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한국축산학회> 한국축산학회지> Genetic relationship of age at first calving with conformation traits and calving interval in Hanwoo cows

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Genetic relationship of age at first calving with conformation traits and calving interval in Hanwoo cows

SeungGyu Shin , JungJae Lee , ChangHee Do
  • : 한국축산학회
  • : 한국축산학회지 63권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 07월
  • : 740-750(11pages)
한국축산학회지

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

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This study was performed to investigate genetic relationship of age at first calving (AFC) with body development and reproduction capacity in female Hanwoo. The data sets of 52,299 reproduction records of 19,566 heads calved from 2011 to 2019 and conformation records of 19565 heads born from 1997 to 2017 were analyzed by separating them based on age at first calving. In the analysis, conformation traits included the body condition score (BCS), height (HT), body width (BW), hip bone length (HL), hip bone width (HW), and final score (FS). The heritability and genetic correlation of AFC with conformation traits and calving interval (CI) were analyzed. The heritability for AFC was 0.716, 0.087, and 0.097 for the before and after 24 months and combined data, respectively. The genetic correlation of AFC before 24 months with BCS was -0.778, -0.600 with BW, and 0.442 with HT. The genetic correlation of AFC after 24 months with HT was -0.826, -0.706 with BW, -0.623 with HL, -0.456 with HW, and -0.675 with FS. When the first calving age of young heifers approached 24 months, BCS and BW decreased, and HT increased. When first calving is delayed to after 24 months, the conformation traits become smaller, which indicates that conformation to some extent affects the delay in AFC. The genetic correlation between CI and AFC was -0.116, 0.307, and 0.250 for the before and after 24 month of AFC and combined data, respectively. When first calving date approached 24 months, CI was reduced. The obtained results suggest that it is important that first calving occurs at an appropriate age. Additional research is needed to perform proper genetic evaluation of first calving age in Hanwoo cattle in Korea.

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간행물정보

  • : 농학분야  > 축산
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 2672-0191
  • : 2055-0391
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1958-2021
  • : 4578


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1Phenotypic and genetic parameters of productive traits in Rahmani and Romanov sheep and crossbreds

저자 : Adel S. Khattab , Sunday O. Peters , Adeyemi S. Adenaike , Abdel Aziz M. Sallam , Mahasan M. Atya , Heba A Ahmed

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1211-1222 (12 pages)

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Data of 651 lambs (68 Romanov, 49 Rahmani, 151 [♀1/2 Rahmani X ♂1/2 Romanov) and 383 (♀3/4 Rahmani and 1/4♂ Romanov]) were collected from Mehalet Mousa Farm, belonging to Animal Production Research Institute from the period of 2009 to 2016 to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. The traits studied were birth weight (BW), body weight at four week (BW4), body weight at eight weeks (BW8) and body weight at twelve weeks (BW12) or weaning weight. Least squares analysis of variance shows significance of the effects of breed groups, gender of lambs, birth type; month of birth and year of birth on all traits studied. Rahmani lambs had heavier BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 while Romanov lambs had the lowest ones. The first generation (♀1/2 Rhamani X ♂1/2 Romanov) had heavier body weights than Romanov and the second generation (♀3/4 Rahmani X ♂1/4 Roamnov). Gender of lambs had highly significant effect on body weights. Males were significantly (p < 0.01) heavier than females for all traits studied. Least square means of BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 for single lambs were 2.69, 10.43, 13.53 and 16.10 kg, respectively. Least square means of BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 for twin lambs were 2.50, 9.37, 12.5 and 15.16 kg, respectively, while least square means of BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 for triple lambs were 2.09, 7.86, 10.83 and 13.67 kg, respectively. Estimates of direct heritability measured by single trait animal model were 0.14, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.26 for BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12, respectively, and the corresponding measured by multi trait animal model were 0.17, 0.24, 0.32 and 0.36 for the same traits, respectively. All genetic and phenotypic correlations among different traits studied are positive and significant.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

2Genetic association of polymorphisms in porcine RGS16 with porcine circovirus viral load in naturally infected Yorkshire pigs

저자 : Seung-hoon Lee , Kyu-sang Lim , Ki-chang Hong , Jun-mo Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1223-1231 (9 pages)

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Regulator of G protein signaling 16 (RGS16) is known to be associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). PCV2 associated disease (PCVAD) is a serious problem in the swine industry. The representative symptoms of PCVAD are high viral titer proliferation and decreased average daily gain. In this study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RGS16 region, including the upstream region. Of the 22 identified SNPs, rs332913874, rs326071195, and rs318298586 were genotyped in 142 Yorkshire pigs. These SNPs were significantly associated with the PCV2 viral load. Moreover, the haplotype combination was also related to the PCV2 viral load. The haplotype and diplotype analysis also had a significant difference with the PCV2 viral load. Taken together, our results suggest that RGS16 SNPs considerably affect the PCV2 viral load.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

3Accuracy of genotype imputation based on reference population size and marker density in Hanwoo cattle

저자 : Dooho Lee , Yeongkuk Kim , Yoonji Chung , Dongjae Lee , Dongwon Seo , Tae Jeong Choi , Dajeong Lim , Duhak Yoon , Seung Hwan Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1232-1246 (15 pages)

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Recently, the cattle genome sequence has been completed, followed by developing a commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip panel in the animal genome industry. In order to increase statistical power for detecting quantitative trait locus (QTL), a number of animals should be genotyped. However, a high-density chip for many animals would be increasing the genotyping cost. Therefore, statistical inference of genotype imputation (low-density chip to high-density) will be useful in the animal industry. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the reference population size and marker density on the imputation accuracy and to suggest the appropriate number of reference population sets for the imputation in Hanwoo cattle. A total of 3,821 Hanwoo cattle were divided into reference and validation populations. The reference sets consisted of 50k (38,916) marker data and different population sizes (500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 3,600). The validation sets consisted of four validation sets (Total 889) and the different marker density (5k [5,000], 10k [10,000], and 15k [15,000]). The accuracy of imputation was calculated by direct comparison of the true genotype and the imputed genotype. In conclusion, when the lowest marker density (5k) was used in the validation set, according to the reference population size, the imputation accuracy was 0.793 to 0.929. On the other hand, when the highest marker density (15k), according to the reference population size, the imputation accuracy was 0.904 to 0.967. Moreover, the reference population size should be more than 1,000 to obtain at least 88% imputation accuracy in Hanwoo cattle.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

4Assessment of testicular steroidogenic enzymes expression in experimental animal model following withdrawal of nandrolone decanoate

저자 : Taesun Min , Adhimoolam Karthikeyan , Ki-ho Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1247-1264 (18 pages)

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Anabolic steroids are frequently used to increase the growth rate of meat-producing animals. Exposure to an anabolic-androgenic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (ND), is associated with expressional reduction of testicular steroidogenic enzymes. However, the effect of withdrawal of ND exposure on the expression of these testicular molecules has not been thoroughly explored. The current research investigated expression changes of testicular steroidogenic enzymes in rats at several recovery periods (2, 6, and 12 weeks) after the stop of ND treatment with different doses (2 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks. Body and testis weights were recorded, and transcript levels of molecules were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The immunohistochemistry was used to examine the changes of immuno-intensities of molecules. At 6 and 12 weeks of the recovery period, the 10 mg/kg ND-treated rats were lighter than other experimental groups. The interstitial compartment vanished by ND treatment filled up as the recovery period became longer. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein was returned to the control level at 12 weeks of the recovery period. Expression levels of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage and 17a-hydroxylase were increased in 2 mg/kg ND-treated group at 6 weeks of the recovery period, and transcript levels of these molecules in 2 and 10 mg/kg ND-treated groups at 12 weeks of the recovery period were significantly lower than the control. Expression levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type I and 17β-HSD type 3 in 2 mg/kg ND-treated group were comparable with those of control at 12 weeks of the recovery period, but not in 10 mg/kg ND-treated group. Expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (Cyp19) was reverted to the control level at 2 weeks of the recovery period. Except for Cyp19, there was a visible increase of immuno-staining intensity of other testicular steroidogenic enzymes in the Leydig cells as the recovery period progressed. This research has demonstrated that the cease of ND administration could restore the expression of testicular steroidogenic enzymes close to the normal level. Nevertheless, a relatively long recovery period, compared to the ND-exposure period would be required to retrieve normal expression levels of testicular steroidogenic enzymes.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

5Improvement of conception rate on Hanwoo; The key hormones and novel estrus detector

저자 : Young Ho Joo , Seung Min Jeong , Dimas Hand Vidya Paradhipta , Hyuk Jun Lee , Seong Shin Lee , Jeong Seok Choi , Hyeon Tak Noh , Hong Hee Chang , Eun Joong Kim , Sam Churl Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1265-1274 (10 pages)

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Two field experiments were conducted to improve the conception rate of Hanwoo cow. The first experiment aimed to investigate the physiological condition of Hanwoo cows on estrus, including metabolic profiles and body condition score (BCS). The second experiment investigated the effect of a novel estrus detector on the artificial insemination (AI) conception rate for Hanwoo cows. For the first experiment, 80 Hanwoo cows (2.5 ± 0.10 of parity), approximately one month before estrus, were housed in 16 pens and offered the experimental diets twice daily with free water access. The BCS were recorded, and blood was collected from the jugular veins just before AI. The collected blood was used to measure physiological conditions, such as metabolite and hormone levels. For the second experiment, each cow was equipped with a neck-mounted estrus detector collar, which had a sensor connected through the internet. Approximately one month before estrus, three hundred sixty Hanwoo cows (2.4 ± 0.21 of parity) were assigned into groups with or without W-Tag collar treatments. The animals were managed the same as in the first experiment. The pregnancy rate reached 55% in the first experiment. The concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was higher (p < 0.012; 1.56 vs. 1.08 ng/mL) in cows that were not pregnant (NPG) than in cows that were pregnant (PG) after AI. The BCS and other concentrations of metabolites and hormones in the blood were not different in both NPG and PG cows. The ranges of estrogen, LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone for PG cows were 11.9 to 39.0 pg/mL, < 0.25 to 1.98 ng/mL, and < 0.50 to 0.82 ng/ mL, respectively. In the second experiment, cows with the estrus detector had lower days open (p < 0.001; 78.1 vs. 84.8 d), insemination frequency (p < 0.001; 1.26 vs. 2.52), and return of estrus (p < 0.001; 70.9 vs. 79.1 d) than those in cows without the estrus detector. In conclusion, the present study indicated that lower LH concentration just before AI potentially increased the pregnancy rate of Hanwoo cows. Furthermore, the application of estrus detectors to Hanwoo cows could improve the conception success rate for AI.

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6Effects of dietary palm kernel meal and β-xylanase on productive performance, fatty liver incidence, and excreta characteristics in laying hens

저자 : Won Jun Choi , Jong Hyuk Kim , Hyun Woo Kim , Kwan Eung Kim , Dong Yong Kil

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1275-1285 (11 pages)

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The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary palm kernel meal (PKM) and β-xylanase supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, fatty liver incidence, and excreta characteristics in laying hens. A total of 320 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (33 weeks of age) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 8 replicates in a feeding trial. Each replicate consisted of 10 consecutive cages with 1 hen per cage. The corn-soybean meal-based control diet was prepared. Additional diet was prepared by including 10% of PKM in the control diet with a partial replacement of corn, soybean meal, and animal fat. In addition, 0.025% β-xylanase was supplemented at the expense of celite to those 2 diets to produce 4 treatment diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. All hens were provided the diet and water ad libitum for 8 weeks. Results indicated no significant interactions between inclusion of dietary PKM and β-xylanase for all measurements; therefore, the main effects were mainly discussed. Hens fed diets containing 10% PKM had greater (p < 0.05) feed intake and yolk color than those fed diets containing no PKM. However, dietary PKM did not influence fatty liver incidence and excreta characteristics. Dietary β-xylanase supplementation had no effects on all measurements, regardless of inclusion of PKM. In conclusion, PKM can be a potential feed ingredient for laying hens at the inclusion of 10% in the diet. It appears that dietary β-xylanase used in the current experiment has little effect on layer productivity, regardless of inclusion of 10% PKM in the diet.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

7Feasibility of sodium long chain polyphosphate as a potential growth promoter in broilers

저자 : Seung-gyu Moon , Damini Kothari , Woong-lae Kim , Woo-do Lee , Kyung-il Kim , Jong-il Kim , Eun-jib Kim , Soo-ki Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1286-1300 (15 pages)

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The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of sodium long chain polyphosphate (SLCPP) and effect of dietary supplementation of SLCPP on growth performance, organ characteristics, blood metabolites, and intestinal microflora of broilers. Antimicrobial activities of SLCPP were observed against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion assay. In addition, SLCPP demonstrated good anti-biofilm activity against K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, to investigate the dietary effect of SLCPP, a total of 480 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three dietary treatment groups (4 replicates per group, 40 birds in each replicate): an antibiotic-free corn-soybean meal basal diet (NC); basal diet + enramycin 0.01% (PC); and basal diet + 0.1% SLCPP (SPP). The experiment lasted for 35 days. Results showed that birds fed with SLCPP had higher body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG), and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the grower phase (days 7 to 21) (p < 0.05). Except for blood urea nitrogen, all other blood biochemical parameters remained unaffected by the dietary supplementation of SLCPP. Compared to the control group, lengths of the duodenum and ileum in the SPP group were significantly shorter (p < 0.05). Moreover, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total aerobes, and Streptococcus spp. in jejunum as well as LAB in cecum were increased in the SPP group than in the PC group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary supplementation of SLCPP might promote the growth of broilers in their early growth phase.

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8Effects of applying cellulase and starch on the fermentation characteristics and microbial communities of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) silage

저자 : Guoqiang Zhao , Hao Wu , Li Li , Jiajun He , Zhichao Hu , Xinjian Yang , Xiangxue Xie

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1301-1313 (13 pages)

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This study investigated the effects of applying cellulase and starch on the fermentation characteristics and microbial communities of Napier grass silage after ensiling for 30 d. Three groups were studied: No additives (control); added cellulase (Group 1); and added cellulase and starch (Group 2). The results showed that the addition of cellulase and starch decreased the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH significantly (p < 0.05) and increased water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content (p < 0.05). The addition of additives in two treated groups exerted a positive effect on the lactic acid (LA) content, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, and lactic acid / acetic acid (LA/AA) ratio, even the changes were not significant (p > 0.05). Calculation of Flieg's scores indicated that cellulase application increased silage quality to some extent, while the application of cellulase and starch together significantly improved fermentation (p < 0.05). Compared with the control, both additive groups showed increased microbial diversity after ensiling with an abundance of favorable bacteria including Firmicutes and Weissella, and the bacteria including Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter increased as well. For alpha diversity analysis, the combined application of cellulase and starch in Group 2 gave significant increases in all indices (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that the application of cellulase and starch can increase the quality of Napier grass preserved as silage.

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9Effects of Bacillus-based probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal health of weaned pigs

저자 : Daye Mun , Hyunjin Kyoung , Myunghwan Kong , Sangdon Ryu , Ki Beom Jang , Jangryeol Baek , Kyeong Il Park , Minho Song , Younghoon Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1314-1327 (14 pages)

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Bacillus is characterized by the formation of spores in harsh environments, which makes it suitable for use as a probiotic for feed because of thermostability and high survival rate, even under long-term storage. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus-based probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, immune response, and intestinal microbiota of weaned pigs. A total of 40 weaned pigs (7.01 ± 0.86 kg body weight [BW]; 28 d old) were randomly assigned to two treatments (4 pigs/ pen; 5 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design (block = BW and sex). The dietary treatment was either a typical nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) or CON supplemented with 0.01% probiotics containing a mixture of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis (PRO). Fecal samples were collected daily by rectal palpation for the last 3 days after a 4-day adaptation. Blood, ileal digesta, and intestinal tissue samples were collected from one pig in each pen at the respective time points. The PRO group did not affect the feed efficiency, but the average daily gain was significantly improved (p < 0.05). The PRO group showed a trend of improved crude protein digestibility (p < 0.10). The serum transforming growth factor-β1 level tended to be higher (p < 0.10) in the PRO group on days 7 and 14. There was no difference in phylum level of the intestinal microbiota, but there were differences in genus composition and proportions. However, β-diversity analysis showed no statistical differences between the CON and the PRO groups. Taken together, Bacillus-based probiotics had beneficial effects on the growth performance, immune system, and intestinal microbiota of weaned pigs, suggesting that Bacillus can be utilized as a functional probiotic for weaned pigs.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

10Multi-carbohydrase application into energy and amino acid deficient broiler diets: A strategy to enhance performance of broiler chickens

저자 : Samiru Sudharaka Wickramasuriya , Shemil Priyan Macelline , Hyun Min Cho , Jun Seon Hong , Rob Patterson , Jung Min Heo

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1328-1343 (16 pages)

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The effect of Multi-Carbohydrase (MC) supplementation on growth performance, visceral organ weights, blood metabolites, jejunum morphology, nutrient digestibility, and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed nutrient-deficient corn soybean-meal based diets containing high levels of non-starch polysaccharides from wheat and wheat by-products was investigated. A total of 378 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary treatments to give six replicates per treatment (nine birds per pen). Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) positive control (PC; commercial standard diet); (2) negative control 1 (NC-1; PC-120 kcal/kg metabolizable energy); (3) NC-2 (PC-3% standardized ileal digestibility [SID] amino acids). The remaining four dietary treatments were formulated with the addition of MC (MC; Superzyme-CS™) into two negative controls along with two supplementation levels of MC (i.e., 0.025% and 0.05%, respectively). Improved body weight, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05) were observed in broiler chickens fed a reduced energy diet supplemented with MC compared to birds fed NC-1 diet from days 1-35. Additionally, birds fed a reduced energy diet with 0.05% MC showed comparable (p > 0.05) growth performance with birds fed PC for 35-day post-hatch. Furthermore, the addition of MC into reduced amino acid diets improved (p < 0.05) growth performance. Broiler chickens fed MC supplemented nutrient-deficient diets showed a greater (p < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio than birds fed diets without MC on days 21 and 35. Similarly, improved (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility was observed in birds fed reduced energy diets supplemented with MC compared to birds fed NC-1 on days 21 and 35. Our results suggest that MC supplementation into reduced energy or reduced amino acid diets containing wheat and wheat by-products has the potential to improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility while maintaining healthier gut morphology in broiler chickens from 1 to 35 days of age.

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1Principal protocols for the processing of cultured meat

저자 : Seung Yun Lee , Hea Jin Kang , Da Young Lee , Ji Hyeop Kang , Sivasubramanian Ramani , Sungkwon Park , Sun Jin Hur

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 673-680 (8 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to establish a basic principal procedure for the processing of cultured meat. The first stage involved isolating satellite cells from the desired muscle of an animal using enzymatic digestion (i.e., by using proteases, collagenases, and pronases). The second stage involved culturing the isolated muscle satellite cells in a growth medium containing fetal bovine serum and penicillin/streptomycin with growth factors for an optimal period of time. The second stage involved a basic method for the isolated muscle cells to proliferate while sub-culturing to further induce differentiation in gelatin-coated culture dishes with the general culture medium. The third stage involved the induction of differentiation of muscle satellite cells or formation of myotubes using myogenic medium. Lastly, the fourth stage involved the identification of cell differentiation or myotube formation (myogenesis) using fluorescent dyes. Moreover, the principle of these protocols can be applied to perform primary culture of animal cells. This study will assist beginners with the technical aspects of culturing meat (isolation, cultivation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells as well as identification of myotube formation for myogenesis).

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2Technical requirements for cultured meat production: a review

저자 : Sivasubramanian Ramani , Deunsol Ko , Bosung Kim , Changjun Cho , Woosang Kim , Cheorun Jo , Chang-kyu Lee , Jungsun Kang , Sunjin Hur , Sungkwon Park

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 681-692 (12 pages)

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Environment, food, and disease have a selective force on the present and future as well as our genome. Adaptation of livestock and the environmental nexus, including forest encroachment for anthropological needs, has been proven to cause emerging infectious diseases. Further, these demand changes in meat production and market systems. Meat is a reliable source of protein, with a majority of the world population consumes meat. To meet the increasing demands of meat production as well as address issues, such as current environmental pollution, animal welfare, and outbreaks, cellular agriculture has emerged as one of the next industrial revolutions. Lab grown meat or cell cultured meat is a promising way to pursue this; however, it still needs to resemble traditional meat and be assured safety for human consumption. Further, to mimic the palatability of traditional meat, the process of cultured meat production starts from skeletal muscle progenitor cells isolated from animals that proliferate and differentiate into skeletal muscle using cell culture techniques. Due to several lacunae in the current approaches, production of muscle replicas is not possible yet. Our review shows that constant research in this field will resolve the existing constraints and enable successful cultured meat production in the near future. Therefore, production of cultured meat is a better solution that looks after environmental issues, spread of outbreaks, antibiotic resistance through the zoonotic spread, food and economic crises.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

3In-vitro meat: a promising solution for sustainability of meat sector

저자 : Pavan Kumar , Neelesh Sharma , Shubham Sharma , Nitin Mehta , Akhilesh Kumar Verma , S Chemmalar , Awis Qurni Sazili

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 693-724 (32 pages)

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The in-vitro meat is a novel concept in food biotechnology comprising field of tissue engineering and cellular agriculture. It involves production of edible biomass by in-vitro culture of stem cells harvested from the muscle of live animals by self-organizing or scaffolding methodology. It is considered as efficient, environmental friendly, better ensuring public safety and nutritional security, as well as ethical way of producing meat. Source of stem cells, media ingredients, supply of large size bioreactors, skilled manpower, sanitary requirements, production of products with similar sensory and textural attributes as of conventional meat, consumer acceptance, and proper set up of regulatory framework are challenges faced in commercialization and consumer acceptance of in-vitro meat. To realize any perceivable change in various socio-economic and environmental spheres, the technology should be commercialized and should be cost-effective as conventional meat and widely accepted among consumers. The new challenges of increasing demand of meat with the increasing population could be fulfill by the establishment of in-vitro meat production at large scale and its popularization. The adoption of in-vitro meat production at an industrial scale will lead to self-sufficiency in the developed world.

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4Effect of reducing sodium chloride based on the sensory properties of meat products and the improvement strategies employed: a review

저자 : Tae-kyung Kim , Hae In Yong , Samooel Jung , Hyun-wook Kim , Yun-sang Choi

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 725-739 (15 pages)

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Many consumers are concerned about the high levels of salt intake owing to the accompanied risk of chronic diseases. Due to this dietary concern, the food industry has recommended the reduction of salt content in many products. However, the addition of salt to meat products improves their quality and sensory properties, including saltiness, color, juiciness, and texture. Because quality deteriorations could induce decreased sensory scores owing to salt reductions, the challenges involved in improving the quality of reduced-salt meat products have been addressed. During the development of low-salt meat products, it is important to reduce sodium content and address the problems that arise with this reduction. Modified salt, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, hydrocolloids, high-pressure, ultrasound, electric pulsed field, and irradiation have been suggested as strategies to replace or reduce sodium content, and sensory scores could be improved by these strategies. Therefore, when developing a low-salt meat product, several perspectives must be considered and the latest technologies that could resolve this problem should be adopted.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

5Genetic relationship of age at first calving with conformation traits and calving interval in Hanwoo cows

저자 : SeungGyu Shin , JungJae Lee , ChangHee Do

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 740-750 (11 pages)

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This study was performed to investigate genetic relationship of age at first calving (AFC) with body development and reproduction capacity in female Hanwoo. The data sets of 52,299 reproduction records of 19,566 heads calved from 2011 to 2019 and conformation records of 19565 heads born from 1997 to 2017 were analyzed by separating them based on age at first calving. In the analysis, conformation traits included the body condition score (BCS), height (HT), body width (BW), hip bone length (HL), hip bone width (HW), and final score (FS). The heritability and genetic correlation of AFC with conformation traits and calving interval (CI) were analyzed. The heritability for AFC was 0.716, 0.087, and 0.097 for the before and after 24 months and combined data, respectively. The genetic correlation of AFC before 24 months with BCS was -0.778, -0.600 with BW, and 0.442 with HT. The genetic correlation of AFC after 24 months with HT was -0.826, -0.706 with BW, -0.623 with HL, -0.456 with HW, and -0.675 with FS. When the first calving age of young heifers approached 24 months, BCS and BW decreased, and HT increased. When first calving is delayed to after 24 months, the conformation traits become smaller, which indicates that conformation to some extent affects the delay in AFC. The genetic correlation between CI and AFC was -0.116, 0.307, and 0.250 for the before and after 24 month of AFC and combined data, respectively. When first calving date approached 24 months, CI was reduced. The obtained results suggest that it is important that first calving occurs at an appropriate age. Additional research is needed to perform proper genetic evaluation of first calving age in Hanwoo cattle in Korea.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

6A retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene is associated with the recessive white plumage color in the Yeonsan Ogye chicken

저자 : Eunjin Cho , Minjun Kim , Prabuddha Manjula , Sung Hyun Cho , Dongwon Seo , Seung-sook Lee , Jun Heon Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 751-758 (8 pages)

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The recessive white (locus c) phenotype observed in chickens is associated with three alleles (recessive white c, albino ca, and red-eyed white cre) and causative mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. The recessive white mutation (c) inhibits the transcription of TYR exon 5 due to a retroviral sequence insertion in intron 4. In this study, we genotyped and sequenced the insertion in TYR intron 4 to identify the mutation causing the unusual white plumage of Yeonsan Ogye chickens, which normally have black plumage. The white chickens had a homozygous recessive white genotype that matched the sequence of the recessive white type, and the inserted sequence exhibited 98% identity with the avian leukosis virus ev-1 sequence. In comparison, brindle and normal chickens had the homozygous color genotype, and their sequences were the same as the wild-type sequence, indicating that this phenotype is derived from other mutation(s). In conclusion, white chickens have a recessive white mutation allele. Since the size of the sample used in this study was limited, further research through securing additional samples to perform validation studies is necessary. Therefore, after validation studies, a selection system for conserving the phenotypic characteristics and genetic diversity of the population could be established if additional studies to elucidate specific phenotype-related genes in Yeonsan Ogye are performed.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

7Analysis of seasonal effect on Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) birth weight

저자 : Kwanghyun Cho , Yirim Song , Joon-mo Yeo , Jin-Ki Park , Dong-Wook Kim , Seung-Hee Roh , Pilnam Seong , Won-Young Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 759-765 (7 pages)

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Recently, summer temperatures have frequently been abnormal in Korea owing to global warming. In summer, a decrease in feed intake rate and biological activity were observed in Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), leading to lower production rates in the industry. However, the precise scale of damage was not reported as with other animals of economic value. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of birth season on birth weight in Hanwoo. Data were collected from 100 local breeding farms from 2016 to 2019. A total of 41,081 Hanwoo calves were classified and analyzed by sex, year, month, and season (March-May, spring; June-August, summer; September-November, fall; and December-February, winter) of birth. The birth weight of Hanwoo calves differed according to birth month. The average birth weight of male calves was 30.47 kg and that of female calves was 28.16 kg. Hanwoo birth weight was the highest in March-born calves and the lowest in July-born calves. The birth weights of calves born in February, March, April, November, and December were significantly larger than those of calves born in July. In addition, the birth weight of Hanwoo calves from the summer was significantly lower than that of calves born in other seasons. Furthermore, Hanwoo steer slaughter age showed a negative correlation, whereas carcass weight had a positive correlation with birth weight. In the beef cattle industry, birth weight is a very important economic characteristic that is related to growth rate. These data will contribute toward planning the reproduction of Hanwoo and analysis of changes in characteristics of economic value owing to high temperatures.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

8Bezafibrate prevents aging in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes

저자 : Ju-Yeon Kim , Dongjie Zhou , Xiang-Shun Cui

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 766-777 (12 pages)

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Bezafibrate, a fibrate drug used as a lipid-lowering agent to treat hyperlipidemia, is a pan-agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. It can enhance mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis. After ovulation, oocytes may get arrested at the metaphase II (MII) stage until fertilization beyond optimal timing, which is termed as post-ovulatory aging. Post-ovulatory aging is a disease that degrades DNA, mitochondria, and oxidative system, and has a negative impact on embryo development and quality; however, the impact of bezafibrate during post-ovulatory aging has not been fully defined. In the present study, we assessed the ability of bezafibrate to prevent the progression of aging in in vitro conditions as well as the underlying mechanisms in pigs. An appropriate concentration of this drug (50 μM) was added, and then oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species downstream, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function were analyzed via immunofluorescence staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bezafibrate significantly alleviated reactive oxygen species and ameliorated glutathione production simultaneously in oocytes and embryos. Moreover, it diminished H2A.X and attenuated CASPASE 3 expression produced by oxidative stress in oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, bezafibrate remarkably improved the mitochondrial function and blastocyst quality as well as markedly reduced the mitochondria/TOM20 ratio and mtDNA copy number. The elevated PARKIN level indicated that mitophagy was induced by bezafibrate treatment after post-ovulatory aging. Collectively, these results suggest that bezafibrate beneficially affects against porcine post-ovulatory oocyte aging in porcine by its antioxidant property and mitochondrial protection.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

9Dietary inclusion of glucose oxidase supplementation to corn-wheat-based diet enhance growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile of lactating sows

저자 : Shanmugam Sureshkumar , Yan Jie Liu , Ning Bo Chen , In Ho Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 778-789 (12 pages)

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The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary glucose oxidase (GOx) supplementation on the reproductive performance, litter performance, total tract digestibility, and blood profile of lactating sows fed corn- wheat-based diet. A total of twenty multiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated into one of four treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: CON (Basal diet), GO1 (basal diet + 200 U GOx/kg), GO2 (basal diet + 300 U GOx/kg), GO3 (basal diet + 400 U Gox/kg). Dietary GOx supplementation did not affect lactating sow's reproduction performance as well as body weight, backfat thickness, and body condition score during pre and post farrowing, and at weaning (p > 0.05). However, after farrowing to weaning period lactating sow's fed GOx supplement has linearly (p = 0.0196) decreased the bodyweight loss. While, there were no effects (p > 0.05) observed on sows backfat thickness loss, average daily feed intake, and estrus interval among treatment groups. Dietary supplementation of GOx has linearly improved the body weight gain (p = 0.049) and average daily gain (p = 0.040) of suckling piglets. The total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen was linearly increased with the graded level of GOx supplement. Also, a linear effect was observed on the glucose and superoxide dismutase of blood profile with the dietary inclusion of GOx. In summary, our finding indicates that the dietary inclusion of GOx supplement with corn- wheat-based diet had a beneficial effect on the nutrient digestibility and blood profile of lactating sows and improved the growth performance of suckling piglets.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

10Evaluation of pig behavior changes related to temperature, relative humidity, volatile organic compounds, and illuminance

저자 : Yong Ju Kim , Min Ho Song , Sang In Lee , Ji Hwan Lee , Han Jin Oh , Jae Woo An , Se Yeon Chang , Young Bin Go , Beom Jun Park , Min Seok Jo , Chang Gyu Lee , Hyeun Bum Kim , Jin Ho Cho

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 790-798 (9 pages)

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The objective of this study was evaluation of pig behavior changes related to temperature, relative humidity, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and illuminance. A total of 24 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were used in the experiment. A sensor was installed at a height of 0.5 m in the center of the pig house. In experiment 1, temperature was changed every four days to 18℃ (T1), 22℃ (T2), 26℃ (T3), and then 30℃ (T4). In experiment 2, relative humidity was adjusted to 45% (low humidity [LH]), 60% (middle humidity [MH]), and then 75% (high humidity [HH]) for four days. In experiment 3, after cleaning the pig house just before experiment, only minimal ventilation was provided. VOCs and pig behaviors were observed for 7 days without cleaning the pig house. In experiment 4, three light bulbs of 40 W (470 lumens / 45 lx; low illuminance [LI]), 75 W (1,055 lumens / 103 lx; middle illuminance [MI]), and 100 W (1,521 lumens / 146 lx; high illuminance [HI]) were used for four days each. Pig behavior analysis was performed for following criteria : Feed intake, Standing, Lying, Sitting, Drink water, Rooting, Posture transition (lying-standing), Posture transition (standing-lying), Wallowing, and Biting. In experiment 1, feed intake time was lower (p < 0.05) for the T3 than other treatment groups. Standing time was highest (p < 0.05) for the T1 and lowest (p < 0.05) for the T3. Lying time was shorter (p < 0.05) in T1 and T2 compared to T3 and T4. Drinking frequency was higher (p < 0.05) for the T4 than other treatment groups. In experiment 2, the frequency of rooting and wallowing increased (p < 0.05) with increasing humidity. LH showed the lowest (p < 0.05) rooting frequency and HH showed the highest (p < 0.05) rooting frequency. In experiment 3, VOCs concentration did not (p > 0.05) change pig behavior. In experiment 4, lying time was the longest (p < 0.05) at LI and shortest (p < 0.05) at HI. Therefore, pig behavior is heavily influenced by the environment, especially temperature and humidity. However, correlation between pig behavior to VOCs and illuminance seems to be needed more research.

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