty was more interested in civil litigation than in matters related to imperial power.

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간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 동양사
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 1226-4571
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2021
  • : 1531


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The laws of the Tang Dynasty had lost their original function after the An Shi Rebellion, and Song Dynasty was compiled when it was sent out. In addition to the existing laws, new laws have been added to this Songxingtong. These provisions were added between the late Tang Dynasty and the early Song Dynasty.
The Songxingtong's legal system added new content consisting of 209 provisions. In addition, the newly added provisions were focused on the general theory of criminal law, the theft law, and the enforcement law.
Among them, the general theory of criminal law (Minglilü) in the Songxingtong consisted of 10 provisions. In addition, the period at which the additional provisions were legislated was from the late Tang Dynasty until the fifth year of Emperor Xiande of Northern Zhou. These points reflect the changes in the form of laws and provisions since the late Tang Dynasty.
On the other hand, some of the additional clauses had the common characteristic of starting with a sentence “Servants say that”, and in some cases the clause “Servants say this with deliberation” was included in the beginning and middle of the sentence. The additional provisions attached to the general opinion of the Criminal Law were particularly focused on areas related to family, property, trial, and punishment. This suggests that during the late Tang Dynasty and North Song Dynasty was more interested in civil litigation than in matters related to imperial power.

KCI등재

217~18세기 준가르제국(帝國)과 호이드 - 호이드 귀족 가문의 위상 변화를 중심으로 -

저자 : 沈昊成 ( Shim Hosung )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 37-73 (37 pages)

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This article examines the history of the Khoid aristocracy during the period of the Zunghar Empire (1676-1755). In Galdan's reign, most of the Khoid aristocracy rejected the rule of the Zunghar Empire. In several cases, Khoid nobles allied with Khoshuud princes to resist the Zunghar hegemony on the Central Asian steppe. Soon after Tsewang Rabdan initiated his struggle against Galdan in an attempt to ascend the throne of the Zunghar Empire, the Khoid aristocracy submitted to the Zunghar state under Tsewang Rabdan's rule, providing him with substantial military support. Since Tsewang Rabdan's army was then considerably outnumbered by Galdan's, the incorporation of the Khoids to Tsewang Rabdan's side significantly contributed to Tsewang Rabdan's victory over Galdan. During the Zunghar civil war, the Khoids served as one of the earliest and most crucial allies of Tsewang Rabdan. Thus, after Tsewang Rabdan established himself as the sole sovereign of the Zunghar Empire, the Khoid nobility witnessed a drastic rise in its socio-political status. For example, Khoid princes continuously served as principal marriage partners of the Zunghar royal family from the early 1720s. Moreover, numerous sub-branches of the Khoid aristocracy possessed their appanages in at least four different regional units of the Zunghar territory. Despite this elevated socio-political standing, the Khoid aristocracy remained under the strict control of the Zunghar supreme ruler. In sum, the Khoid aristocracy enhanced its status by adapting itself to the momentous political transition, in which the centralized Zunghar imperial system replaced the decentralized Four Oirad Confederation.

KCI등재

3중국 전통법률 문헌 속 소유권 제도에 대한 연구 ――『대청률례(大清律例)』 제24조를 사례로

저자 : 왕잔동 ( Wang Zhandong )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 75-107 (33 pages)

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『大清律例』 제24조는 범죄 행위와 관련된 재산의 처분 제도를 전문적으로 구축함과 동시에 소유권에 관한 풍부한 법률 규범도 담고 있다. 본 조항은 소유권의 이념을 명확하게 반영하였으며, 이를 토대로 소유권의 효력범위, 이용권, 소유권의 이전, 공유 등의 내용을 포괄하는 규범 집합을 형성하였다. 그러나 사회배경, 주류 사상, 법률전통의 영향으로 중국 전통법률의 소유권 제도에는 4가지 뚜렷한 특징이 나타난 것을 지적할 수 있다. 즉 소유의 법적 규범이 체계적이지 않고, 소유권 제도가 명확하지 않다. 다음으로 소유권에 대한 완전한 이론적 지원이 없다. 또한 통치를 보조하는 공구성이 두드러지게 나타난다. 그리고 소유권 제도는 전통적인 윤리의 영향을 받는다.


Article 24 of the Great Qing Legal Code specially constructs the disposal system of the property involved in the criminal act, and also contains a lot of legal norms on ownership.The article clearly reflects the idea of ownership, and on this basis a set of norms come into being, which cover the scope of validity of ownership, usufructuary right, transfer of ownership, co-ownership and so on. These norms depict the basic framework of the ownership system. However, it can also be concluded from these norms that because of influences by social background, mainstream thoughts and legal traditions, the ownership system in Chinese traditional legal texts presents four remarkable characteristics, that is, the legal norms of ownership are not systematic, and the ownership system is not clear; there is no support of complete theory for the ownership system; the instrumental role of the ownership system supporting social governance is more obvious; the ownership system is influenced by traditional ethics and morals.

KCI등재

4청대 “욕설(罵詈)” 법률 규범 연구

저자 : 장쉐자오 ( Zhang Xuejiao )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 109-133 (25 pages)

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전통적인 법률에는 단순한 욕설 행위도 범죄로 규정하는 독특한 죄명인 '욕설죄'가 있다. 현대 법률에도 비방죄, 모욕죄 등 '욕설'과 관련된 범죄가 있다. 차이점은 전통적인 욕설죄는 행위가 공공연히 진행되는 것을 요구하지 않고 심지어 행위의 심각성 기준을 엄격히 규정하지는 않지만, 범죄 대상에 따라 처벌 수위를 구분하고 최고형은 사형에 이를 수 있다는 것이다.
전통적인 욕설 범죄는 진한 시기에 기원하여 수천년의 발전을 거쳐 명나라 시대에 정식적으로 확립되었고, 청나라 시대에 최종적인 체계를 형성했다. 논문은 먼저 욕설 조문의 역사적 변화를 정리한 다음에 청나라 시기 '욕설죄'의 내용과 그 특징을 분석하였다. 마침내 논문은 청나라 때 욕설죄의 법률 규범을 고찰하였다.


In the traditional law, there is a unique accusation - “swearing” crime. The “swearing” crime refers to the simple act of swearing, which also constitutes a crime. There are also crimes related to "swearing" in modern law, such as libel and crime of insulting. The difference is that the traditional crime of swearing does not require behavior to be carried out openly, or even has no strict standard for the seriousness of behavior, but it will be punished according to the different objects of crime, and the maximum penalty can be death penalty.
The traditional crime of swearing originated in Qin and Han Dynasties. After thousands of years of development, it was formally established in Ming Dynasty and formed the final system in Qing Dynasty. The paper first combs the historical evolution of swearing provisions, and then analyzes the content and characteristics of “swearing crime” in Qing Dynasty. Finally, the paper studies other legal norms of swearing in Qing Dynasty.

KCI등재

5심가본(沈家本)의 헌법 사상에 대한 약술

저자 : 다이젠펑 ( Dai Jianfeng )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 135-159 (25 pages)

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1980년대부터 현재에 이르기까지 沈家本의 사상에 대한 학문적 연구는 일반적으로 법률 사상에서 제도적 문화, 법률 교육 및 법률 연구 방법에 이르기까지 다차원적인 진전을 보여 왔다. 헌법사상의 개괄에 대해서는 아직 논의의 여지가 많다. 沈家本은 중국과 서양의 법 이론과 법치의 실천을 이해하였으며, 이는 모두 그의 헌법 사상에 녹아있다.
沈家本의 헌법 사상은 각각 분권화를 수단으로, 법치와 사법 독립을 핵심으로, 민족 부흥과 민권 보호를 목적으로 하는 종합적인 사상 체계이다. 구법을 개정하는 한편 신법을 제정하고 사법부를 개혁하는 등 제도를 정비하고 인재를 양성하여 중국법 근대화의 서곡을 여는 기회로 삼았다. 헌법사상과 그 실현은 현대의 법치 개혁을 위한 중요한 준거로서의 가치를 지니고 있다. 사회 변혁을 위한 법적 기반을 마련하고, 제도 개혁과 인재 양성을 강화하는 한편, 국가 권력 배분에 대한 종합적인 연구를 추진하여 국가 부흥과 인민의 권리 보호의 취지를 견지함으로써 꾸준히 사회 발전을 이룩하여야 한다.


From the 1980s to the present, the academic research on Shen Jiaben's thought has generally presented a scene of multi-dimensional advancement from legal thoughts to institutional culture, as well as legal education and legal research methods. As for the general outline of constitutional thought, there is still much room for discussion. Behind Shen Jiaben's synthesis of Chinese and Western legal theories and legal practices, all are permeated with constitutional thoughts.
Shen Jiaben's constitutional thought is a comprehensive ideological system composed of decentralization as a means, rule of law and judicial independence as the core, and national rejuvenation and protection of civil rights as the purpose. It took the opportunity of preparatory institutions and talent cultivation, from revising old laws, establishing new laws to reforming the judiciary, thus unveiling the prelude to the modernization of Chinese law. The whole constitutional thought and its realization path have significant reference value for the modern rule of law reform. To a certain extent, it enlightens us: it is necessary to establish a more comprehensive rule of law system based on the needs of the public in society, and to lay a legal foundation for social transformation; and there is a need to strengthen institutional reforms and talent cultivation, and promote comprehensive research on the allocation of state power; moreover, adhere to the main thrust of national rejuvenation and the protection of people's rights to achieve social development steadily.

KCI등재

6근대 중국의 우생학적 가족 개혁의 구상 -반광단(潘光旦)의 『중국지가정문제(中國之家庭問題)』를 중심으로-

저자 : 兪蓮實 ( Yu Yon-sil )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 161-231 (71 pages)

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Pan Guangdan defined family as the basic unit of society and biology. However, he paid more attention to the biological function and value of family, and regarded family as the origin and biological community of blood. Therefore, Pan Guangdan asked young men and women before marriage to choose an excellent spouse, carefully organize a family and produce excellent children, so as to seek the evolution and development of race. He believes that family is the medium to regulate the individual and society, and also the unit to constitute the nation, so he improved the family lineage through eugenics and pursued the improvement of national quality.
Pan Guangdan took Western eugenics as his theoretical weapon and pursued eclectic family reform. In order to achieve a compromise family system, he put forward the following reform direction. First, cohabitation by lineal blood of more than three gene rations composed of parents, couples and unmarried children is not allowed. Second, we should encourage families with excellent heredity and intelligence to match each other or to engage in similar marriages. Third, we should attach importance to women's role as good wives and good mothers. The responsibility of family management and children's maintenance should be shifted to mothers. Only women with weak motherhood are allowed to operate economic independence and social undertakings outside. Fourth, early marriage has a good effect on ethnic health. Women should get married around the age of 20, while men should get married around the age of 25. In this way, early marriage will lead to fertility prosperity. Fifth, the purpose of marriage and the standard of marriage choice should not pursue love and romantic life. Pan Guangdan warned that in a society that attaches importance to romantic life, the combination of men and women's promiscuous love is flourishing day by day, and the marriage is easy to dissolve as a result of the fear of family and childbirth. Sixth, China does not need to implement birth control, but if we want to implement it, we need to set standards for birth selection. The standard is family heredity and intelligence test.
In this way, under the impact of western culture, Pan Guangdan, in order to maintain Chinese Confucian culture and the tradition of big family system, used eugenics, a Western knowledge, to pursue a compromise between the old and the new, between the West and China, and his value orientation has always been the protection of tradition or Chinese culture. Therefore, Pan Guangdan, through a compromise family system, was eager to maintain the lineage of the aristocracy and breed their "excellent" lineage and inheritance. He warned that the reproduction of "incompetent" or "genetically" defective elements would lead to the degradation of the nation, and tried to ban their marriage and reproduction. As a result, biological differences become social classes. That is to say, he believes that with the development of biological genetics, social status will change, so he opposes the marriage and childbirth of bad genetic elements. From this point of view, he supports social classicism. He also believes that the race is a biological lineage community, so it is necessary to sacrifice individual happiness and desire for the improvement of national lineage. He thoroughly refuted the individualism and liberalism advocated by the intellectuals of the May 4th Movement and returned the individual to the embrace of the family and the nation. In short, in order to create a "good" race, he carried out a compromise family reform, reorganized the family as a national unit, and completely wiped out the individual. Therefore, we should clearly understand the boundaries of Pan Guangdan's compromise family reform: Classicism, anti-individualism and anti-feminism, and re-examine the fictionality of his pursuit of national improvement.

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The laws of the Tang Dynasty had lost their original function after the An Shi Rebellion, and Song Dynasty was compiled when it was sent out. In addition to the existing laws, new laws have been added to this Songxingtong. These provisions were added between the late Tang Dynasty and the early Song Dynasty.
The Songxingtong's legal system added new content consisting of 209 provisions. In addition, the newly added provisions were focused on the general theory of criminal law, the theft law, and the enforcement law.
Among them, the general theory of criminal law (Minglilü) in the Songxingtong consisted of 10 provisions. In addition, the period at which the additional provisions were legislated was from the late Tang Dynasty until the fifth year of Emperor Xiande of Northern Zhou. These points reflect the changes in the form of laws and provisions since the late Tang Dynasty.
On the other hand, some of the additional clauses had the common characteristic of starting with a sentence “Servants say that”, and in some cases the clause “Servants say this with deliberation” was included in the beginning and middle of the sentence. The additional provisions attached to the general opinion of the Criminal Law were particularly focused on areas related to family, property, trial, and punishment. This suggests that during the late Tang Dynasty and North Song Dynasty was more interested in civil litigation than in matters related to imperial power.

KCI등재

217~18세기 준가르제국(帝國)과 호이드 - 호이드 귀족 가문의 위상 변화를 중심으로 -

저자 : 沈昊成 ( Shim Hosung )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 37-73 (37 pages)

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This article examines the history of the Khoid aristocracy during the period of the Zunghar Empire (1676-1755). In Galdan's reign, most of the Khoid aristocracy rejected the rule of the Zunghar Empire. In several cases, Khoid nobles allied with Khoshuud princes to resist the Zunghar hegemony on the Central Asian steppe. Soon after Tsewang Rabdan initiated his struggle against Galdan in an attempt to ascend the throne of the Zunghar Empire, the Khoid aristocracy submitted to the Zunghar state under Tsewang Rabdan's rule, providing him with substantial military support. Since Tsewang Rabdan's army was then considerably outnumbered by Galdan's, the incorporation of the Khoids to Tsewang Rabdan's side significantly contributed to Tsewang Rabdan's victory over Galdan. During the Zunghar civil war, the Khoids served as one of the earliest and most crucial allies of Tsewang Rabdan. Thus, after Tsewang Rabdan established himself as the sole sovereign of the Zunghar Empire, the Khoid nobility witnessed a drastic rise in its socio-political status. For example, Khoid princes continuously served as principal marriage partners of the Zunghar royal family from the early 1720s. Moreover, numerous sub-branches of the Khoid aristocracy possessed their appanages in at least four different regional units of the Zunghar territory. Despite this elevated socio-political standing, the Khoid aristocracy remained under the strict control of the Zunghar supreme ruler. In sum, the Khoid aristocracy enhanced its status by adapting itself to the momentous political transition, in which the centralized Zunghar imperial system replaced the decentralized Four Oirad Confederation.

KCI등재

3중국 전통법률 문헌 속 소유권 제도에 대한 연구 ――『대청률례(大清律例)』 제24조를 사례로

저자 : 왕잔동 ( Wang Zhandong )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 75-107 (33 pages)

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『大清律例』 제24조는 범죄 행위와 관련된 재산의 처분 제도를 전문적으로 구축함과 동시에 소유권에 관한 풍부한 법률 규범도 담고 있다. 본 조항은 소유권의 이념을 명확하게 반영하였으며, 이를 토대로 소유권의 효력범위, 이용권, 소유권의 이전, 공유 등의 내용을 포괄하는 규범 집합을 형성하였다. 그러나 사회배경, 주류 사상, 법률전통의 영향으로 중국 전통법률의 소유권 제도에는 4가지 뚜렷한 특징이 나타난 것을 지적할 수 있다. 즉 소유의 법적 규범이 체계적이지 않고, 소유권 제도가 명확하지 않다. 다음으로 소유권에 대한 완전한 이론적 지원이 없다. 또한 통치를 보조하는 공구성이 두드러지게 나타난다. 그리고 소유권 제도는 전통적인 윤리의 영향을 받는다.

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4청대 “욕설(罵詈)” 법률 규범 연구

저자 : 장쉐자오 ( Zhang Xuejiao )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 109-133 (25 pages)

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전통적인 법률에는 단순한 욕설 행위도 범죄로 규정하는 독특한 죄명인 '욕설죄'가 있다. 현대 법률에도 비방죄, 모욕죄 등 '욕설'과 관련된 범죄가 있다. 차이점은 전통적인 욕설죄는 행위가 공공연히 진행되는 것을 요구하지 않고 심지어 행위의 심각성 기준을 엄격히 규정하지는 않지만, 범죄 대상에 따라 처벌 수위를 구분하고 최고형은 사형에 이를 수 있다는 것이다.
전통적인 욕설 범죄는 진한 시기에 기원하여 수천년의 발전을 거쳐 명나라 시대에 정식적으로 확립되었고, 청나라 시대에 최종적인 체계를 형성했다. 논문은 먼저 욕설 조문의 역사적 변화를 정리한 다음에 청나라 시기 '욕설죄'의 내용과 그 특징을 분석하였다. 마침내 논문은 청나라 때 욕설죄의 법률 규범을 고찰하였다.

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5심가본(沈家本)의 헌법 사상에 대한 약술

저자 : 다이젠펑 ( Dai Jianfeng )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 135-159 (25 pages)

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1980년대부터 현재에 이르기까지 沈家本의 사상에 대한 학문적 연구는 일반적으로 법률 사상에서 제도적 문화, 법률 교육 및 법률 연구 방법에 이르기까지 다차원적인 진전을 보여 왔다. 헌법사상의 개괄에 대해서는 아직 논의의 여지가 많다. 沈家本은 중국과 서양의 법 이론과 법치의 실천을 이해하였으며, 이는 모두 그의 헌법 사상에 녹아있다.
沈家本의 헌법 사상은 각각 분권화를 수단으로, 법치와 사법 독립을 핵심으로, 민족 부흥과 민권 보호를 목적으로 하는 종합적인 사상 체계이다. 구법을 개정하는 한편 신법을 제정하고 사법부를 개혁하는 등 제도를 정비하고 인재를 양성하여 중국법 근대화의 서곡을 여는 기회로 삼았다. 헌법사상과 그 실현은 현대의 법치 개혁을 위한 중요한 준거로서의 가치를 지니고 있다. 사회 변혁을 위한 법적 기반을 마련하고, 제도 개혁과 인재 양성을 강화하는 한편, 국가 권력 배분에 대한 종합적인 연구를 추진하여 국가 부흥과 인민의 권리 보호의 취지를 견지함으로써 꾸준히 사회 발전을 이룩하여야 한다.

KCI등재

6근대 중국의 우생학적 가족 개혁의 구상 -반광단(潘光旦)의 『중국지가정문제(中國之家庭問題)』를 중심으로-

저자 : 兪蓮實 ( Yu Yon-sil )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 133권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 161-231 (71 pages)

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Pan Guangdan defined family as the basic unit of society and biology. However, he paid more attention to the biological function and value of family, and regarded family as the origin and biological community of blood. Therefore, Pan Guangdan asked young men and women before marriage to choose an excellent spouse, carefully organize a family and produce excellent children, so as to seek the evolution and development of race. He believes that family is the medium to regulate the individual and society, and also the unit to constitute the nation, so he improved the family lineage through eugenics and pursued the improvement of national quality.
Pan Guangdan took Western eugenics as his theoretical weapon and pursued eclectic family reform. In order to achieve a compromise family system, he put forward the following reform direction. First, cohabitation by lineal blood of more than three gene rations composed of parents, couples and unmarried children is not allowed. Second, we should encourage families with excellent heredity and intelligence to match each other or to engage in similar marriages. Third, we should attach importance to women's role as good wives and good mothers. The responsibility of family management and children's maintenance should be shifted to mothers. Only women with weak motherhood are allowed to operate economic independence and social undertakings outside. Fourth, early marriage has a good effect on ethnic health. Women should get married around the age of 20, while men should get married around the age of 25. In this way, early marriage will lead to fertility prosperity. Fifth, the purpose of marriage and the standard of marriage choice should not pursue love and romantic life. Pan Guangdan warned that in a society that attaches importance to romantic life, the combination of men and women's promiscuous love is flourishing day by day, and the marriage is easy to dissolve as a result of the fear of family and childbirth. Sixth, China does not need to implement birth control, but if we want to implement it, we need to set standards for birth selection. The standard is family heredity and intelligence test.
In this way, under the impact of western culture, Pan Guangdan, in order to maintain Chinese Confucian culture and the tradition of big family system, used eugenics, a Western knowledge, to pursue a compromise between the old and the new, between the West and China, and his value orientation has always been the protection of tradition or Chinese culture. Therefore, Pan Guangdan, through a compromise family system, was eager to maintain the lineage of the aristocracy and breed their "excellent" lineage and inheritance. He warned that the reproduction of "incompetent" or "genetically" defective elements would lead to the degradation of the nation, and tried to ban their marriage and reproduction. As a result, biological differences become social classes. That is to say, he believes that with the development of biological genetics, social status will change, so he opposes the marriage and childbirth of bad genetic elements. From this point of view, he supports social classicism. He also believes that the race is a biological lineage community, so it is necessary to sacrifice individual happiness and desire for the improvement of national lineage. He thoroughly refuted the individualism and liberalism advocated by the intellectuals of the May 4th Movement and returned the individual to the embrace of the family and the nation. In short, in order to create a "good" race, he carried out a compromise family reform, reorganized the family as a national unit, and completely wiped out the individual. Therefore, we should clearly understand the boundaries of Pan Guangdan's compromise family reform: Classicism, anti-individualism and anti-feminism, and re-examine the fictionality of his pursuit of national improvement.

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