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한국폐기물자원순환학회> 한국폐기물자원순환학회지> 도시 하수슬러지의 열 가수분해와 농업용 바이오솔리드로의 이용

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도시 하수슬러지의 열 가수분해와 농업용 바이오솔리드로의 이용

Thermal Hydrolysis of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Utilization as Agricultural Biosolids

안조환 ( Johwan Ahn ) , 하승수 ( Seung-soo Ha )
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 350-356(7pages)
한국폐기물자원순환학회지

DOI

10.9786/kswm.2021.38.4.350


목차

Ⅰ. 서 론
Ⅱ. 실험방법
Ⅲ. 결과 및 고찰
Ⅳ. 결 론
사 사
References

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Biosolids are physically or chemically stabilized organic solids derived from sewage treatment processes. In the last one year, municipal sewage sludge, which is treated using thermal hydrolysis, has been used as a raw material for export fertilizer. Thus, in this study, we investigated if the quality of biosolids recovered from sewage treatment plants equipped with both thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes meets the Korean fertilizer raw material standards. The investigations revealed that the contents of heavy metals, Ni, Zn, and Al in biosolids were higher than the regulated standards; however, pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp., were not observed in the biosolids. The results indicated that biosolids are inappropriate as a raw material for domestic fertilizer. Nevertheless, as biosolids can be used for manufacturing export fertilizer, it is necessary to establish the quality standards for toxic heavy metals, pathogens, and organic micropollutants present in biosolids for the protection of public health.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-2332
  • : 2287-5638
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2021
  • : 2913


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KCI등재

1해양 (미세)플라스틱이 기후인자에 미치는 영향에 관한 고찰

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim ) , 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 377-386 (10 pages)

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Although the effects of marine microplastics on living organisms and their roles as carriers of organic pollutants to living organisms and the marine environment have already been studied, this paper focuses on the effects of marine microplastics on climate that haven't been studied yet. Microplastics in the oceans absorb more solar radiation and alter the biophysical properties of the surface microlayer, resulting in an increase in the sea surface temperature (SST). An increase in the SST and the concentration of microplastics that cover the surface layer, interrupts the physical interaction between seawater and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Consequently, the solubility of carbon dioxide in seawater is lowered, and thereby increases the retention time of CO2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, plastics that are in the ocean can be decomposed by solar radiation, such as UV-B rays and directly release greenhouse gases such as methane, ethylene, ethane, and propylene, and thereby accelerates the greenhouse effect. Therefore, considering the marine microplastics as a new factor in the ocean- atmosphere coupled model, the extent of the impact of microplastics on weather should be quantitatively reviewed.

KCI등재

2피혁 폐기물 업사이클링 기술에 기반한 친환경 건축용 텍스 소재 개발 연구

저자 : 이상철 ( Sang-chul Lee ) , 김관용 ( Gwan-yong Kim ) , 정득준 ( Deuk-jun Jung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 387-394 (8 pages)

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This study investigated the use of leather shaving scraps, which is inevitably produced during leather processing, in an upcycling technology. Particularly, this study investigated the development of eco-friendly ceiling panels material as alternatives to currently used built-in gypsum ceiling panels for building construction. Existing gypsum ceiling panels exhibit very poor moisture absorption characteristics, which increase the cost of raw materials during the manufacturing process. In addition, exposure to radon, which is present in the raw materials used for the manufacturing of phosphoric acid gypsum, poses hazardous risks to the human body, such as lung cancer and stomach cancer. Moreover, the release these raw materials into the environment results in secondary pollution in high-moisture environment, as these materials facilitate the growth of fungi. Furthermore, gypsum ceiling panels exhibit a poor durability owing to their weak impact strength. In addition, the high production cost of gypsum has restricted its continuous mass production for building construction materials. To address these problems, this study employed a pulverization process to mix, cross-link, and vulcanize leather waste and rubber to fabricate ceiling panels materials for building construction using a dry method. The fabricated panel materials exhibited good strength, flame retardancy, waterproofness, and radon-free properties. The upcycling technology proposed in this study is an eco-friendly, halogen-free method that utilizes leather waste as the main raw material and aluminum hydroxide as a flame retardant. The cross-linking characteristics of the material with a change in the filler and cross-linking system were analyzed. In addition, the manufacturing characteristics and physical properties of the ceiling panels with a change in the flame retardants were investigated. The results revealed that the manufactured ceiling panels with the optimal formulation satisfied the UL-94 standard, and exhibited a hardness of 55 D and density of 1.339.

KCI등재

3수소 생산을 위한 알케인 수증기 개질 반응의 열역학적 분석

저자 : 이년호 ( Yeon-Ho Lee ) , 김지은 ( Jee-eun Kim ) , 공지현 ( Ji-hyeon Gong ) , 전경원 ( Kyung-won Jeon ) , 윤조희 ( Cho-hee Yoon ) , 장원준 ( Won-jun Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 395-404 (10 pages)

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This study investigated the optimal reaction condition for the production of hydrogen from the steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons using thermodynamic analysis. C1-C4 alkane hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10) were utilized as the reactants in the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using Gibbs free energy minimization. The equilibrium composition, CH4 moles, CH4 conversion, selectivity (CO, CO2, C, and CH4), and H2 moles were estimated at various temperatures (200-1,000℃) and H2O/C ratios (0.5-3.0). The steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons is a complex reaction that proceeds simultaneously with the cracking of C2-C4, carbon formation, steam reforming, and water gas shift reactions. In addition, the results revealed that the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio are important factors for these reactions. Furthermore, the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio had no significant effect on the decomposition of C2-C4 alkanes (i.e., C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10), as they were totally converted into CH4 at temperatures below 650℃. In contrast, the H2O/C ratio had a significant effect on the carbon formation, as carbon formation did not proceed at H2O ratios of 2.0 and above. In addition, carbon was primarily produced in the temperature range from 350-550℃. Furthermore, the steam reforming reaction of CH4 dominantly occurred at a high temperature (>650℃) and H2O/C ratio (>1.5). In addition, high H2O/C ratios favored the water gas shift reaction, which could be attributed to the presence of excess H2O. The inhibition of cracking and coke formation and the maximization of the steam reforming and water gas shift reactions were considered for the stable operation of the process and production of hydrogen. The results revealed that the optimum temperature and H2O/C ratio for achieving a high CH4 conversion (>80%) and H2 moles (>25 mol) were ≥700℃ and >2.0, respectively.

KCI등재

4수열탄화를 통한 축분의 연료특성 및 소수성 개선 연구

저자 : 장은석 ( Eun-suk Jang ) , 김대기 ( Daegi Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 405-411 (7 pages)

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In this study, livestock manure was converted into fuel using hydrothermal carbonization, and the chemical composition of the resulting fuel was investigated. The results revealed that the hydrogen and oxygen content of the resulting fuel decreased, whereas the carbon content increased. In addition, there was a reduction in nitrogen content, which could be attributed to the gradual reduction in potential NOx emission, and the decomposition of organic nitrogen under thermal reaction conditions to liquid and gas. Furthermore, the hydrothermal carbonization removed some of the volatile matter in the manure and increased the proportion of fixed carbon content; thus, resulting in an increase in fuel ratio from 0.32 to 0.68 with an increase in the reaction temperature. These results indicated that the calorific value increased after hydrothermal carbonization. However, at hydrothermal carbonization temperatures above 250℃, the formed products exhibited a high ash content of 36.07- 41.54%, which had no effect on the increase in the calorific value. The storage and stability of the biomass fuel was investigated using a moisture reabsorption experiment. There was a sharp decrease in the moisture reabsorption value of the fuel, and only 75% of the raw reabsorption value was retained. This could be attributed to the removal of hydrophilic groups, such as OH (hydroxyl group) and C=O (carboxyl group), from the manure by the hydrothermal carbonization process.

KCI등재

5폐기물의 시멘트 소성로 대체 연료 활용 확대를 위한 분석 표준운영절차(안) 도출

저자 : 한건호 ( Gun Ho Han ) , 기동원 ( Dongwon Ki ) , 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 오대성 ( Dae Sung Oh ) , 김명기 ( Myoung Kee Kim ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 412-425 (14 pages)

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Since the 1970s, waste tires have been used as auxiliary fuel in Korea, and the Korean cement industry has employed various wastes as auxiliary fuels and alternative materials. The main fuels used in cement kiln are bituminous coal and coke, and as of 2018, the rate of waste tires used as auxiliary fuel in Korea was only 23% (based on the heating value by the fossil fuel). This value was almost half of that of Europe (46%) and one-third of that of Germany (68%). Owing to the high temperature conditions of the gas and solid (materials) in cement kilns (2,000 and 1,450°C, respectively), most harmful pollutants, such as heavy metals, are volatilized; thus, eliminating the environmental impact of waste fuel. However, the use of waste fuel and materials in cement production process has garnered the negative perceptions of people. To address this problem, the Korean government and cement industry established the “Waste Use and Management Standard for Cement Kilns” in 2009; however, this had no significant effect on the negative perceptions of the people. The effective disposal of waste in Korea has remained a challenge owing to lack of additional landfill areas and incinerators; particularly, China's ban on waste imports in April 2018 has compounded this problem. To actively utilize combustible waste as alternative fuels for cement production process, this study proposed thermal/environmental and quality/environmental analysis candidates and standards, and suggested a standard operating procedure for cement kilns. The standard operating procedure of waste proposed in this study included heating value, elementary, and heavy metals content analyses, and that of cement included physical and chemical composition, heavy metals content and leaching, and radioactivity analyses. We believe that the proposed standard operating procedure can be employed in the future to ensure the reliability and enhancement of the utilization of waste as alternative fuels for cement production. Additionally, the standard proposed in this study may solve problems related to domestic waste disposal.

KCI등재

6바이오가스 적용 캐비티 매트릭스 연소기 개발

저자 : 안준 ( June An ) , 김하진 ( Ha Jin Kim ) , 전영남 ( Young Nam Chun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 426-433 (8 pages)

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The effects of conventional fossil fuels on the environment, such as air and carbon pollutions, have limited their use as an energy resource. To address this problem, biogas has emerged as an alternative energy source owing to its sustainable and renewable characteristics. In this study, we proposed a new type of cavity matrix combustor that can directly burn the products of small and medium-sized biogas facilities without the use of complicated facilities, such as CO2 separation or purification facilities. To identify the combustion characteristics of the cavity matrix combustor, parametric screening studies were conducted based on changes in air ratio, total gas supply, biogas composition, and exhaust recirculation, and the optimal operating conditions were suggested based on the results. The performance test of the cavity matrix combustor revealed that the combustor exhibited excellent biogas combustion characteristics. In addition, the optimal operating air ratio and total gas supply conditions at which the combustor exhibited a combustion efficiency of 79.2% for a biogas composed of 60% CH4 and 40% CO2 were 1.1 and 30 L/min, respectively. Furthermore, the content of CO and UHCs, which were unburned gases, in the combustor were 0.03 and 0.01%, respectively, and that of NOx was 1 ppm. In addition, the combustion efficiency of the combustor slightly increased to 86.59% when combustion gas recirculation was performed.

KCI등재

7금-은 폐광산 광미의 수은 열적감량 특성

저자 : 조수진 ( Soo-jin Cho ) , 서용칠 ( Yong-chil Seo ) , 이은송 ( Eun-song Lee ) , 고주인 ( Ju-In Ko )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 434-441 (8 pages)

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This study conducted thermal desorption experiments for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils with a mercury concentration of 26.39 mg-Hg/kg from gold-silver mine tailings. The thermal desorption experiments were performed in a muffle furnace at a pressure of 1 atm in the temperature range from 300 to 700℃. In addition, indirect thermal treatment experiments were conducted by adding 20 g of homogeneous samples into the crucible for 1 to 30 min. The mercury concentrations of the residual samples were analyzed using EPA method 7471a. Based on the results of the analysis of mercury concentration in the thermal treatment, the thermal desorption characteristics of mercury contaminated tailings were analyzed using reaction rate theory. The reaction rate constants (k) were calculated from 1.3 × 10-3 to 1.9 × 10-2 sec-1 with a change in the temperature conditions. The results revealed that k increased with increasing temperature. In addition, the calculated pre-exponential factor and activation energy were 0.118 sec-1 and 2.76 kcal/gmol, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal treatment conditions required to achieve the 4 mg-Hg/kg criteria for Hg content were approximately 1,451 s at 300℃ and 992 s at 400℃.

KCI등재

8계층화 분석을 이용한 공공건축물의 순환골재 활용 활성화 요인 분석

저자 : 이두길 ( Doo Gil Lee ) , 박성용 ( Seong Yong Park ) , 이상조 ( Sang Jo Lee ) , 정재우 ( Jae Woo Chung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 442-451 (10 pages)

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This study employed the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to investigate the main decision-making factors involved in the selection of materials forrecycled aggregates for constructing public buildings. The factors, which consisted of five main items and 15 detailed items in the AHP model, were devised through consultations with construction experts. Based on the weights of the main and detailed items, the “Subject to mandatory use” element exhibited the highest level of importance, followed by the “supplier” and “price” elements in the procurement sector, and the “specification content” in the construction sector. Furthermore, the results revealed that it is essential to reflect the use of recycled aggregates at the initial design stage and to introduce a mandatory use of recycled aggregates. In addition, the criteria for suppliers to meet upgrading the production technology of recycled aggregates are required.

KCI등재

9탈취제 성상에 따른 슬러지 내 황화수소 저감에 관한 연구

저자 : 정회석 ( Hoesuk Jung ) , 이수정 ( Sujeong Lee ) , 선제호 ( Jeaho Seon ) , 요스케카츠라 ( Yousuke Katsura ) , 한인섭 ( Ihnsup Han )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 452-457 (6 pages)

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This study compared H2S removal efficiency of two types of deodorants (NOx deodorant ACE and Fe3+ deodorant S) at high temperature versus low temperature (summer/winter). For both temperature conditions, NOx deodorant ACE removed H2S by 99% or more within 2 hours at the least dose of 2.5% (w/w), and this lasted for about 8 hours maximum. Fe3+ deodorant S removed H2S by 99% or more at the dose of 5.0% (w/w), and this lasted for about 6 hours maximum. For the sludge where H2S exists at high concentration, NOx deodorant ACE was the most appropriate. For Fe3+ deodorant S, additional alkaline chemicals are expected to be necessary.

KCI등재

10Study of Bio-Waste Anaerobic Digestion and its Membrane Purification Technologies in Oversea: I. Malaysian Biogas Scale-up Case

저자 : 박영규 ( Young Gyu Park ) , 선영근 ( Young Geun Sun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 458-472 (15 pages)

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The palm oil mill industry in Malaysian generates 100 million ton of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and EFB (empty fruit bunch) as byproducts annually. This study identified the location, capacity and technology of biogas refinery plants for the production of biogas from the byproducts of the Malaysian palm oil mill plant. This study investigated the production of biogas via the anaerobic co-digestion of EFB under mesophilic anaerobic condition. The results revealed that subjecting EFB to an alkaline pretreatment method enabled a high-concentration methane yield. The raw biogas obtained from the anaerobic co-digestion of POME and EFB at 1.013 bar contained 61% CH4, 33.5% CO2 and 180 ppm H2S and was produced at rate of 51 - 68㎥/h. The utilization of biomethane as a bio-CNG gas has been unexplored: hence, this study investigated the purification of POME biogas into bio-CNG gas. The pretreatment of raw biogas using chelate-iron (EDTA-iron solution) process, which is the most promising technique for the removal of 99% H2S, was employed in this study. A pilot-scale separation plant with a capacity of 20㎥/hr that utilize cellulosic spiral wound membrane (MTR, USA) for upgrading biogas to CNG fuel quality was constructed and operated at the biogas plant. The result contained 99.1% CH4, 1.8% CO2, 0.004% H2O and 0.9 ppm H2S. These results indicate that the energy contents of biogas can be significantly enhanced by upgrading it to CNG fuel.

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KCI등재

1COVID-19 감염병 확산에 따른 일회용 마스크의 적정 관리 방안 연구

저자 : 이송현 ( Songhyun Lee ) , 김병환 ( Byeonghwan Kim ) , 지승민 ( Seungmin Ji ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang ) , 이어진 ( Eojin Lee ) , 박미솔 ( Misol Park ) , 김선용 ( Sunyong Kim ) , 심유나 ( Yuna Sim ) , 김동현 ( Donghyeon Kim ) , 한소영 ( Soyeong Han )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 281-293 (13 pages)

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This study examined the current management and problems of discarded single-use masks in Korea during COVID- 19. Field visits have been made to identify potential problems associated with the disposal of single-use face masks. We analyzed a total of 32 discarded single-use face masks and newly made singe-use face masks for material composition and characteristics. Based on this study, there were more than 6.7 billion single-use masks manufactured in 2020, indicating that more than six times higher than the production of the masks in 2019 due to COVID-19 pandemic. The average use of single-use face masks per person was found to be 130 masks/yr, which is equivalent to 6.7 billion masks/yr in 2020 in Korea. After the collection of the used masks, the large fraction of discarded masks was incinerated (14,961 ton or 3.8 billion masks) and landfilled (8,056 ton or 2.1 billion masks). Only approximately 1% of the discarded masks from households was improperly disposed on streets, parks, roads, shopping carts, rivers and streams, and other environment. Improper disposal of such masks may pose a threat to humans, animals, and other ecological receptors because of potential spread of virus, the occurrence of microplastics and their non-biodegradable characteristics. Technical development of biodegradable face masks has been made from scientific community to reduce plastic pollution from single-use face masks. However, more research is still needed to warrant the safety, biodegradability, waste management, and economic factors of the eco-friendly face masks. Waste minimization and prevention of single-use face masks is a challenging task due to the preference of the mask to consumers over the COVID-19 pandemic.

KCI등재

2순환경제를 위한 PET병 물질흐름분석과 재활용에 따른 온실가스 감축량 산정 연구

저자 : 임진홍 ( Jin Hong Im ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 294-302 (9 pages)

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Plastic wastes are majorly packaging plastic materials composed of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The improper disposal of PET bottles can cause severe environmental problems, such as environmental plastic pollution, greenhouse gas emission, resource depletion, and marine plastic pollution. Owing to the steady increase in the consumption of PET bottles, it is important to improve the recycling rates and quality of recycled PET products. This study analyzed the material flow of PET bottles in Korea in 2018 to develop an appropriate management policy for recycling PET bottles. In addition, the content of greenhouse gases reduced via the recycling of PET bottles was quantified using US EPA waste reduction model (WARM). The results revealed that approximately 301,000 tons of PET bottles were sold and discharged as plastic waste in 2018. In addition, approximately 236,000 tons of waste PET bottles were recycled. Consequently, about 240,000 tons of CO2eq was reduced in 2018 and 1,768 thousand tons of CO2eq was reduced from 2010 to 2018. This study aimed to highlight the potential benefits of recycling PET bottles by providing the content of reduced greenhouse gas and recycled materials. The quantitative analysis of the material flow revealed that it is essential to perform high-quality recycling of PET bottles (e.g., bottle-to-bottle and long-fiber uses) in contrast to low-grade recycling to achieve a circular economy.

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3호기성 폐기물매립지의 온실가스 감축효율 및 메탄보정계수(MCF) 평가

저자 : 송상훈 ( Sang-hoon Song ) , 고준혁 ( Jun-hyeok Ko ) , 박상흠 ( Sang-heum Park ) , 김란희 ( Ran-hui Kim ) , 김상민 ( Sang-min Kim ) , 이남훈 ( Nam-hoon Lee ) , 박진규 ( Jin-kyu Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 303-309 (7 pages)

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This study aims to analyze greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions in anerobic municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills to evaluate the efficiency of active aeration in the reduction of GHG and to verify the accuracy of the methane correction factor (MCF) reported in the 2019 Refinement (i.e., 0.4). Experimental results revealed that the GHG reduction efficiency was 61.1%, which is slightly lower than that reported in literature. However, under the assumption that active aeration was applied to all MSW landfills in Korea in 2018, this finding indicates that active aeration reduced GHG emissions by 4.7 million tons of CO2eq., which is approximately equivalent to 60% of the emissions from the MSW landfills. This corresponds to the 2030 GHG reduction target of Korea's waste sector. This indicates that the application of active aeration to MSW landfills is essential for reducing GHG emissions from the waste sector. The calculated MCF of the landfill with a methane concentration of 5% or less under aerobic conditions was 0.31 to 0.34, which is lower than the MCF default value suggested in the IPCC guideline (i.e., 0.4). However, further research on MCF in aerobic landfill should be conducted.

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4Methane Production of Food Waste Anaerobic Digestion Recovered from NaCl Inhibition by Water Dilution

저자 : Eunil Cho , Qiyong Xu , Danling Xia , Jae Hac Ko

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 310-317 (8 pages)

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One of the significant challenges of food waste anaerobic digestion (AD) is the negative effect of high NaCl concentrations. This study investigated the effects of NaCl fluctuation on the methane generation of food waste AD under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Particularly, the effects of the shock loading of high NaCl concentration with/ without water dilution treatment were investigated. Generally, the methane generation decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. In addition, the sensitivity of the thermophilic AD to NaCl concentrations (5-10 g/L) was higher than that of the mesophilic AD. Furthermore, with an increase in the NaCl concentration from 0 to 30 g/L, the accumulative methane volumes of the thermophilic reactors decreased from 210 to 45 mL/gVS, and those of the mesophilic reactors decreased from 265 to 67 mL/gVS. Additionally, the pH of digestate decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. In contrast, the concentrations of the chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid increased with increasing NaCl concentration. These results indicated that a shock loading of NaCl significantly reduced methane generation. In addition, the methane generation rates could be recovered up to 64-72% using water dilution as a remedial measure. Further investigation using 16S rRNA analysis revealed that the predominant genus of the methanogens shifted from Methanoculleus to Methanosarcina after the removal of the osmotic stress using water dilution.

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5Lab-Scale 반응기를 이용한 PCNs 함유 폐기물의 소각처리 가능성 연구

저자 : 권은혜 ( Eunhye Kwon ) , 배지수 ( Jisu Bea ) , 김우일 ( Wooil Kim ) , 윤영삼 ( Youngsam Yoon ) , 이원석 ( Wonseok Lee ) , 박호연 ( Hoyeun Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 318-329 (12 pages)

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Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), one of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), and are colorless crystalline substances with similar structure and physical and chemical properties with PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and are produced by the chlorination of naphthalene. PCN is one of POPs are rarely degraded in the environment; consequently, they negatively impact the environment by threatening human health and the ecosystem. In this study, the potential of a stable treatment for lab-scale-incinerated waste containing PCNs was evaluated. For this study, waste containing PCNs were selected as the surface coating agent, mixed sample, and technical sample. The results revealed that when the PCNs concentration was 34.552 ~ 2,582.463 ng/g, the concentrations of Mono-CN and Tetra-CN were higher than those of other homologues. The incineration treatment conditions were derived by measuring three parts, after which the elemental composition was analyzed and the calorific value, theoretical air content, and residence time were calculated. Using the temperature of the target sample, thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the incineration treatment can be achieved at the incineration temperature of the existing incineration facility via weight change. Therefore, the incineration temperature was set between 850 and 1,100℃; however, the incineration temperature of the sample containing a high concentration of PCNs was set at 350, 500, 850, and 1,100℃. At 350 and 500℃, high concentrations of CO and NOx were observed, which could be attributed to incomplete combustion. Furthermore, heat-sensitive PCNs showed a de-chlorination reaction between 200 to 440℃. In addition, the decomposition rate (DRE) slightly increased according to the incineration temperature increase.

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6Alum 슬러지를 이용한 인제거용 흡착제 개발

저자 : 한상무 ( Sang Moo Han ) , 김도형 ( Do Hyung Kim ) , 김소희 ( So Hee Kim ) , 김홍민 ( Hong Min Kim ) , 정병곤 ( Byung Gon Jeong )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 330-336 (7 pages)

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Various media were manufactured using different ratios of alum sludge obtained from a water purification plant, loess, and clay, and the properties of the media were investigated. The results revealed that the optimal compressive strength was achieved at a ratio of 15/65/20 (alum sludge/loess/clay). In addition, the absorption rate of the media increased with an increase in the quantity of alum sludge in the media. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy analysis of the pore structure of the media revealed that the optimal permeability was achieved at a ratio of 15/65/20. Additionally, the manufactured media satisfied the dissolution test of heavy metals regardless of the mixing ratio. Furthermore, at the optimal mixing ratio, the removal efficiency of phosphorus by the media increased with a decrease in the size of the media.

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7우리나라 타이어 마모 분진 배출량 및 수계 유입량 추정

저자 : 이혜성 ( Hyesung Lee ) , 김용진 ( Yongjin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 337-349 (13 pages)

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Tire particles account for a high proportion of emitted microplastics, and the quantity is increasing with an increase in the production of vehicles and tires. Such tire particles are present not only in roadsides, rainwater inlets, and sewage treatment facilities, but also in mud flats. Tire particles are introduced into water environment through the atmosphere and rainwater. In this study, the inflow of tire particles to water environment in Korea based on district was estimated using statistical data on roads and sewage management areas and previous studies. In addition, the quantity of tire particles generated by each type of vehicle and the ratio of the inflow of the generated tire particles to water environment based on the district and type of road and vehicle were reviewed. The results revealed that the quantity of tire particles generated in Korea was 49,995 t per year, and the quantity of tire particles generated based on the vehicle type was in the order of heavyweight truck > bus > passenger car > lightweight truck. In addition, the quantity of tire particles discharged to the atmosphere was 50-4,999 tonnes per year, and the quantity of tire particles retained on the ground surface was 44,995- 49,945 tonnes per year. Furthermore, the quantity of tire particles introduced to water environment was 12,897-24,241 tonnes per year, and the inflow to water based on the road type was in the order of other roads > national road > highway.

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8도시 하수슬러지의 열 가수분해와 농업용 바이오솔리드로의 이용

저자 : 안조환 ( Johwan Ahn ) , 하승수 ( Seung-soo Ha )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 350-356 (7 pages)

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Biosolids are physically or chemically stabilized organic solids derived from sewage treatment processes. In the last one year, municipal sewage sludge, which is treated using thermal hydrolysis, has been used as a raw material for export fertilizer. Thus, in this study, we investigated if the quality of biosolids recovered from sewage treatment plants equipped with both thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes meets the Korean fertilizer raw material standards. The investigations revealed that the contents of heavy metals, Ni, Zn, and Al in biosolids were higher than the regulated standards; however, pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp., were not observed in the biosolids. The results indicated that biosolids are inappropriate as a raw material for domestic fertilizer. Nevertheless, as biosolids can be used for manufacturing export fertilizer, it is necessary to establish the quality standards for toxic heavy metals, pathogens, and organic micropollutants present in biosolids for the protection of public health.

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9재활용 PET 투수블록과 시멘트 투수블록의 환경영향 비교평가에 관한 연구

저자 : 임성현 ( Sung-hyun Lim ) , 윤석표 ( Seok-pyo Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 357-365 (9 pages)

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In this study, we developed an environmental assessment method to investigate permeable blocks prepared using recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a binder. First, Los Angeles abrasion test was conducted to simulate the surface abrasion caused by the long-term use of water-permeable block, and the number of rotations was 100-300. To separate the microplastics from the residual fragments of the degraded surface of the permeable block, the microplastics were subjected to a flotation process using calcium chloride as a sorting solvent. The obtained microplastics from the abrasion test was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using a particle size analyzer, microscopy, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. To obtain the extract, the permeable block was subjected to a leaching test, and the pH and Ca concentration were measured. The pH of the cement-based permeable block (10.79 ± 0.17) was higher than that of the PET-based permeable block (9.58 ± 0.23). In addition, the extracts of recycled PET- and cement-based permeable blocks were subjected to an acute toxicity test using Daphnia, and the results revealed that the toxic unit of the recycled PET permeable blocks was 0, whereas that of the cement-based permeable blocks was 1.98 ± 0.11.

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10연소공기비율에 따른 가축분뇨연료 소각로 내 연소특성에 대한 수치해석 연구

저자 : 윤종혁 ( Jonghyuk Yoon ) , 송형운 ( Hyoungwoon Song ) , 장은석 ( Eun-suk Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 366-376 (11 pages)

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With the depletion of fossil fuels, the use of new and renewable energy has attracted significant attention. Among various biomass fuels, wood pellets and chips are used as commercial fuels owing to their low water content compared to sewage sludge and food waste. Recently, the use of livestock manure as fuel has attracted significant owing to its ease of collection and transportation. However, the low economic feasibility of co-firing boiler, which is used to process livestock manure solid refuse fuel (SRF), has limited the further application of livestock manure. Therefore, the development of an efficient grate boiler for livestock-manure is highly needed. In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed to evaluate the combustion performance of a livestock manure SRF grate furnace. To validate the numerical method, the numerical results of the temperature and species concentration at several monitoring points were compared to those of the experimental results. In addition, a parametric study was performed using various ratios of primary to assist air to understand the effects of air conditions on the overall combustion performance.

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