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한국미생물생명공학회> Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology> Modulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Adipogenesis by the Action of Gentisic Acid in RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 Cell Lines

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Modulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Adipogenesis by the Action of Gentisic Acid in RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 Cell Lines

Min-jae Kang , Woosuk Choi , Seung Hyun Yoo , Soo-wan Nam , Pyung-gyun Shin , Keun Ki Kim , Gun-do Kim
  • : 한국미생물생명공학회
  • : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권8호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 1079-1087(9pages)
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

DOI


목차

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Acknowledgments
Conflict of Interest
References

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Gentisic acid (GA), a benzoic acid derivative present in various food ingredients, has been shown to have diverse pharmaceutical activities such as anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we used a co-culture system to investigate the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic effects of GA on macrophages and adipocytes, respectively, as well as its effect on obesity-related chronic inflammation. We found that GA effectively suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses by controlling the production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulating inflammation-related protein pathways. GA treatment also inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocytes by modulating the expression of major adipogenic transcription factors and their upstream protein pathways. Furthermore, in the macrophage-adipocyte co-culture system, GA decreased the production of obesity-related cytokines. These results indicate that GA possesses effective anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic activities and may be used in developing treatments for the management of obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

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간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 월간
  • : 1017-7825
  • : 1738-8872
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2021
  • : 5714


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1Two Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Representing Novel Serotypes and Investigation of Their Roles in Adhesion

저자 : Jing Wang , Hongbo Jiao , Xinfeng Zhang , Yuanqing Zhang , Na Sun , Ying Yang , Yi Wei , Bin Hu , Xi Guo

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1191-1199 (9 pages)

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Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), which belongs to the attaching and effacing diarrheagenic E. coli strains, is a major causative agent of life-threatening diarrhea in infants in developing countries. Most EPEC isolates correspond to certain O serotypes; however, many strains are nontypeable. Two EPEC strains, EPEC001 and EPEC080, which could not be serotyped during routine detection, were isolated. In this study, we conducted an in-depth characterization of their putative O-antigen gene clusters (O-AGCs) and also performed constructed mutagenesis of the O-AGCs for functional analysis of O-antigen (OAg) synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed that the occurrence of O-AGCs in EPEC001 and E. coli O132 may be mediated by recombination between them, and EPEC080 and E. coli O2/O50 might acquire each O-AGC from uncommon ancestors. We also indicated that OAgknockout bacteria were highly adhesive in vitro, except for the EPEC001 wzy derivative, whose adherent capability was less than that of its wild-type strain, providing direct evidence that OAg plays a key role in EPEC pathogenesis. Together, we identified two EPEC O serotypes in silico and experimentally, and we also studied the adherent capabilities of their OAgs, which highlighted the fundamental and pathogenic role of OAg in EPEC.

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2Aloe-Emodin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy Attenuates Sepsis-Associated Toxins in Selected Gram-Positive Bacteria In Vitro

저자 : Woodvine Otieno , Chengcheng Liu , Yanhong Ji

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1200-1209 (10 pages)

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Sepsis is an acute inflammatory response that leads to life-threatening complications if not quickly and adequately treated. Cytolysin, hemolysin, and pneumolysin are toxins produced by grampositive bacteria and are responsible for resistance to antimicrobial drugs, cause virulence and lead to sepsis. This work assessed the effects of aloe-emodin (AE) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on sepsis-associated gram-positive bacterial toxins. Standard and antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia bacterial strains were cultured in the dark with varying AE concentrations and later irradiated with 72 J/cm-2 light. Colony and biofilm formation was determined. CCK-8, Griess reagent reaction, and ELISA assays were done on bacteriainfected RAW264.7 cells to determine the cell viability, NO, and IL-1β and IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokines responses, respectively. Hemolysis and western blot assays were done to determine the effect of treatment on hemolysis activity and sepsis-associated toxins expressions. AE-mediated PDT reduced bacterial survival in a dose-dependent manner with 32 μg/ml of AE almost eliminating their survival. Cell proliferation, NO, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokines production were also significantly downregulated. Further, the hemolytic activities and expressions of cytolysin, hemolysin, and pneumolysin were significantly reduced following AE-mediated PDT. In conclusion, combined use of AE and light (435 ± 10 nm) inactivates MRSA, S. aureus (ATCC 29213), S. pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), MDR-S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis (ATCC 29212), and VRE (ATCC 51299) in an AE-dose dependent manner. AE and light are also effective in reducing biofilm formations, suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, hemolytic activities, and inhibiting the expressions of toxins that cause sepsis.

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3Ramlibacter terrae sp. nov. and Ramlibacter montanisoli sp. nov., Isolated from Soil

저자 : Shehzad Abid Khan , Hyung Min Kim , Ju Hye Baek , Hye Su Jung , Che Ok Jeon

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1210-1217 (8 pages)

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Two gram-negative, catalase-positive, strictly aerobic, and white colony-forming bacteria, strains H242T and B156T, were isolated from soil in South Korea. Cells of strain H242T were oxidase-positive and non-motile short rods, while those of strain B156T were oxidase-negative and long non-motile rods. Ubiquinone-8 was identified as the sole isoprenoid quinone in both strains. C16:0, cyclo-C17:0, and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol were identified in both strains as the major cellular fatty acids and polar lipids, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains H242T and B156T were 69.4 mol% and 69.3 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and 92 concatenated core gene sequences revealed that strains H242T and B156T formed distinct phylogenic lineages from other Ramlibacter type strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) value between strains H242T and B156T was 24.6%. Strains H242T and B156T were most closely related to Ramlibacter ginsenosidimutans BXN5-27T and Ramlibacter monticola G-3-2T with 98.4% and 98.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. Digital DDH values between strain H242T and R. ginsenosidimutans and between strain B156T and R. monticola were 23.5% and 26.1%, respectively. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular analyses indicated that strains H242T and B156T represent two novel species of the genus Ramlibacter, for which the names Ramlibacter terrae sp. nov. and Ramlibacter montanisoli sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strains of R. terrae and R. montanisoli are H242T (=KACC 21667 T =JCM 33922T) and B156T (=KACC 21665 T =JCM 33920T), respectively.

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4Isolation and Characterization of Cold- Adapted PGPB and Their Effect on Plant Growth Promotion

저자 : Mingyuan Li , Jilian Wang , Tuo Yao , Zhenlong Wang , Huirong Zhang , Changning Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1218-1230 (13 pages)

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Cold-adapted plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with multiple functions are an important resource for microbial fertilizers with low-temperature application. In this study, culturable coldadapted PGPB strains with nitrogen fixation and phosphorus solubilization abilities were isolated. They were screened from root and rhizosphere of four dominant grass species in nondegraded alpine grasslands of the Qilian Mountains, China. Their other growth-promoting characteristics, including secretion of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), production of siderophores and ACC deaminase, and antifungal activity, were further studied by qualitative and quantitative methods. In addition, whether the PGPB strains could still exert plant growth-promoting activity at 4°C was verified. The results showed that 67 isolates could maintain one or more growth-promoting traits at 4°C, and these isolates were defined as cold-adapted PGPB. They were divided into 8 genera by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, of which Pseudomonas (64.2%) and Serratia (13.4%) were the common dominant genera, and a few specific genera varied among the plant species. A test-tube culture showed that inoculation of Elymus nutans seedlings with cold-adapted PGPB possessing different functional characteristics had a significant growth-promoting effect under controlled low-temperature conditions, including the development of the roots and aboveground parts. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that different growth-promoting characteristics made different contributions to the development of the roots and aboveground parts. These cold-adapted PGPB can be used as excellent strain resources suitable for the near-natural restoration of degraded alpine grasslands or agriculture stock production in cold areas.

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5Profiles of Bacillus spp. Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Suaeda glauca and Their Potential to Promote Plant Growth and Suppress Fungal Phytopathogens

저자 : Ping Lu , Ke Jiang , Ya-qiao Hao , Wan-ying Chu , Yu-dong Xu , Jia-yao Yang , Jia-le Chen , Guo-hong Zeng , Zhou-hang Gu , Hong-xin Zhao

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1231-1240 (10 pages)

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Members of the genus Bacillus are known to play an important role in promoting plant growth and protecting plants against phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, 21 isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the root micro-ecosystem of Suaeda glauca. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that the isolates belong to the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus aryabhattai and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. One of the interesting findings of this study is that the four strains B1, B5, B16 and B21 are dominant in rhizosphere soil. Based on gyrA, gyrB, and rpoB gene analyses, B1, B5, and B21 were identified as B. amyloliquefaciens and B16 was identified as B. velezensis. Estimation of antifungal activity showed that the isolate B1 had a significant inhibitory effect on Fusarium verticillioides, B5 and B16 on Colletotrichum capsici (syd.) Butl, and B21 on Rhizoctonia cerealis van der Hoeven. The four strains grew well in medium with 1-10% NaCl, a pH value of 5-8, and promoted the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results indicate that these strains may be promising agents for the biocontrol and promotion of plant growth and further study of the relevant bacteria will provide a useful reference for the development of microbial resources.

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6Suppression of Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and Growth Promotion on Lettuce Using Bacterial Isolates

저자 : Dil Raj Yadav , Mahesh Adhikari , Sang Woo Kim , Hyun Seung Kim , Youn Su Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1241-1255 (15 pages)

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This study was carried out to explore a non-chemical strategy for enhancing productivity by employing some antagonistic rhizobacteria. One hundred eighteen bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizospheric zone of various crop fields of Gangwon-do, Korea, and screened for antifungal activity against Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae) in lettuce crop under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In broth-based dual culture assay, fourteen bacterial isolates showed significant inhibition of mycelial growth of F. oxysporium f. sp. lactucae. All of the antagonistic isolates were further characterized for the antagonistic traits under in vitro conditions. The isolates were identified on the basis of biochemical characteristics and confirmed at their species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Arthrobacter sulfonivorans, Bacillus siamensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pseudomonas proteolytica, four Paenibacillus peoriae strains, and Bacillus subtilis were identified from the biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The isolates EN21 and EN23 showed significant decrease in disease severity on lettuce compared to infected control and other bacterial treatments under greenhouse conditions. Two bacterial isolates, EN4 and EN21, were evaluated to assess their disease reduction and growth promotion in lettuce in field conditions. The consortium of EN4 and EN21 showed significant enhancement of growth on lettuce by suppressing disease caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae respectively. This study clearly indicates that the promising isolates, EN4 (P. proteolytica) and EN21 (Bacillus siamensis), can be commercialized and used as biofertilizer and/or biopesticide for sustainable crop production.

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7Freeze-Dried Powder of Rubus coreanus Miquel Ameliorates Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Stress and Tissue Damage in Rats

저자 : Jin Tae Kim , Shuai Qiu , Yimeng Zhou , Ji Hyun Moon , Seung Beom Lee , Ho Jin Park , Hong Jin Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1256-1261 (6 pages)

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Rubus coreanus Miquel (bokbunja), Korean black raspberry, is known to possess various phytochemicals that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, most studies on Rubus coreanus Miquel have been performed with the solvent extracts and/or a single component to demonstrate the efficacy, while studies evaluating the effect of the whole fructus of Rubus coreanus Miquel are limited. In this study, therefore, we employed the isoproterenol (IPN)- induced myocardial infarction model and investigated the effect of freeze-dried powder of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCP) on oxidative stress and prevention of organ damage. Oral administration of RCP reduced the level of toxicity markers, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) without affecting body weight and diet intake. The oxidative stress marker glutathione (GSH) increased about 45% and malonaldehyde (MDA) decreased about 27% compared to the IPN group with RCP-H (3%) administration. By histological analysis, IPN induced significant myocardial damage in the heart and vascular injury in the liver, and RCP administration ameliorated the damages in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, RCP activated the antioxidant system leading to prevention of damage to organs by IPN in rats, making it possible to expect beneficial efficacies by consuming the whole fructus of Rubus coreanus Miquel.

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8Bioconversion of Untreated Corn Hull into L-Malic Acid by Trifunctional Xylanolytic Enzyme from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 and Acetobacter tropicalis H-1

저자 : Thi Bich Huong Duong , Prattana Ketbot , Paripok Phitsuwan , Rattiya Waeonukul , Chakrit Tachaapaikoon , Akihiko Kosugi , Khanok Ratanakhanokchai , Patthra Pason

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1262-1271 (10 pages)

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L-Malic acid (L-MA) is widely used in food and non-food products. However, few microorganisms have been able to efficiently produce L-MA from xylose derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB). The objective of this work is to convert LB into L-MA with the concept of a bioeconomy and environmentally friendly process. The unique trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme, PcAxy43A from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6, effectively hydrolyzed xylan in untreated LB, especially corn hull to xylose, in one step. Furthermore, the newly isolated, Acetobacter tropicalis strain H1 was able to convert high concentrations of xylose derived from corn hull into L-MA as the main product, which can be easily purified. The strain H1 successfully produced a high L-MA titer of 77.09 g/l, with a yield of 0.77 g/g and a productivity of 0.64 g/l/h from the xylose derived from corn hull. The process presented in this research is an efficient, low-cost and environmentally friendly biological process for the green production of L-MA from LB.

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9Aqueous Extract of Lysimachia christinae Hance Prevents Cholesterol Gallstone in Mice by Affecting the Intestinal Microflora

저자 : Shijia Liu , Quji Luorong , Kaizhi Hu , Weiguo Cao , Wei Tao , Handeng Liu , Dan Zhang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1272-1280 (9 pages)

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With changes in human dietary patterns, the proportion of high-fat and high-cholesterol foods in the daily diet has increased. As a result, the incidence rate of cholelithiasis is increasing rapidly. Many studies have reported on the crucial role that the intestinal microflora plays in the progression of gallstones. Although the whole herb of Lysimachia christinae, a traditional Chinese medicine, has long been extensively used as a remedy for cholelithiasis in China, its effects on the intestinal microflora remain unknown. Hence, in this study, we investigated the ability of the aqueous extract of L. christinae (LAE) to prevent cholesterol gallstones (CGSs) in model animals by affecting the intestinal microflora. The effects of LAE on body weight, serum lipid profile, visceral organ indexes, and histomorphology were studied in male C57BL/6J mice, which were induced by a lithogenic diet. After the 8-week study, CGSs formation was greatly reduced after LAE treatment. LAE also reduced body weight gain and hyperlipidemia and restored the histomorphological changes. Moreover, the intestinal microflora exhibited significant variation. In the model group fed the lithogenic diet, the abundances of the genera unclassified Porphyromonadaceae, Lactobacillus and Alloprevotella decreased, but in contrast, Akkermansia dramatically increased compared with the control check group, which was fed a normal diet; the administration of LAE reversed these changes. These results imply that L. christinae can be considered an efficient therapy for eliminating CGSs induced by a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet, which may be achieved by influencing the intestinal microflora.

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10The Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 on Postmenopausal Symptoms in Ovariectomized Rats

저자 : Sol Lee , Dong Hoon Jung , Miri Park , Seung-woo Yeon , Sang-hyuk Jung , Sung-il Yun , Han-oh Park , Wonbeak Yoo

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1281-1287 (7 pages)

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Clinical and preclinical studies have reported that Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17, a probiotic bacterial strain isolated from human breast milk, reduces body weight and white adipose tissue volume. In order to further explore the actions of L. gasseri BNR17, we investigated the anti-menopausal effects of L. gasseri BNR17 in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. The serum alanine aminotransferase levels of the rats in the OVX-BNR17 group were lower than those of the rats in the OVX-vehicle only (OVX-Veh) group. Upon administration of L. gasseri BNR17 after ovariectomy, calcitonin and Serotonin 2A levels increased significantly, whereas serum osteocalcin levels showed a decreasing tendency. Compared to the rats in the OVX-Veh group, those in the OVX-BNR17 group showed lower urine deoxypyridinoline levels, lower pain sensitivity, and improved vaginal cornification. Furthermore, L. gasseri BNR17 administration increased bone mineral density in the rats with OVX-induced femoral bone loss. These results suggest that L. gasseri BNR17 administration could alleviate menopausal symptoms, indicating that this bacterium could be a good functional probiotic for managing the health of older women.

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1Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Insight into Their Role in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

저자 : Neeta Bhagat , Meenu Raghav , Sonali Dubey , Namita Bedi

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1045-1059 (15 pages)

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Various abiotic stressors like drought, salinity, temperature, and heavy metals are major environmental stresses that affect agricultural productivity and crop yields all over the world. Continuous changes in climatic conditions put selective pressure on the microbial ecosystem to produce exopolysaccharides. Apart from soil aggregation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production also helps in increasing water permeability, nutrient uptake by roots, soil stability, soil fertility, plant biomass, chlorophyll content, root and shoot length, and surface area of leaves while also helping maintain metabolic and physiological activities during drought stress. EPS-producing microbes can impart salt tolerance to plants by binding to sodium ions in the soil and preventing these ions from reaching the stem, thereby decreasing sodium absorption from the soil and increasing nutrient uptake by the roots. Biofilm formation in high-salinity soils increases cell viability, enhances soil fertility, and promotes plant growth and development. The third environmental stressor is presence of heavy metals in the soil due to improper industrial waste disposal practices that are toxic for plants. EPS production by soil bacteria can result in the biomineralization of metal ions, thereby imparting metal stress tolerance to plants. Finally, high temperatures can also affect agricultural productivity by decreasing plant metabolism, seedling growth, and seed germination. The present review discusses the role of exopolysaccharide-producing plant growth-promoting bacteria in modulating plant growth and development in plants and alleviating extreme abiotic stress condition. The review suggests exploring the potential of EPS-producing bacteria for multiple abiotic stress management strategies.

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2Comparative Study of the Difference in Behavior of the Accessory Gene Regulator (Agr) in USA300 and USA400 Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

저자 : Hye Soo Lee , Hun-suk Song , Hong-ju Lee , Sang Hyun Kim , Min Ju Suh , Jang Yeon Cho , Sion Ham , Yun-gon Kim , Hwang-soo Joo , Wooseong Kim , Sang Ho Lee , Dongwon Yoo , Shashi Kant Bhatia , Yung-hun

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1060-1068 (9 pages)

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Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is notorious as a leading cause of soft tissue infections. Despite several studies on the Agr regulator, the mechanisms of action of Agr on the virulence factors in different strains are still unknown. To reveal the role of Agr in different CA-MRSA, we investigated the LACΔagr mutant and the MW2Δagr mutant by comparing LAC (USA300), MW2 (USA400), and Δagr mutants. The changes of Δagr mutants in sensitivity to oxacillin and several virulence factors such as biofilm formation, pigmentation, motility, and membrane properties were monitored. LACΔagr and MW2Δagr mutants showed different oxacillin sensitivity and biofilm formation compared to the LAC and MW2 strains. Regardless of the strain, the motility was reduced in Δagr mutants. And there was an increase in the long chain fatty acid in phospholipid fatty acid composition of Δagr mutants. Other properties such as biofilm formation, pigmentation, motility, and membrane properties were different in both Δagr mutants. The Agr regulator may have a common role like the control of motility and strain-dependent roles such as antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, change of membrane, and pigment production. It does not seem easy to control all MRSA by targeting the Agr regulator only as it showed strain-dependent behaviors.

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3Sevoflurane Postconditioning Reduces Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Cardiomyocytes via Upregulation of Heat Shock Protein 70

저자 : Jun Zhang , Haiyan Wang , Xizhi Sun

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1069-1078 (10 pages)

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Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) has been proved effective in cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. It was also reported that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) could be induced by sevoflurane, which played a crucial role in hypoxic/reoxygenation (HR) injury of cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanism by which sevoflurane protects cardiomyocytes via HSP70 is still not understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the related mechanisms of SPostC inducing HSP70 expression to reduce the HR injury of cardiomyocytes. After the HR cardiomyocytes model was established, the cells transfected with siRNA for HSP70 (siHSP70) or not were treated with sevoflurane during reoxygenation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was detected by colorimetry while cell viability and apoptosis were detected by MTT and flow cytometry. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting were used to detect HSP70, apoptosis-, cell cycle-associated factors, iNOS, and Cox-2 expressions. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). SPostC decreased apoptosis, cell injury, oxidative stress and inflammation and increased viability of HR-induced cardiomyocytes. In addition, SPostC downregulated Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels, while SPostC upregulated Bcl-2, CDK-4, Cyclin D1, and HSP70 levels. SiHSP70 had the opposite effect that SPostC had on HR-induced cardiomyocytes. Moreover, siHSP70 further reversed the effect of SPostC on apoptosis, cell injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, viability and the expressions of HSP70, apoptosis-, and cell cycle-associated factors in HR-induced cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SPostC can reduce the HR injury of cardiomyocytes by inducing HSP70 expression.

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4Modulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Adipogenesis by the Action of Gentisic Acid in RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 Cell Lines

저자 : Min-jae Kang , Woosuk Choi , Seung Hyun Yoo , Soo-wan Nam , Pyung-gyun Shin , Keun Ki Kim , Gun-do Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1079-1087 (9 pages)

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Gentisic acid (GA), a benzoic acid derivative present in various food ingredients, has been shown to have diverse pharmaceutical activities such as anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we used a co-culture system to investigate the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic effects of GA on macrophages and adipocytes, respectively, as well as its effect on obesity-related chronic inflammation. We found that GA effectively suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses by controlling the production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulating inflammation-related protein pathways. GA treatment also inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocytes by modulating the expression of major adipogenic transcription factors and their upstream protein pathways. Furthermore, in the macrophage-adipocyte co-culture system, GA decreased the production of obesity-related cytokines. These results indicate that GA possesses effective anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic activities and may be used in developing treatments for the management of obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

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5Developing a Virus-Binding Bacterium Expressing Mx Protein on the Bacterial Surface to Prevent Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus Infection

저자 : Chia-hua Lin , Jun-jie Chen , Chiu-min Cheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1088-1097 (10 pages)

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Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) infection causes mass grouper mortality, leading to substantial economic loss in Taiwan. Traditional methods of controlling GNNV infections involve the challenge of controlling disinfectant doses; low doses are ineffective, whereas high doses may cause environmental damage. Identifying potential methods to safely control GNNV infection to prevent viral outbreaks is essential. We engineered a virus-binding bacterium expressing a myxovirus resistance (Mx) protein on its surface for GNNV removal from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), thus increasing the survival of grouper fin (GF-1) cells. We fused the grouper Mx protein (which recognizes and binds to the coat protein of GNNV) to the C-terminus of outer membrane lipoprotein A (lpp-Mx) and to the N-terminus of a bacterial autotransporter adhesin (Mx-AIDA); these constructs were expressed on the surfaces of Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21/lpp-Mx and BL21/Mx-AIDA). We examined bacterial surface expression capacity and GNNV binding activity through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; we also evaluated the GNNV removal efficacy of the bacteria and viral cytotoxicity after bacterial adsorption treatment. Although both constructs were successfully expressed, only BL21/lpp-Mx exhibited GNNV binding activity; BL21/lpp-Mx cells removed GNNV and protected GF-1 cells from GNNV infection more efficiently. Moreover, salinity affected the GNNV removal efficacy of BL21/lpp-Mx. Thus, our GNNV-binding bacterium is an efficient microparticle for removing GNNV from 10‰ brackish water and for preventing GNNV infection in groupers.

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6LINC00174 Facilitates Proliferation and Migration of Colorectal Cancer Cells via MiR-3127-5p/ E2F7 Axis

저자 : Yuhong Ma , Yuzhen Li , Yuanyuan Tang , Ning Tang , Dengke Wang , Xiaofei Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1098-1108 (11 pages)

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The literature indicates that LINC00174 promotes the growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, but its research needs to be enriched. We tried to explore the function and mechanism of LINC00174 in CRC cell proliferation and migration. Bioinformatics analysis predicted the binding relationship and expressions of lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA. Clinical study analyzes the relationship between LINC00174 and clinical data characteristics of CRC patients. The expressions of LINC00174, miR-3127-5p and E2F7 were verified by RT-qPCR, and the combination of the two was verified by dual luciferase analysis and RNA immunoprecipitation as needed. Western blot was used to detect the expression of EMT-related protein and E2F7 protein. Functional experiments were used to evaluate the function of the target gene on CRC cells. LINC00174 was up-regulated in CRC clinical samples and cells and was related to the clinical characteristics of CRC patients. High-expression of LINC00174, contrary to the effect of siLINC00174, promoted cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion, up-regulated the expressions of N-Cadherin, Vimentin, E2F7, and inhibited the expression of E-Cadherin. MiR-3127-5p was one of the targeted miRNAs of LINC00174 and was down-regulated in CRC samples. In addition, miR-3127-5p mimic partially reversed the malignant phenotype of CRC cells induced by LINC00174. Besides, E2F7 was a target gene of miR-3127-5p, and LINC00174 repressed miR-3127-5p to regulate E2F7. Our research reveals that LINC00174 affected the biological characteristics of CRC cells through regulated miR-3127-5p/ E2F7 axis.

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7Role of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) in Respiratory Infection and Allergy Caused by Early-Life Chlamydia Infection

저자 : Shujun Li , Lijuan Wang , Yulong Zhang , Long Ma , Jing Zhang , Jianbing Zu , Xuecheng Wu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1109-1114 (6 pages)

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Chlamydia pneumoniae is a type of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that causes various respiratory tract infections including asthma. Chlamydia species infect humans and cause respiratory infection by rupturing the lining of the respiratory which includes the throat, lungs and windpipe. Meanwhile, the function of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in Ch. pneumoniae respiratory infection and its association with the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in adulthood and causing allergic airway disease (AAD) are not understood properly. We therefore investigated the role of IL-4 in respiratory infection and allergy caused by early life Chlamydia infection. In this study, Ch. pneumonia strain was propagated and cultured in HEp-2 cells according to standard protocol and infant C57BL/6 mice around 3-4 weeks old were infected to study the role of IL-4 in respiratory infection and allergy caused by early life Chlamydia infection. We observed that IL-4 is linked with Chlamydia respiratory infection and its absence lowers respiratory infection. IL-4R α2 is also responsible for controlling the IL-4 signaling pathway and averts the progression of infection and inflammation. Furthermore, the IL-4 signaling pathway also influences infection-induced AHR and aids in increasing AAD severity. STAT6 also promotes respiratory infection caused by Ch. pneumoniae and further enhanced its downstream process. Our study concluded that IL-4 is a potential target for preventing infection-induced AHR and severe asthma.

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8Valeriana jatamansi Jones Inhibits Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B Signaling Pathway

저자 : Bin Zhang , Yan Wang , Chunmao Jiang , Caihong Wu , Guangfu Guo , Xiaolan Chen , Shulei Qiu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1115-1122 (8 pages)

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Rotavirus (RV), as the main cause of diarrhea in children under 5 years, contributes to various childhood diseases. Valeriana jatamansi Jones is a traditional Chinese herb and possesses antiviral effects. In this study we investigated the potential mechanisms of V. jatamansi Jones in RV-induced diarrhea. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation and the diarrhea mice model was constructed using SA11 infection. Mice were administered V. jatamansi Jones and ribavirin. Diarrhea score was used to evaluate the treatment effect. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the level of cytokines. Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to determine protein and mRNA levels, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was applied to detect the pathological change of the small intestine. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling was conducted to determine the apoptosis rate. The results showed V. jatamansi Jones promoted MA104 proliferation. V. jatamansi Jones downregulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) in protein level, which was consistent with the immunohistochemistry results. Moreover, V. jatamansi Jones combined with ribavirin regulated interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interferon γ, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-10, and suppressed secretory immunoglobulin A secretion to remove viruses and inhibit dehydration. V. jatamansi Jones + ribavirin facilitated the apoptosis of small intestine cells. In conclusion, V. jatamansi Jones may inhibit RV-induced diarrhea through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and could therefore be a potential therapy for diarrhea.

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9Metagenomic Insight into Lignocellulose Degradation of the Thermophilic Microbial Consortium TMC7

저자 : Yi Wang , Chen Wang , Yonglun Chen , Beibei Chen , Peng Guo , Zongjun Cui

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1123-1133 (11 pages)

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Biodegradation is the key process involved in natural lignocellulose biotransformation and utilization. Microbial consortia represent promising candidates for applications in lignocellulose conversion strategies for biofuel production; however, cooperation among the enzymes and the labor division of microbes in the microbial consortia remains unclear. In this study, metagenomic analysis was performed to reveal the community structure and extremozyme systems of a lignocellulolytic microbial consortium, TMC7. The taxonomic affiliation of TMC7 metagenome included members of the genera Ruminiclostridium (42.85%), Thermoanaerobacterium (18.41%), Geobacillus (10.44%), unclassified_f__Bacillaceae (7.48%), Aeribacillus (2.65%), Symbiobacterium (2.47%), Desulfotomaculum (2.33%), Caldibacillus (1.56%), Clostridium (1.26%), and others (10.55%). The carbohydrate-active enzyme annotation revealed that TMC7 encoded a broad array of enzymes responsible for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. Ten glycoside hydrolases (GHs) endoglucanase, 4 GHs exoglucanase, and 6 GHs β-glucosidase were identified for cellulose degradation; 6 GHs endo-β-1,4-xylanase, 9 GHs β-xylosidase, and 3 GHs β-mannanase were identified for degradation of the hemicellulose main chain; 6 GHs arabinofuranosidase, 2 GHs α-mannosidase, 11 GHs galactosidase, 3 GHs α-rhamnosidase, and 4 GHs α-fucosidase were identified as xylan debranching enzymes. Furthermore, by introducing a factor named as the contribution coefficient, we found that Ruminiclostridium and Thermoanaerobacterium may be the dominant contributors, whereas Symbiobacterium and Desulfotomaculum may serve as “sugar cheaters” in lignocellulose degradation by TMC7. Our findings provide mechanistic profiles of an array of enzymes that degrade complex lignocellulosic biomass in the microbial consortium TMC7 and provide a promising approach for studying the potential contribution of microbes in microbial consortia.

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10Heat-Killed and Live Enterococcus faecalis Attenuates Enlarged Prostate in an Animal Model of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

저자 : Young-jin Choi , Meiqi Fan , Yujiao Tang , Masahiro Iwasa , Kwon-il Han , Hongchan Lee , Ji-young Hwang , Bokyung Lee , Eun-kyung Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1134-1143 (10 pages)

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In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and live E. faecalis on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The BPH rat model was established by administering male rats with testosterone propionate (TP, 5 mg/kg, in corn oil) via subcutaneous injections daily for four weeks after castration. The rats were divided into five groups: Con, corn oil-injected (s.c.) + DW administration; BPH, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + DW administration; BPH+K_EF, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + heat-killed E. faecalis (7.5 × 1012 CFU/g, 2.21 mg/kg) administration; BPH+L_EF, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + live E. faecalis (1 × 1011 CFU/g, 166 mg/kg) administration; BPH+Fi, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + finasteride (1 mg/kg) administration. In both of BPH+K_EF and BPH+L_EF groups, the prostate weight decreased and histological changes due to TP treatment recovered to the level of the Con group. Both of these groups also showed regulation of androgen-signaling factors, growth factors, and apoptosis-related factors in prostate tissue. E. faecalis exhibited an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia, and even heat-killed E. faecalis showed similar efficacy on the live cells in the BPH rat model. As the first investigation into the effect of heat-killed and live E. faecalis on BPH, our study suggests that heat-killed E. faecalis might be a food additive candidate for use in various foods, regardless of heat processing.

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