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한국축산학회> 한국축산학회지> A retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene is associated with the recessive white plumage color in the Yeonsan Ogye chicken

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A retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene is associated with the recessive white plumage color in the Yeonsan Ogye chicken

Eunjin Cho , Minjun Kim , Prabuddha Manjula , Sung Hyun Cho , Dongwon Seo , Seung-sook Lee , Jun Heon Lee
  • : 한국축산학회
  • : 한국축산학회지 63권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 07월
  • : 751-758(8pages)
한국축산학회지

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

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The recessive white (locus c) phenotype observed in chickens is associated with three alleles (recessive white c, albino ca, and red-eyed white cre) and causative mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. The recessive white mutation (c) inhibits the transcription of TYR exon 5 due to a retroviral sequence insertion in intron 4. In this study, we genotyped and sequenced the insertion in TYR intron 4 to identify the mutation causing the unusual white plumage of Yeonsan Ogye chickens, which normally have black plumage. The white chickens had a homozygous recessive white genotype that matched the sequence of the recessive white type, and the inserted sequence exhibited 98% identity with the avian leukosis virus ev-1 sequence. In comparison, brindle and normal chickens had the homozygous color genotype, and their sequences were the same as the wild-type sequence, indicating that this phenotype is derived from other mutation(s). In conclusion, white chickens have a recessive white mutation allele. Since the size of the sample used in this study was limited, further research through securing additional samples to perform validation studies is necessary. Therefore, after validation studies, a selection system for conserving the phenotypic characteristics and genetic diversity of the population could be established if additional studies to elucidate specific phenotype-related genes in Yeonsan Ogye are performed.

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  • : 농학분야  > 축산
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 2672-0191
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  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1958-2021
  • : 4555


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1Effect on health from consumption of meat and meat products

저자 : Da Young Lee , Seung Yun Lee , Cheorun Jo , Yohan Yoon , Jong Youn Jeong , Sun Jin Hur

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 955-976 (22 pages)

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary sodium nitrite and meat on human health. Sodium nitrite in processed meat is known to be one of the main precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitroso compounds. However, we previously found that processed meat is not the primary source of sodium nitrite; nitrate or the conversion of nitrate in vegetables are contribute to generate more than 70% Sodium nitrite or nitrate containing compounds in body. Although the heavy consumption of meat is likely to cause various diseases, meat intake is not the only cause of colorectal cancer. Our review indicates that sodium nitrite derived from foods and endogenous nitric oxide may exhibit positive effects on human health, such as preventing cardiovascular disease or improving reproductive function. Therefore, further epidemiological studies considering various factors, such as cigarette consumption, alcohol consumption, stress index, salt intake, and genetic factors, are required to reliably elucidate the effects of dietary sodium nitrite and meat on the incidence of diseases, such as colorectal cancer.

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2Association of the ubiquitin specific peptidase 9X -linked and Afadin expression patterns with sexual maturation in boar testis

저자 : Sun-young Baek , Seung-hoon Lee , Youngshin Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 977-983 (7 pages)

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Closely correlated expression patterns between ubiquitin specific peptidase 9X-linked (US-P9X) and adherens junction formation factor (Afadin) in mouse testis development suggests that Usp9x regulates the deubiquitination of Af-6 (also known as Afadin, AFDN), and subsequently, the cell adhesion dynamics during gametogenesis. However, this relationship has not yet been tested in other domestic animals. The study was examined the temporal and spatial expression patterns of porcine USP9X and AFDN from the pre-pubertal to adult stages using real time-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we detected the transcripts of USP9X and AFDN in the testis of 1-, 6- and 12-months old boar, respectively. USP9X and AFDN were found to have similar expressions patterns, with basal expression after 1 month followed by a significant up-regulation from 6 months (puberty) onwards. In addition, neither the AFDN or USP9X proteins were detected in spermatogenic cells but they were expressed in the leydig cells and sertoli cells. USP9X was detected around the basal lamina during pre-puberty, and predominantly expressed in the leydig cells at puberty. Finally, in adult testis, USP9X was increased at the sertoli cell-cell interface and the sertoli cell-spermatid interface. In summary, closely correlated expression patterns between USP9X and AFDN in boar testis supports the previous findings in mice. Furthermore, the junction connections between the sertoli cells may be regulated by the ubiquitination process mediated via USP9X.

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3DNA damage repair is suppressed in porcine aged oocytes

저자 : Tao Lin , Ling Sun , Jae Eun Lee , So Yeon Kim , Dong Il Jin

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 984-997 (14 pages)

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This study sought to evaluate DNA damage and repair in porcine postovulatory aged oocytes. The DNA damage response, which was assessed by H2A.X expression, increased in porcine aged oocytes over time. However, the aged oocytes exhibited a significant decrease in the expression of RAD51, which reflects the DNA damage repair capacity. Further experiments suggested that the DNA repair ability was suppressed by the downregulation of genes involved in the homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. The expression levels of the cell cycle checkpoint genes, CHEK1 and CHEK2, were upregulated in porcine aged oocytes in response to induced DNA damage. Immunofluorescence results revealed that the expression level of H3K79me2 was significantly lower in porcine aged oocytes than in control oocytes. In addition, embryo quality was significantly reduced in aged oocytes, as assessed by measuring the cell proliferation capacity. Our results provide evidence that DNA damage is increased and the DNA repair ability is suppressed in porcine aged oocytes. These findings increase our understanding of the events that occur during postovulatory oocyte aging.

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4Effect of deep-sea mineral water on growth performance, water intake, blood characteristics and serum immunoglobulins in the growing-finishing pigs

저자 : Sang-hee Lee , Choon-Keun Park

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 998-1007 (10 pages)

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Brine mineral water (BMW) is groundwater near the deep sea, and the mineral component of the BMW is different from the water of the deep sea because the components of BMW are derived from the unique geographical features surrounding it. Recently, BMW has attracted attention due to the unique health-related minerals it possesses; however, the influence of BMW on physiological function has not yet been determined in domestic animals. Therefore, this experiment investigated the influence of BMW on the growth performance, water intake, blood properties, and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels of serum in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 64 pig barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average initial weight of 40.56 ± 0.17 kg were used in the experiment, and 0%, 2%, 3%, and 5% samples of BMW diluted with freshwater were provided to experimental animals during the 56 days. We found that the gain/feed ratio in the 3% BMW group was significantly higher than that in the 5% BMW group of growing-finishing pigs (p < 0.05). The water intake was significantly increased in the 5% BMW group compared with the other groups (p < 0.05) of growing-finishing pigs. Additionally, the concentrations of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) were significantly higher in the 3% BMW group than in the control group. The level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher in the 3% BMW group than in the 5% BMW group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, IgG and IgM levels in the serum were significantly higher in the 2% and 3% BMW groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that a dilution of 3% BMW in the intake water could improve the levels of RBCs and serum Igs in growing-finishing pigs.

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5Effect of fattening period on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and economic traits of Holstein steers

저자 : Sung Il Kim , Sungkwon Park , Jeong Hwan Myung , Young Min Jo , Chang Bon Choi , Keun Ki Jung

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1008-1017 (10 pages)

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different fattening periods on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and economic traits of Holstein steers. Sixty Holstein steers (8.0 ± 0.28 months old) with an average body weight (BW) of 231.88 ± 2.61 kg, were randomly allocated to five different fattening period treatments: 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 months (n = 12 in each treatment group). Final BW and average daily gain (ADG) did not differ among the treatment groups during the early fattening period. At the late stage of the fattening period, the final BW of steers in the 24-month treatment group (812.84 kg) was greater (p < 0.05) than that of steers in the 20-month treatment group (750.39 kg). During the same period, steers in the 20- and 21-month treatment groups had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) ADG than those in the 22-month treatment group. The highest ADG (1.36 kg/day) was found in the 20-month treatment group (1.36), followed by the 21- (1.33 kg/day), 22- (1.22 kg/day), 23- (1.21 kg/day), and 24- (1.14 kg/day) month treatment groups. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased as the fattening period increased, and the FCR was 12.88% lower in the 20-month treatment group than in the 24-month treatment group. However, no significant differences were detected in back-fat thickness, loin area, marbling score, and chemical characteristics (water, crude protein, and crude fat content) among the treatment groups. The composition of fatty acids including C18:0, C18:1, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids did not differ among the experimental groups. As the fattening period increased, production costs increased, resulting in a decrease in gross income. The gross income for steers in the 24-month treatment group was 35.8% and 23.5% lower than that for steers in the 20- and 21-month treatment groups, respectively. Taken together, the best performance, including the ADG, FCR, and gross income, was obtained when the fattening program of the Holstein steers lasted 20 months.

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6Effect of flaking on the digestibility of corn in ruminants

저자 : Hamin Kang , Mingyung Lee , Seoyoung Jeon , Sang Moon Lee , Ju Hwan Lee , Seongwon Seo

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1018-1033 (16 pages)

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In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of flaking on the nutrient digestibility of corn grain in ruminants. In this regard, in vitro rumen fermentation, in situ rumen degradability, and in vivo metabolic experiments were performed. The automated gas production technique was used for the in vitro fermentation experiments. Six types of corn flakes with various degrees of gelatinization (32%, 41%, 48%, 66%, 86%, and 89%) were ground and incubated in rumen fluid to measure rumen fermentation characteristics and digestion rate. The in situ degradability of ground corn, whole corn, and corn flakes with 62% and 66% gelatinization was measured by incubation in the rumen of two cannulated Holstein cows. In vivo metabolic experiments were performed using 12 crossbred goats (29.8 ± 4.37 kg) using a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The dietary treatments consisted of ground corn and flaked corn with 48% or 62% gelatinization. In vitro experiments showed that as the degree of gelatinization increased, the digestion rate increased linearly, while the discrete lag time decreased linearly (p < 0.05). The effective rumen dry matter degradability, determined by in situ fermentation, was 37%p lower in corn flakes than ground corn, assuming a passage rate of 6%/h (p < 0.01), and there was no difference between the two flakes. In the in vivo experiment, there was no difference in dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and nitrogen utilization among the treatment groups (p > 0.05); however, the crude fat digestibility was lower for corn flakes than for ground corn (p < 0.05). To summarize, the rate of fermentation of corn flakes increased as the degree of gelatinization increased. However, non-ground corn flakes had lower rumen digestibility and did not improve in vivo apparent nutrient digestibility, compared with ground corn. In contrast to the assumption that flaked corn provides more energy to ruminant animals than ground corn, we conclude that the digestibility and energy value of corn flakes are lower than those of ground corn if mastication does not sufficiently reduce the particle size of corn flakes.

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7Immune response and antioxidant status of broilers as influenced by oxidized vegetable oil and pomegranate peel

저자 : Mohammad Ghasemi-Sadabadi , Yahya Ebrahimnezhad , Naser Maheri-Sis , Jamshid Ghiasi Ghalehkandi , Abdolahad Shaddel-Teli

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1034-1063 (30 pages)

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The experiment was designed as a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, including (i) pomegranate peel (zero, 4%, and 8 percent), (ii) oxidized soybean oil (zero, 2%, and 4 percent), and (iii) alpha-tocopherol (zero and 200 mg/kg). Supplementation of 8% pomegranate peel in diets significantly decreased the growth performance of broiler chickens. The supplementation of 4% oxidized oil in diets significantly reduced body weight gain and Feed intake whole experimental period (p < 0.05). The results showed that supplementation of 4% pomegranate peel in the diet was associated with low aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). However, 4% pomegranate peel increased the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. The supplemental 4% oxidized oil increased the serum AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and MDA concentrations. TAC, SOD, and Catalase (CAT) activities were affected by 4% oxidized oil and alpha-tocopherol. The use of oxidized oil and vitamin E decreased MDA concentration. The serum glucose and globulin concentrations were significantly lower in the 8% pomegranate peel. The results showed that supplementation with 4% pomegranate peel in diets reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The inclusion of 4% oxidized oil in diets reduced serum glucose and increased the blood lipid concentration such as triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL. Vitamin E supplementation reduced the serum cholesterol and LDL concentrations. The use of 8% pomegranate peel reduced red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, and packed cell value (PCV). The results indicated that supplementation with 8% pomegranate peel and 4% oxidized oil in diets decreased the immunoglobulin concentration in broilers. In addition, it was found that the inclusion of 4% pomegranate peel in diets resulted in higher IgG, IgM and total immunoglobulin. Pomegranate peel supplementation significantly decreased meat MDA concentration. Supplementation of 4% oxidized oil increased MDA of meat (p < 0.05). Vitamin E supplementation (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased MDA of meat (p < 0.05). Consequently, the results of this experiment showed that supplementation with 4% pomegranate peel had beneficial effects on broiler chickens. It was also found that feeding 2% oxidized oil in diets had no adverse effect on broilers.

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8High-level dietary crude protein decreased backfat thickness and increased carcass yield score in finishing Hanwoo beef cattle (Bos taurus coreanae)

저자 : Seoyoung Jeon , Mingyung Lee , Jakyeom Seo , Jeong-hoon Kim , Dong-Keun Kam , Seongwon Seo

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1064-1075 (12 pages)

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Recently, a high level of dietary crude protein (CP) has become of interest as a possible practice to improve the carcass quality of beef cattle, and its level has been increasing in the field. However, there is little scientific evidence that supports this. This study was conducted to test whether a high dietary CP level would improve growth performance, body metabolism, and carcass traits in Hanwoo beef cattle. A total of 32 Hanwoo finishing beef cattle (18 multiparous cows, six heifers, and eight steers) participated in a 12-weeks feeding trial. Two kinds of total mixed rations were prepared to contain two different CP; 156 g/kg for the control (CON) and 173 g/kg of CP for the treatment (HCP), while maintaining a similar level of metabolizable energy. The experiment was ended when more than half of the steers reached the target body weight (730 kg). Blood was collected at the end of the experiment. After harvesting, the carcass trait was evaluated at the slaughterhouse according to Korean standards. The carcass yield score and grade were also calculated based on revised criteria. Overall, dry matter intake, average daily gain, blood metabolites concentration, and the carcass traits, except for backfat thickness and the yield score, did not differ between the treatments. The HCP had lower backfat thickness than those of CON. There was no difference in the carcass yield grade, but the yield score was higher in the HCP treatment. According to the newly revised carcass grading criteria, both yield score and grade were higher in HCP than in CON. Increasing CP supply decreased the carcass's backfat thickness without altering growth performance and body metabolism, resulting in improved yield score and grade. Therefore, feeding a high CP diet may be beneficial in the farm income, although it may also increase feed cost and nitrogen excretion to the environment.

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9Dietary spray-dried plasma supplementation in late-gestation and lactation enhanced productive performance and immune responses of lactating sows and their litters

저자 : Kwangwook Kim , Byeonghyeon Kim , Hyunjin Kyoung , Yanhong Liu , Joy M. Campbell , Minho Song , Peng Ji

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1076-1085 (10 pages)

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The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of spray-dried plasma (SDP) supplementation during late gestation and lactation on productive performance and immune responses of sows and their litters. Twelve sows (227.78 ± 2.16 kg average body weight; 2.0 average parity) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: a basal diet (CON) and the basal diet supplemented with 1% SDP. Sows were fed experimental diets from d 30 before farrowing to weaning of their piglets. Blood samples were collected from sows on d 1, 3, and 7 of lactation and from two randomly selected nursing pigs per litter on d 3 and 7 after birth, and d 1, 3, and 7 after weaning. Productive performance and immune responses of sows and their piglets were measured. There was a trend of less body weight loss in sows supplemented with SDP (p < 0.10) during the lactation period and a trend of greater (p < 0.10) average daily gain in SDP piglets compared to those in the CON group. Sows in the SDP group tended to have lower (p < 0.10) serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and cortisol on d 3 and lower serum concentration of TNF-α on d 7 compared with sows in CON group. In comparison with CON piglets, piglets from SDP sows tended to have lower (p < 0.10) serum concentrations of TNF-α, TGF-β1, and cortisol on d 7 after birth, lower (p < 0.10) serum TNF-α and C-reactive protein on d 3 and 7 after weaning, and greater (p < 0.10) average daily gain after weaning. Moreover, weaned pigs from sows fed SDP had significantly lower (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of cortisol and TGF-β1 on d 3 and 7 postweaning, respectively, than CON piglets. In conclusion, SDP supplementation in sow diets from late gestation to weaning improved the productive performance of sows and their offspring; the beneficial effects of SDP may be mediated in part through modulation of immune responses of both sows and piglets.

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10Feeding strategies with total mixed ration and concentrate may improve feed intake and carcass quality of Hanwoo steers

저자 : Soohyung Lee , Sang Moo Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1086-1097 (12 pages)

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This study examined the impact of using total mixed ration (TMR) and concentrate on feed intake, daily gain, carcass yield grade, and carcass quality grade of Hanwoo steers and its subsequent economic efficiency. Thirty six 7-month-old Hanwoo steers were assigned to one of the four treatment groups, and each group was divided into three repeated pens, with each repeated pen comprising three steers. The treatment groups were: 1) separate feeding with commercial concentrate and forage (namely, SCF) for the entire experimental period; 2) TMR feeding for a growing period followed by SCF for the early and late fattening period (namely, TMRGSCF); 3) TMR feeding for growing and an early fattening period followed by SCF for the late fattening period (namely, TMREFSCF); and 4) TMR feeding for the entire experimental period (namely, TMRW). The results showed that the SCF treatment had significantly (p < 0.05) higher feed intake during the growing period than other treatments. In contrast, the total feed intake had little difference during early and late fattening as well as the whole period regardless of feeding strategies. Daily gain showed no difference during the growing period. However, it was significantly higher in SCF and TMREFSCF treatments for the early and late fattening period, respectively (p < 0.05). The daily gain during the total raising period is in the order of TMREFSCF > TMRGSCF > SCF > TMRW. Carcass characteristics, including carcass weight, loin eye muscle area, and carcass yield grade, did not significantly differ among different treatments. However, TMRW treatment, wherein TMR was fed for a long time, showed that the cold carcass weight was less compared with other treatments, but carcass yield grade was higher with thinner backfat. Backfat thickness was in the order of SCF > TMRGSCF > TMREFSCF > TMRW, showing that the thickness reduced with longer TMR feeding (p < 0.05). TMRGSCF, which numerically had a higher carcass quality grade, showed higher economic efficiency, whereas SCF showed low economic efficiency. In conclusion, it was more feasible to apply TMR strategy in the growing and early fattening period and then SCF for the early or late fattening period to improve carcass yield, quality grade, and economic efficiency.

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1Principal protocols for the processing of cultured meat

저자 : Seung Yun Lee , Hea Jin Kang , Da Young Lee , Ji Hyeop Kang , Sivasubramanian Ramani , Sungkwon Park , Sun Jin Hur

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 673-680 (8 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to establish a basic principal procedure for the processing of cultured meat. The first stage involved isolating satellite cells from the desired muscle of an animal using enzymatic digestion (i.e., by using proteases, collagenases, and pronases). The second stage involved culturing the isolated muscle satellite cells in a growth medium containing fetal bovine serum and penicillin/streptomycin with growth factors for an optimal period of time. The second stage involved a basic method for the isolated muscle cells to proliferate while sub-culturing to further induce differentiation in gelatin-coated culture dishes with the general culture medium. The third stage involved the induction of differentiation of muscle satellite cells or formation of myotubes using myogenic medium. Lastly, the fourth stage involved the identification of cell differentiation or myotube formation (myogenesis) using fluorescent dyes. Moreover, the principle of these protocols can be applied to perform primary culture of animal cells. This study will assist beginners with the technical aspects of culturing meat (isolation, cultivation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells as well as identification of myotube formation for myogenesis).

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

2Technical requirements for cultured meat production: a review

저자 : Sivasubramanian Ramani , Deunsol Ko , Bosung Kim , Changjun Cho , Woosang Kim , Cheorun Jo , Chang-kyu Lee , Jungsun Kang , Sunjin Hur , Sungkwon Park

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 681-692 (12 pages)

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Environment, food, and disease have a selective force on the present and future as well as our genome. Adaptation of livestock and the environmental nexus, including forest encroachment for anthropological needs, has been proven to cause emerging infectious diseases. Further, these demand changes in meat production and market systems. Meat is a reliable source of protein, with a majority of the world population consumes meat. To meet the increasing demands of meat production as well as address issues, such as current environmental pollution, animal welfare, and outbreaks, cellular agriculture has emerged as one of the next industrial revolutions. Lab grown meat or cell cultured meat is a promising way to pursue this; however, it still needs to resemble traditional meat and be assured safety for human consumption. Further, to mimic the palatability of traditional meat, the process of cultured meat production starts from skeletal muscle progenitor cells isolated from animals that proliferate and differentiate into skeletal muscle using cell culture techniques. Due to several lacunae in the current approaches, production of muscle replicas is not possible yet. Our review shows that constant research in this field will resolve the existing constraints and enable successful cultured meat production in the near future. Therefore, production of cultured meat is a better solution that looks after environmental issues, spread of outbreaks, antibiotic resistance through the zoonotic spread, food and economic crises.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

3In-vitro meat: a promising solution for sustainability of meat sector

저자 : Pavan Kumar , Neelesh Sharma , Shubham Sharma , Nitin Mehta , Akhilesh Kumar Verma , S Chemmalar , Awis Qurni Sazili

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 693-724 (32 pages)

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The in-vitro meat is a novel concept in food biotechnology comprising field of tissue engineering and cellular agriculture. It involves production of edible biomass by in-vitro culture of stem cells harvested from the muscle of live animals by self-organizing or scaffolding methodology. It is considered as efficient, environmental friendly, better ensuring public safety and nutritional security, as well as ethical way of producing meat. Source of stem cells, media ingredients, supply of large size bioreactors, skilled manpower, sanitary requirements, production of products with similar sensory and textural attributes as of conventional meat, consumer acceptance, and proper set up of regulatory framework are challenges faced in commercialization and consumer acceptance of in-vitro meat. To realize any perceivable change in various socio-economic and environmental spheres, the technology should be commercialized and should be cost-effective as conventional meat and widely accepted among consumers. The new challenges of increasing demand of meat with the increasing population could be fulfill by the establishment of in-vitro meat production at large scale and its popularization. The adoption of in-vitro meat production at an industrial scale will lead to self-sufficiency in the developed world.

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4Effect of reducing sodium chloride based on the sensory properties of meat products and the improvement strategies employed: a review

저자 : Tae-kyung Kim , Hae In Yong , Samooel Jung , Hyun-wook Kim , Yun-sang Choi

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 725-739 (15 pages)

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Many consumers are concerned about the high levels of salt intake owing to the accompanied risk of chronic diseases. Due to this dietary concern, the food industry has recommended the reduction of salt content in many products. However, the addition of salt to meat products improves their quality and sensory properties, including saltiness, color, juiciness, and texture. Because quality deteriorations could induce decreased sensory scores owing to salt reductions, the challenges involved in improving the quality of reduced-salt meat products have been addressed. During the development of low-salt meat products, it is important to reduce sodium content and address the problems that arise with this reduction. Modified salt, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, hydrocolloids, high-pressure, ultrasound, electric pulsed field, and irradiation have been suggested as strategies to replace or reduce sodium content, and sensory scores could be improved by these strategies. Therefore, when developing a low-salt meat product, several perspectives must be considered and the latest technologies that could resolve this problem should be adopted.

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5Genetic relationship of age at first calving with conformation traits and calving interval in Hanwoo cows

저자 : SeungGyu Shin , JungJae Lee , ChangHee Do

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 740-750 (11 pages)

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This study was performed to investigate genetic relationship of age at first calving (AFC) with body development and reproduction capacity in female Hanwoo. The data sets of 52,299 reproduction records of 19,566 heads calved from 2011 to 2019 and conformation records of 19565 heads born from 1997 to 2017 were analyzed by separating them based on age at first calving. In the analysis, conformation traits included the body condition score (BCS), height (HT), body width (BW), hip bone length (HL), hip bone width (HW), and final score (FS). The heritability and genetic correlation of AFC with conformation traits and calving interval (CI) were analyzed. The heritability for AFC was 0.716, 0.087, and 0.097 for the before and after 24 months and combined data, respectively. The genetic correlation of AFC before 24 months with BCS was -0.778, -0.600 with BW, and 0.442 with HT. The genetic correlation of AFC after 24 months with HT was -0.826, -0.706 with BW, -0.623 with HL, -0.456 with HW, and -0.675 with FS. When the first calving age of young heifers approached 24 months, BCS and BW decreased, and HT increased. When first calving is delayed to after 24 months, the conformation traits become smaller, which indicates that conformation to some extent affects the delay in AFC. The genetic correlation between CI and AFC was -0.116, 0.307, and 0.250 for the before and after 24 month of AFC and combined data, respectively. When first calving date approached 24 months, CI was reduced. The obtained results suggest that it is important that first calving occurs at an appropriate age. Additional research is needed to perform proper genetic evaluation of first calving age in Hanwoo cattle in Korea.

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6A retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene is associated with the recessive white plumage color in the Yeonsan Ogye chicken

저자 : Eunjin Cho , Minjun Kim , Prabuddha Manjula , Sung Hyun Cho , Dongwon Seo , Seung-sook Lee , Jun Heon Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 751-758 (8 pages)

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The recessive white (locus c) phenotype observed in chickens is associated with three alleles (recessive white c, albino ca, and red-eyed white cre) and causative mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. The recessive white mutation (c) inhibits the transcription of TYR exon 5 due to a retroviral sequence insertion in intron 4. In this study, we genotyped and sequenced the insertion in TYR intron 4 to identify the mutation causing the unusual white plumage of Yeonsan Ogye chickens, which normally have black plumage. The white chickens had a homozygous recessive white genotype that matched the sequence of the recessive white type, and the inserted sequence exhibited 98% identity with the avian leukosis virus ev-1 sequence. In comparison, brindle and normal chickens had the homozygous color genotype, and their sequences were the same as the wild-type sequence, indicating that this phenotype is derived from other mutation(s). In conclusion, white chickens have a recessive white mutation allele. Since the size of the sample used in this study was limited, further research through securing additional samples to perform validation studies is necessary. Therefore, after validation studies, a selection system for conserving the phenotypic characteristics and genetic diversity of the population could be established if additional studies to elucidate specific phenotype-related genes in Yeonsan Ogye are performed.

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7Analysis of seasonal effect on Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) birth weight

저자 : Kwanghyun Cho , Yirim Song , Joon-mo Yeo , Jin-Ki Park , Dong-Wook Kim , Seung-Hee Roh , Pilnam Seong , Won-Young Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 759-765 (7 pages)

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Recently, summer temperatures have frequently been abnormal in Korea owing to global warming. In summer, a decrease in feed intake rate and biological activity were observed in Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), leading to lower production rates in the industry. However, the precise scale of damage was not reported as with other animals of economic value. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of birth season on birth weight in Hanwoo. Data were collected from 100 local breeding farms from 2016 to 2019. A total of 41,081 Hanwoo calves were classified and analyzed by sex, year, month, and season (March-May, spring; June-August, summer; September-November, fall; and December-February, winter) of birth. The birth weight of Hanwoo calves differed according to birth month. The average birth weight of male calves was 30.47 kg and that of female calves was 28.16 kg. Hanwoo birth weight was the highest in March-born calves and the lowest in July-born calves. The birth weights of calves born in February, March, April, November, and December were significantly larger than those of calves born in July. In addition, the birth weight of Hanwoo calves from the summer was significantly lower than that of calves born in other seasons. Furthermore, Hanwoo steer slaughter age showed a negative correlation, whereas carcass weight had a positive correlation with birth weight. In the beef cattle industry, birth weight is a very important economic characteristic that is related to growth rate. These data will contribute toward planning the reproduction of Hanwoo and analysis of changes in characteristics of economic value owing to high temperatures.

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8Bezafibrate prevents aging in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes

저자 : Ju-Yeon Kim , Dongjie Zhou , Xiang-Shun Cui

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 766-777 (12 pages)

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Bezafibrate, a fibrate drug used as a lipid-lowering agent to treat hyperlipidemia, is a pan-agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. It can enhance mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis. After ovulation, oocytes may get arrested at the metaphase II (MII) stage until fertilization beyond optimal timing, which is termed as post-ovulatory aging. Post-ovulatory aging is a disease that degrades DNA, mitochondria, and oxidative system, and has a negative impact on embryo development and quality; however, the impact of bezafibrate during post-ovulatory aging has not been fully defined. In the present study, we assessed the ability of bezafibrate to prevent the progression of aging in in vitro conditions as well as the underlying mechanisms in pigs. An appropriate concentration of this drug (50 μM) was added, and then oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species downstream, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function were analyzed via immunofluorescence staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bezafibrate significantly alleviated reactive oxygen species and ameliorated glutathione production simultaneously in oocytes and embryos. Moreover, it diminished H2A.X and attenuated CASPASE 3 expression produced by oxidative stress in oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, bezafibrate remarkably improved the mitochondrial function and blastocyst quality as well as markedly reduced the mitochondria/TOM20 ratio and mtDNA copy number. The elevated PARKIN level indicated that mitophagy was induced by bezafibrate treatment after post-ovulatory aging. Collectively, these results suggest that bezafibrate beneficially affects against porcine post-ovulatory oocyte aging in porcine by its antioxidant property and mitochondrial protection.

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9Dietary inclusion of glucose oxidase supplementation to corn-wheat-based diet enhance growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile of lactating sows

저자 : Shanmugam Sureshkumar , Yan Jie Liu , Ning Bo Chen , In Ho Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 778-789 (12 pages)

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The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary glucose oxidase (GOx) supplementation on the reproductive performance, litter performance, total tract digestibility, and blood profile of lactating sows fed corn- wheat-based diet. A total of twenty multiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated into one of four treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: CON (Basal diet), GO1 (basal diet + 200 U GOx/kg), GO2 (basal diet + 300 U GOx/kg), GO3 (basal diet + 400 U Gox/kg). Dietary GOx supplementation did not affect lactating sow's reproduction performance as well as body weight, backfat thickness, and body condition score during pre and post farrowing, and at weaning (p > 0.05). However, after farrowing to weaning period lactating sow's fed GOx supplement has linearly (p = 0.0196) decreased the bodyweight loss. While, there were no effects (p > 0.05) observed on sows backfat thickness loss, average daily feed intake, and estrus interval among treatment groups. Dietary supplementation of GOx has linearly improved the body weight gain (p = 0.049) and average daily gain (p = 0.040) of suckling piglets. The total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen was linearly increased with the graded level of GOx supplement. Also, a linear effect was observed on the glucose and superoxide dismutase of blood profile with the dietary inclusion of GOx. In summary, our finding indicates that the dietary inclusion of GOx supplement with corn- wheat-based diet had a beneficial effect on the nutrient digestibility and blood profile of lactating sows and improved the growth performance of suckling piglets.

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10Evaluation of pig behavior changes related to temperature, relative humidity, volatile organic compounds, and illuminance

저자 : Yong Ju Kim , Min Ho Song , Sang In Lee , Ji Hwan Lee , Han Jin Oh , Jae Woo An , Se Yeon Chang , Young Bin Go , Beom Jun Park , Min Seok Jo , Chang Gyu Lee , Hyeun Bum Kim , Jin Ho Cho

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 790-798 (9 pages)

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The objective of this study was evaluation of pig behavior changes related to temperature, relative humidity, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and illuminance. A total of 24 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were used in the experiment. A sensor was installed at a height of 0.5 m in the center of the pig house. In experiment 1, temperature was changed every four days to 18℃ (T1), 22℃ (T2), 26℃ (T3), and then 30℃ (T4). In experiment 2, relative humidity was adjusted to 45% (low humidity [LH]), 60% (middle humidity [MH]), and then 75% (high humidity [HH]) for four days. In experiment 3, after cleaning the pig house just before experiment, only minimal ventilation was provided. VOCs and pig behaviors were observed for 7 days without cleaning the pig house. In experiment 4, three light bulbs of 40 W (470 lumens / 45 lx; low illuminance [LI]), 75 W (1,055 lumens / 103 lx; middle illuminance [MI]), and 100 W (1,521 lumens / 146 lx; high illuminance [HI]) were used for four days each. Pig behavior analysis was performed for following criteria : Feed intake, Standing, Lying, Sitting, Drink water, Rooting, Posture transition (lying-standing), Posture transition (standing-lying), Wallowing, and Biting. In experiment 1, feed intake time was lower (p < 0.05) for the T3 than other treatment groups. Standing time was highest (p < 0.05) for the T1 and lowest (p < 0.05) for the T3. Lying time was shorter (p < 0.05) in T1 and T2 compared to T3 and T4. Drinking frequency was higher (p < 0.05) for the T4 than other treatment groups. In experiment 2, the frequency of rooting and wallowing increased (p < 0.05) with increasing humidity. LH showed the lowest (p < 0.05) rooting frequency and HH showed the highest (p < 0.05) rooting frequency. In experiment 3, VOCs concentration did not (p > 0.05) change pig behavior. In experiment 4, lying time was the longest (p < 0.05) at LI and shortest (p < 0.05) at HI. Therefore, pig behavior is heavily influenced by the environment, especially temperature and humidity. However, correlation between pig behavior to VOCs and illuminance seems to be needed more research.

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