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한국폐기물자원순환학회> 한국폐기물자원순환학회지> COVID-19 감염병 확산에 따른 일회용 마스크의 적정 관리 방안 연구

KCI등재

COVID-19 감염병 확산에 따른 일회용 마스크의 적정 관리 방안 연구

Proper Management of Single-use Face Masks in Korea During COVID-19 Pandemic

이송현 ( Songhyun Lee ) , 김병환 ( Byeonghwan Kim ) , 지승민 ( Seungmin Ji ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang ) , 이어진 ( Eojin Lee ) , 박미솔 ( Misol Park ) , 김선용 ( Sunyong Kim ) , 심유나 ( Yuna Sim ) , 김동현 ( Donghyeon Kim ) , 한소영 ( Soyeong Han )
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 281-293(13pages)
한국폐기물자원순환학회지

DOI

10.9786/kswm.2021.38.4.281


목차

Ⅰ. 서 론
Ⅱ. 방법론
Ⅲ. 결과 및 토의
Ⅳ. 결 론
사 사
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

This study examined the current management and problems of discarded single-use masks in Korea during COVID- 19. Field visits have been made to identify potential problems associated with the disposal of single-use face masks. We analyzed a total of 32 discarded single-use face masks and newly made singe-use face masks for material composition and characteristics. Based on this study, there were more than 6.7 billion single-use masks manufactured in 2020, indicating that more than six times higher than the production of the masks in 2019 due to COVID-19 pandemic. The average use of single-use face masks per person was found to be 130 masks/yr, which is equivalent to 6.7 billion masks/yr in 2020 in Korea. After the collection of the used masks, the large fraction of discarded masks was incinerated (14,961 ton or 3.8 billion masks) and landfilled (8,056 ton or 2.1 billion masks). Only approximately 1% of the discarded masks from households was improperly disposed on streets, parks, roads, shopping carts, rivers and streams, and other environment. Improper disposal of such masks may pose a threat to humans, animals, and other ecological receptors because of potential spread of virus, the occurrence of microplastics and their non-biodegradable characteristics. Technical development of biodegradable face masks has been made from scientific community to reduce plastic pollution from single-use face masks. However, more research is still needed to warrant the safety, biodegradability, waste management, and economic factors of the eco-friendly face masks. Waste minimization and prevention of single-use face masks is a challenging task due to the preference of the mask to consumers over the COVID-19 pandemic.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-500-000789898

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-2332
  • : 2287-5638
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2022
  • : 2953


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KCI등재

1해양 플라스틱 폐기물의 소수성 유기오염물질 흡착 특성과 운반 매체로써의 역할

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 185-193 (9 pages)

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This study analyses, the characteristics of plastics as adsorbents and the mechanisms of adsorption between plastics and hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs). As the characteristics of the adsorption material, the degree of crystallinity, glass transition temperature, and contact angle with water of the plastics were investigated, and influence factors on the adsorption of various HOPs and the role of plastics as a carrier of HOPs were suggested. As factors affecting the adsorption of organic pollutants onto plastics, the physical and chemical properties of the plastic as adsorption material (i.e. size, polarity, crystallinity, glass transition temperature, presence and type of functional groups, etc.), characteristics of organic pollutants (i.e. concentration, hydrophobicity, surface charge, functional groups, etc.) and water quality (i.e. pH, temperature, ionic strength, coexisting organic pollutants, etc.) are presented. As a result, it was confirmed that organic pollutants are transferred/diffused not only in the organisms but also throughout the world due to plastic wastes in marine.

KCI등재

2한국의 2017-2019년 플라스틱 물질흐름분석

저자 : 장용철 ( Yongchul Jang ) , 손민희 ( Minhee Son ) , 박주영 ( Jooyoung Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 194-206 (13 pages)

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As one of the world's top producers and top consumers of plastics, Korea has been experiencing problems with regard to the management of waste plastics since 2018, such as collection service disruptions, illegal abandonment and exports of waste, and marine pollution. To gain a complete understanding of Korea's contemporary management of plastics, this study quantified national plastic flows across production, use, and end-of-life management between 2017 and 2019. In 2017, Korea produced 17.5 million metric tons of plastic resins, more than half of which was exported, and consumed 7 million metric tons of plastic products including 3.2 million metric tons of packaging. On a per-capita basis, Korea's plastic consumption and waste generation were higher than that of other major economies, such as Japan, China, the United States, and Europe, which implies considerable potential for plastic consumption reduction. Despite the high level of waste generation, Korea has increased the level of material recycling while minimizing the landfill rate by implementing various policies, such as waste levies, voluntary agreements, and extended producer responsibility. For more sustainable plastic management, Korea must make additional efforts to reduce plastic consumption and promote high-quality recycling, for example through circular design, business models with less packaging, and advanced technologies.

KCI등재

3시멘트 제조업과 비철금속 잉곳 및 합금 제조업에서 발생되는 분진 폐기물의 폭발성 특성 평가

저자 : 이준규 ( Jun-kyu Lee ) , 김민정 ( Min-jung Kim ) , 박윤수 ( Yoon-soo Park ) , 김태성 ( Tae-sung Kim ) , 전태완 ( Tae-wan Jeon ) , 최효현 ( Hyo-hyun Choi )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-216 (10 pages)

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This study evaluated the explosive hazardous properties and the likelihood of dust explosion in four types of waste dust collected from industrial sites. Waste dust samples were collected from the cement manufacturing industry, aluminum, and aluminum alloy ingot manufacturing industry, and copper alloy and non-ferrous product manufacturing industry. We evaluated whether the dust waste contained explosive substances using a standard method. Additionally, the factors that may affect the dust explosion, the presence of combustible substances, average particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, moisture content, and calorific value were also evaluated. It was confirmed that the likelihood of dust explosion of dust waste generated in the aluminum and aluminum alloy manufacturing industry is higher than that of dust waste generated in other industries.

KCI등재

4해양에 유입된 플라스틱이 해수면 온도 변화에 미치는 영향 - Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 펠릿을 이용한 모델 실험 -

저자 : 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee ) , 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 217-224 (8 pages)

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An increase in plastic on the sea surface may affect the absorption depth of solar radiation energy, resulting in changes in the sea surface temperature (SST), stratification, and mixed layer depth. This study evaluated the relationship between the rise of SST according to the concentration of plastic on the sea surface, as well as the effects of these temperature increases on phytoplankton concentrations and climate change. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has lower specific heat than water. Therefore, adding LPDE to distilled water increased the heating rate of the water, and significant differences were observed between the temperatures of LPDE-treated and untreated distilled water. Furthermore, our findings suggested that the water temperature was affected by the total amount of added LDPE regardless of the size of the LDPE. The concentration of Chl-a in seawater tended to increase as the amount of added LDPE increased. Therefore, ocean plastic will increase the SST, which, in turn, increases phytoplankton, and, again, the increased phytoplankton densities are likely to increase SST. This chain effect could exacerbate climate change.

KCI등재

5배달 외식업 다회용기 활용을 위한 사용자 인식 분석: 서울시 소비자와 음식점을 중심으로

저자 : 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 이지애 ( Ji Ae Lee ) , 양명석 ( Myungseok Yang ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 225-238 (14 pages)

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The amount of synthetic resins in household waste, generated 7850.7 tons/day in South Korea, in 2020. As an effort to reduce disposable plastic waste, multi-use container related businesses are being promoted both at the domestic and international levels. In this basic study of infrastructure, a perception analysis of consumers and merchants was conducted through a survey to spread the use of multi-use containers in Korea. The survey sample included 800 consumers (300 from Seodaemun-gu; 500 from other regions) and 311 merchants (Seodaemun-gu) of Seoul. The survey was divided into three categories: “Usage/Operation status of food delivery service,” “Awareness regarding using multi-use containers,” and “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure.” The results regarding “usage/operation status” of both consumers and merchants indicate that they were aware that the high proportion of delivery order frequency and sales is impacting their lives in diverse ways, and of the seriousness of the generation of disposable wastes. In terms of “Awareness of using multi-use containers,” the hygiene management of multi-use containers and partnership of infrastructure-related institutions were considered important. For important factors in standardizing containers, stainless steel was considered useful for sauces, side dishes, and stew/soups, and standardization of size needed to be prioritized. In addition, consumers' appropriate deposit level and convenience of return needed to be considered together. “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure” displayed an the overall neutral attitude, although consumers had a slightly higher business affinity than merchants. In order to induce participation, it is necessary to consider providing incentives as well as granting responsibility for solving environmental problems. In the future, system improvement for standardization, such as establishing a logistics system and hygiene standards, should be carried out with pilot projects.

KCI등재

6국내 재활용 처리 시설 발생 부산물 중 미세플라스틱 분석 연구

저자 : 조수진 ( Soojin Cho ) , 최자형 ( Jahyung Choi ) , 강영렬 ( Youngryeol Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon ) , 엄남일 ( Namil Um )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 239-255 (17 pages)

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Microplastics (MPs) are being widely detected in various ecosystems, including aquatic and terrestrial environments, which highlights the importance of MP management. MPs are released into the marine environment in various ways. Therefore, our study sought to characterize MPs discharged from different waste treatment facilities. This study focused on by-products of recycling facilities for synthetic polymer, synthetic fiber, rubber, and tire waste. The MPs in the samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using TED-GC-MS and FTIR. The TED-GC-MS analysis results were as follows: Waste of Synthetic Polymer 2.02 μg/g (PP 1.46 μg/g, PE 0.56 μg/g), Waste of Synthetic Fiber 66.75 μg/g (PET 66.75 μg/g), Waste of Rubber N.D., Waste of Tyre 18.71 μg/g (PP 17.79 μg/g, PS 0.74 μg/g). The FTIR analysis results were divided into three sections: 0.02-0.1 mm (Section 1), 0.1-0.5 mm (Section 2), and 0.5-5.0 mm (Section 3). The number of microplastics for each sample was analyzed for WSP 24.01 ea/g (Section 1: 19.11 ea/kg, Section 2: 3.92 ea/ kg, Section 3: 0.98 ea/kg), WSF 501.44 ea/g, (Section 1: 302.40 ea/kg, Section 2: 187.02 ea/kg, Section 3: 12.02 ea/kg), WRB 10,510.01 ea/g (Section 1: 6,320.58 ea/kg, Section 2: 3,661.20 ea/kg, Section 3: 528.23 ea/kg), WTY 311.52 ea/ g (Section 1: 205.53 ea/kg, Section 2: 104.61 ea/kg, Section 3: 1.38 ea/kg). Therefore, a managements plan for waste treatment facilities must be prepared to reduce microplastics in Korea. Our findings provide a basis for the creation of such a plan in the future.

KCI등재

7음식물류폐기물 건조 공정에서 발생하는 건조응축수의 생물학적처리 운영 조건 도출 연구

저자 : 송재준 ( Jea-jun Song ) , 정진도 ( Jin-do Chung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 256-266 (11 pages)

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This study was conducted to derive operating conditions for biological wastewater treatment targeting highconcentration dry condensate generated in the drying process of food waste. In the biological treatment of dry condensate, lab. scale (40 L/d) bioreactor was manufactured and used in the study to evaluate the water quality of the treated water according to the change in operating conditions and to derive stable operating factors. Changes in the influencing factors inside the aeration tank according to the change of BOD load, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and F/M ratio were observed during the operation of the lab. scale bioreaction process. Thereafter, the treatment efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water quality concentration of the treated water. As a result of the study, the water quality of the treated water was BOD 71.14 ± 10.19 mg/L, TOC 49.54 ± 9.64 mg/L, T-N 33.78 ± 5.00 mg/L, T-P 3.35 ± 1.24 mg/L was evaluated as the highest treatment efficiency, under the HRT 5 day, BOD Load 0.30 ± 0.02 kg BOD/d, F/M ratio 0.40 ± 0.02 kg BOD/kg MLSS/d operating condition. It is concluded that the results of this study can be used as data for ensuring stable treated water quality and complying with the emission standards at real plant.

KCI등재

8해안 산업도시 음식물류폐기물의 연간 성상 및 바이오가스 발생 특성

저자 : 박상혁 ( Sang Hyeok Park ) , Abu Hanifa Jannat , 황석환 ( Seokhwan Hwang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 267-279 (13 pages)

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Korea recycles approximately four million tons of food waste (FW) annually. Around 80% of this waste is treated as animal feed and compost. As the demand for animal feed and compost from FW decreases, there is an increasing need to find innovative solutions for this waste. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is currently the most realistic solution, and Korea has plans to construct more AD facilities by 2030. Before these facilities can be built, it is essential to study the indicators and frequencies representative of the characteristic changes in FW. The current literature is lacking in this area, as many studies only focus on a few critical indicators over short periods of time. This study aims to overcome this lack of information by analyzing two processes. The first process analyzes the monthly and seasonal variations in FW characteristics of Pohang city for one year. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed, and their data was analyzed to provide basic information for AD design. The second process evaluates different methods of estimating methane production to determine which is the most suitable. The FW characterization study was conducted twice a month and the BMP analysis was conducted once a month. An analysis of the physicochemical parameters for one year indicated an average pH of 4.82, an average moisture content of 80.68%, an average volatile solid (VS) value of 174.48 g/L, an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 275.48 g/L, the average carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents in VS basis were 41.87%, 33.59 %, and 14.34% respectively, and the average BMP was 259.97 ± 12.96 mL/g COD. Principal component analysis of FW characteristics resulted in two significantly different clusters - one for winter and spring and the other for summer and fall. The ANOSIM R-value for these characteristics was 0.821 (p < 0.01). Methane production levels were estimated from FW characteristics using COD, organic composition, and heat value basis. The data indicated that estimating methane production from FW using an organic composition basis rendered more accurate results than the other two methods. These results are beneficial for designing and managing food waste using AD processes as understanding the substrate characteristic change is important to maintaining stability.

KCI등재

9열수가압탄화에 의해 제조한 폐목재 바이오차(Bio-char) 활성탄의 특성화에 관한 연구

저자 : 원민희 ( Minhee Won ) , 조우리 ( Woori Cho ) , 장진만 ( Jin Man Chang ) , 박지수 ( Park Ji Soo ) , 이재영 ( Jai-young Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 280-289 (10 pages)

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The market for activated carbon is growing due to environmental awareness and strengthening of environmental regulations. Biochar is a solid carbide that is produced through a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. Wood is an ideal raw material for activated carbon and biomass waste wood because it has low energy consumption rates and does not require pre-treatment to remove moisture. The activated carbon samples in this study were prepared by a chemical activation process using KOH, which is mainly used for activation. The study analyzed the specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and pore distribution by selecting four samples with high iodine adsorption capacity among the prepared activated carbon samples. The specific surface area for all four samples was between 1192.2 and 1387.1 m2/g, all of which were over 1,000 m2/g, and the pore volume was between 0.6510 and 0.8030 cm3/g. During this process, micropores with an average pore size of 21 to 25 A were formed. SEM photography revealed that these pores were uniform and that the number of pores increased according to activation levels of the carbon samples. When the iodine adsorptivity and specific surface area of commercial activated carbon was compared with that of activated carbon prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH, the specific surface area was higher in the activated carbon samples prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH. These results indicate that the adsorption of activated carbon by waste wood biochar with KOH is successful when applied to activated carbon samples.

KCI등재

10Cost-effective Application of Fenton Oxidation Process to the Biologically Treated Leachate Containing Refractory Organics and Nitrite

저자 : Yun-min Song , Jong-hyuk Seok

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 290-296 (7 pages)

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This paper presents an economic application of Fenton oxidation process to biological treatment effluent containing high-strength nitrite and refractory organics. To cope with two major drawbacks in applying Fenton oxidation process to the nitrite-rich effluent simultaneously, i.e. expensive reagent and excessive sludge production, we examined two pretreatment methodologies prior to the application of Fenton process in the following way. First, residual nitrite in the biologically treated leachate (BTL) was removed with iron-catalyzed air oxidation (ICAO) as a cost-effective pretreatment. The time necessary for ICAO reaction is approx. 5 hr. Secondly, to reduce organic loads iron sludge was regenerated for an alternative coagulant. With the regenerated iron sludge, the dose of Fenton's regent can be reduced by half to remove residual COD in the BTL.

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KCI등재

1COVID-19 감염병 확산에 따른 일회용 마스크의 적정 관리 방안 연구

저자 : 이송현 ( Songhyun Lee ) , 김병환 ( Byeonghwan Kim ) , 지승민 ( Seungmin Ji ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang ) , 이어진 ( Eojin Lee ) , 박미솔 ( Misol Park ) , 김선용 ( Sunyong Kim ) , 심유나 ( Yuna Sim ) , 김동현 ( Donghyeon Kim ) , 한소영 ( Soyeong Han )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 281-293 (13 pages)

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This study examined the current management and problems of discarded single-use masks in Korea during COVID- 19. Field visits have been made to identify potential problems associated with the disposal of single-use face masks. We analyzed a total of 32 discarded single-use face masks and newly made singe-use face masks for material composition and characteristics. Based on this study, there were more than 6.7 billion single-use masks manufactured in 2020, indicating that more than six times higher than the production of the masks in 2019 due to COVID-19 pandemic. The average use of single-use face masks per person was found to be 130 masks/yr, which is equivalent to 6.7 billion masks/yr in 2020 in Korea. After the collection of the used masks, the large fraction of discarded masks was incinerated (14,961 ton or 3.8 billion masks) and landfilled (8,056 ton or 2.1 billion masks). Only approximately 1% of the discarded masks from households was improperly disposed on streets, parks, roads, shopping carts, rivers and streams, and other environment. Improper disposal of such masks may pose a threat to humans, animals, and other ecological receptors because of potential spread of virus, the occurrence of microplastics and their non-biodegradable characteristics. Technical development of biodegradable face masks has been made from scientific community to reduce plastic pollution from single-use face masks. However, more research is still needed to warrant the safety, biodegradability, waste management, and economic factors of the eco-friendly face masks. Waste minimization and prevention of single-use face masks is a challenging task due to the preference of the mask to consumers over the COVID-19 pandemic.

KCI등재

2순환경제를 위한 PET병 물질흐름분석과 재활용에 따른 온실가스 감축량 산정 연구

저자 : 임진홍 ( Jin Hong Im ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 294-302 (9 pages)

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Plastic wastes are majorly packaging plastic materials composed of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The improper disposal of PET bottles can cause severe environmental problems, such as environmental plastic pollution, greenhouse gas emission, resource depletion, and marine plastic pollution. Owing to the steady increase in the consumption of PET bottles, it is important to improve the recycling rates and quality of recycled PET products. This study analyzed the material flow of PET bottles in Korea in 2018 to develop an appropriate management policy for recycling PET bottles. In addition, the content of greenhouse gases reduced via the recycling of PET bottles was quantified using US EPA waste reduction model (WARM). The results revealed that approximately 301,000 tons of PET bottles were sold and discharged as plastic waste in 2018. In addition, approximately 236,000 tons of waste PET bottles were recycled. Consequently, about 240,000 tons of CO2eq was reduced in 2018 and 1,768 thousand tons of CO2eq was reduced from 2010 to 2018. This study aimed to highlight the potential benefits of recycling PET bottles by providing the content of reduced greenhouse gas and recycled materials. The quantitative analysis of the material flow revealed that it is essential to perform high-quality recycling of PET bottles (e.g., bottle-to-bottle and long-fiber uses) in contrast to low-grade recycling to achieve a circular economy.

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3호기성 폐기물매립지의 온실가스 감축효율 및 메탄보정계수(MCF) 평가

저자 : 송상훈 ( Sang-hoon Song ) , 고준혁 ( Jun-hyeok Ko ) , 박상흠 ( Sang-heum Park ) , 김란희 ( Ran-hui Kim ) , 김상민 ( Sang-min Kim ) , 이남훈 ( Nam-hoon Lee ) , 박진규 ( Jin-kyu Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 303-309 (7 pages)

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This study aims to analyze greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions in anerobic municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills to evaluate the efficiency of active aeration in the reduction of GHG and to verify the accuracy of the methane correction factor (MCF) reported in the 2019 Refinement (i.e., 0.4). Experimental results revealed that the GHG reduction efficiency was 61.1%, which is slightly lower than that reported in literature. However, under the assumption that active aeration was applied to all MSW landfills in Korea in 2018, this finding indicates that active aeration reduced GHG emissions by 4.7 million tons of CO2eq., which is approximately equivalent to 60% of the emissions from the MSW landfills. This corresponds to the 2030 GHG reduction target of Korea's waste sector. This indicates that the application of active aeration to MSW landfills is essential for reducing GHG emissions from the waste sector. The calculated MCF of the landfill with a methane concentration of 5% or less under aerobic conditions was 0.31 to 0.34, which is lower than the MCF default value suggested in the IPCC guideline (i.e., 0.4). However, further research on MCF in aerobic landfill should be conducted.

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4Methane Production of Food Waste Anaerobic Digestion Recovered from NaCl Inhibition by Water Dilution

저자 : Eunil Cho , Qiyong Xu , Danling Xia , Jae Hac Ko

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 310-317 (8 pages)

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One of the significant challenges of food waste anaerobic digestion (AD) is the negative effect of high NaCl concentrations. This study investigated the effects of NaCl fluctuation on the methane generation of food waste AD under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Particularly, the effects of the shock loading of high NaCl concentration with/ without water dilution treatment were investigated. Generally, the methane generation decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. In addition, the sensitivity of the thermophilic AD to NaCl concentrations (5-10 g/L) was higher than that of the mesophilic AD. Furthermore, with an increase in the NaCl concentration from 0 to 30 g/L, the accumulative methane volumes of the thermophilic reactors decreased from 210 to 45 mL/gVS, and those of the mesophilic reactors decreased from 265 to 67 mL/gVS. Additionally, the pH of digestate decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. In contrast, the concentrations of the chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid increased with increasing NaCl concentration. These results indicated that a shock loading of NaCl significantly reduced methane generation. In addition, the methane generation rates could be recovered up to 64-72% using water dilution as a remedial measure. Further investigation using 16S rRNA analysis revealed that the predominant genus of the methanogens shifted from Methanoculleus to Methanosarcina after the removal of the osmotic stress using water dilution.

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5Lab-Scale 반응기를 이용한 PCNs 함유 폐기물의 소각처리 가능성 연구

저자 : 권은혜 ( Eunhye Kwon ) , 배지수 ( Jisu Bea ) , 김우일 ( Wooil Kim ) , 윤영삼 ( Youngsam Yoon ) , 이원석 ( Wonseok Lee ) , 박호연 ( Hoyeun Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 318-329 (12 pages)

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Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), one of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), and are colorless crystalline substances with similar structure and physical and chemical properties with PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and are produced by the chlorination of naphthalene. PCN is one of POPs are rarely degraded in the environment; consequently, they negatively impact the environment by threatening human health and the ecosystem. In this study, the potential of a stable treatment for lab-scale-incinerated waste containing PCNs was evaluated. For this study, waste containing PCNs were selected as the surface coating agent, mixed sample, and technical sample. The results revealed that when the PCNs concentration was 34.552 ~ 2,582.463 ng/g, the concentrations of Mono-CN and Tetra-CN were higher than those of other homologues. The incineration treatment conditions were derived by measuring three parts, after which the elemental composition was analyzed and the calorific value, theoretical air content, and residence time were calculated. Using the temperature of the target sample, thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the incineration treatment can be achieved at the incineration temperature of the existing incineration facility via weight change. Therefore, the incineration temperature was set between 850 and 1,100℃; however, the incineration temperature of the sample containing a high concentration of PCNs was set at 350, 500, 850, and 1,100℃. At 350 and 500℃, high concentrations of CO and NOx were observed, which could be attributed to incomplete combustion. Furthermore, heat-sensitive PCNs showed a de-chlorination reaction between 200 to 440℃. In addition, the decomposition rate (DRE) slightly increased according to the incineration temperature increase.

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6Alum 슬러지를 이용한 인제거용 흡착제 개발

저자 : 한상무 ( Sang Moo Han ) , 김도형 ( Do Hyung Kim ) , 김소희 ( So Hee Kim ) , 김홍민 ( Hong Min Kim ) , 정병곤 ( Byung Gon Jeong )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 330-336 (7 pages)

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Various media were manufactured using different ratios of alum sludge obtained from a water purification plant, loess, and clay, and the properties of the media were investigated. The results revealed that the optimal compressive strength was achieved at a ratio of 15/65/20 (alum sludge/loess/clay). In addition, the absorption rate of the media increased with an increase in the quantity of alum sludge in the media. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy analysis of the pore structure of the media revealed that the optimal permeability was achieved at a ratio of 15/65/20. Additionally, the manufactured media satisfied the dissolution test of heavy metals regardless of the mixing ratio. Furthermore, at the optimal mixing ratio, the removal efficiency of phosphorus by the media increased with a decrease in the size of the media.

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7우리나라 타이어 마모 분진 배출량 및 수계 유입량 추정

저자 : 이혜성 ( Hyesung Lee ) , 김용진 ( Yongjin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 337-349 (13 pages)

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Tire particles account for a high proportion of emitted microplastics, and the quantity is increasing with an increase in the production of vehicles and tires. Such tire particles are present not only in roadsides, rainwater inlets, and sewage treatment facilities, but also in mud flats. Tire particles are introduced into water environment through the atmosphere and rainwater. In this study, the inflow of tire particles to water environment in Korea based on district was estimated using statistical data on roads and sewage management areas and previous studies. In addition, the quantity of tire particles generated by each type of vehicle and the ratio of the inflow of the generated tire particles to water environment based on the district and type of road and vehicle were reviewed. The results revealed that the quantity of tire particles generated in Korea was 49,995 t per year, and the quantity of tire particles generated based on the vehicle type was in the order of heavyweight truck > bus > passenger car > lightweight truck. In addition, the quantity of tire particles discharged to the atmosphere was 50-4,999 tonnes per year, and the quantity of tire particles retained on the ground surface was 44,995- 49,945 tonnes per year. Furthermore, the quantity of tire particles introduced to water environment was 12,897-24,241 tonnes per year, and the inflow to water based on the road type was in the order of other roads > national road > highway.

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8도시 하수슬러지의 열 가수분해와 농업용 바이오솔리드로의 이용

저자 : 안조환 ( Johwan Ahn ) , 하승수 ( Seung-soo Ha )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 350-356 (7 pages)

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Biosolids are physically or chemically stabilized organic solids derived from sewage treatment processes. In the last one year, municipal sewage sludge, which is treated using thermal hydrolysis, has been used as a raw material for export fertilizer. Thus, in this study, we investigated if the quality of biosolids recovered from sewage treatment plants equipped with both thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes meets the Korean fertilizer raw material standards. The investigations revealed that the contents of heavy metals, Ni, Zn, and Al in biosolids were higher than the regulated standards; however, pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp., were not observed in the biosolids. The results indicated that biosolids are inappropriate as a raw material for domestic fertilizer. Nevertheless, as biosolids can be used for manufacturing export fertilizer, it is necessary to establish the quality standards for toxic heavy metals, pathogens, and organic micropollutants present in biosolids for the protection of public health.

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9재활용 PET 투수블록과 시멘트 투수블록의 환경영향 비교평가에 관한 연구

저자 : 임성현 ( Sung-hyun Lim ) , 윤석표 ( Seok-pyo Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 357-365 (9 pages)

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In this study, we developed an environmental assessment method to investigate permeable blocks prepared using recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a binder. First, Los Angeles abrasion test was conducted to simulate the surface abrasion caused by the long-term use of water-permeable block, and the number of rotations was 100-300. To separate the microplastics from the residual fragments of the degraded surface of the permeable block, the microplastics were subjected to a flotation process using calcium chloride as a sorting solvent. The obtained microplastics from the abrasion test was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using a particle size analyzer, microscopy, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. To obtain the extract, the permeable block was subjected to a leaching test, and the pH and Ca concentration were measured. The pH of the cement-based permeable block (10.79 ± 0.17) was higher than that of the PET-based permeable block (9.58 ± 0.23). In addition, the extracts of recycled PET- and cement-based permeable blocks were subjected to an acute toxicity test using Daphnia, and the results revealed that the toxic unit of the recycled PET permeable blocks was 0, whereas that of the cement-based permeable blocks was 1.98 ± 0.11.

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10연소공기비율에 따른 가축분뇨연료 소각로 내 연소특성에 대한 수치해석 연구

저자 : 윤종혁 ( Jonghyuk Yoon ) , 송형운 ( Hyoungwoon Song ) , 장은석 ( Eun-suk Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 366-376 (11 pages)

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With the depletion of fossil fuels, the use of new and renewable energy has attracted significant attention. Among various biomass fuels, wood pellets and chips are used as commercial fuels owing to their low water content compared to sewage sludge and food waste. Recently, the use of livestock manure as fuel has attracted significant owing to its ease of collection and transportation. However, the low economic feasibility of co-firing boiler, which is used to process livestock manure solid refuse fuel (SRF), has limited the further application of livestock manure. Therefore, the development of an efficient grate boiler for livestock-manure is highly needed. In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed to evaluate the combustion performance of a livestock manure SRF grate furnace. To validate the numerical method, the numerical results of the temperature and species concentration at several monitoring points were compared to those of the experimental results. In addition, a parametric study was performed using various ratios of primary to assist air to understand the effects of air conditions on the overall combustion performance.

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