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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)> Research Trends in Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) to Enhance the Rolling Shear Strength of CLT(CLT의 rolling shear 향상을 위한 hybrid cross laminated timber 연구 동향)

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Research Trends in Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) to Enhance the Rolling Shear Strength of CLT(CLT의 rolling shear 향상을 위한 hybrid cross laminated timber 연구 동향)

Research Trends in Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) to Enhance the Rolling Shear Strength of CLT

Seung Min YANG , Hwa Hyung LEE , Seog Goo KANG
  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 07월
  • : 336-359(24pages)
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

DOI

10.5658/WOOD.2021.49.4.336


목차

1. INTRODUCTION
2. MATERIALS and METHODS
3. RESULTS and DISCUSSION
4. CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
REFERENCES

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본 연구는 고층 목조건축에 사용되는 대형 목재 패널인 CLT의 낮은 rolling shear strength를 개선하기 위해 hybrid CLT의 연구 개발 동향을 분석하였다. 이를 통해 CLT의 국산화를 위한 연구개발 방향에 활용 가능한 기초자료를 마련하고자 하였고, 낮은 rolling shear strength를 향상시키기 위한 방안으로 활엽수 층재 사용, 층재 배열 각도 변화, 구조용 목질복합체의 사용이 주를 이루고 있다. 활엽수 층재는 침엽수 보다 rolling shear strength와 shear modulus 모두 2배 이상의 높은 값을 나타내므로 활엽수 층재 사용 및 미이용 수종의 활용이 가능함을 확인하였다. 층재 배열 각도 변화에 따라 rolling shear stength 1.5배, shear modulus 8.3배, bending stiffness 4.1배 향상되어 층재 배열 각도를 감소시킴으로써 CLT 강도 향상을 확인하였다. 구조용 목질재료는 기존에 강도성능이 확보된 재료로 층재로 사용하였을 때 최대 MOR 1.35배, MOE 1.5배, rolling shear strength 2배 향상되었고, 층재 간의 접착강도 또한 집성재 블록전단강도 기준인 7.0 N/mm²을 확보할 수 있었다. 선행연구 결과를 통해 MOE 7.0 GPa, MOR 40.0 MPa 이상의 휨 특성을 가진 구조용 목질재료를 사용하였을 때 강도성능이 향상됨을 확인하였다. 이를 통해 구조용 목질재료 층재 강도 기준으로 판단하였다. rolling shear strength 개선하기 위한 최적의 방법은 기존 규격에 의한 강도값을 가진 구조용 목질재료의 적용이 가장 유리할 것으로 판단하나, 구조용 목질재료의 섬유 배열에 따른 CLT 층재 배열 방향, 층재 간 접착 강도 등에 대한 추가적인 연구가 필요하다.
In this study, hybrid CLT research and development trends were analyzed to improve the low rolling shear strength of CLT, a large wooden panel used in high-rise wooden buildings. Through this, basic data that can be used in research and development directions for localization of CLT were prepared. As a way to improve the low rolling shear strength, the use of hardwood lamina, the change of the lamina arrangement angle, and the use of structural composite materials are mainly used. Rolling shear strength and shear modulus of hardwood lamina are more than twice as high as softwood lamina. It confirmed that hardwoods can be used and unused species can be used. Rolling shear strength 1.5 times, shear modulus 8.3 times, bending stiffness 4.1 times improved according to the change of the layer arrangement angle, and the CLT strength was confirmed by reducing the layer arrangement angle. Structural wood-based materials have been improved by up to 1.35 times MOR, 1.5 times MOE, and 1.59 times rolling shear strength when used as laminas. Block shear strength between the layer materials was also secured by 7.0 N/㎟,which is the standard for block shear strength. Through the results of previous studies, it was confirmed that the strength performance was improved when a structural wood based materials having a flexural performance of MOE 7.0 GPa and MOR 40.0 MPa or more was used. This was determined based on the strength of layered materials in structural wood-based materials.
The optimal method for improving rolling shear strength is judged to be the most advantageous application of structural wood based materials with strength values according to existing specifications. However, additional research is needed on the orientation of CLT lamina arrangement according to the fiber arrangement of structural wood-based materials, and the block shear strength between lamina materials.

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  • : 공학분야  > 토목공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1973-2021
  • : 2551


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49권5호(2021년 09월) 수록논문
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1Cover and Contents

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and Scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 2-2 (1 pages)

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3Estimation of the Optimal Periods for Planting and Felling Larix kaempferi Based on the Period of Its Cambial Activity (형성층 활동 기간을 활용한 일본잎갈나무 식재 및 벌채 적기 추정)

저자 : Hye-ji Yoo , Jeong-deuk Ju , Jun-hui Park , Chang-seob Shin , Chang-Deuk Eom , Jeong-Wook Seo

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 399-415 (17 pages)

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본 연구는 우리나라 주요 조림수종인 일본잎갈나무 형성층 활동 시기를 모니터링 하여 적절한 식재 및 벌채시기를 제시하기 위해 수행되었다. 또한, 각 지역 일본잎갈나무의 형성층 활동을 유도하는 적산온도도 함께 조사하였다. 연구지는 충청북도에 위치한 월악산과 미동산이다. 월악산과 미동산에서 일본잎갈나무 5본씩을 선발한 후, 월악산에서는 2017년 4월 7일 ~ 10월 6일, 미동산에서는 2017년 4월 7일 ~ 9월 29일까지 직경 2 mm 미니 생장추(trephor)로 형성층 시료를 채취하였다. 채취된 형성층 시료는 PEG2000에 임베딩 한 후, 마이크로톰을 이용하여 두께 10∼15 μm로 박편 제작을 하였다. 상해세포간구 발생으로 정확한 형성층 활동 모니터링이 불가능한 월악산 일본잎갈나무 1본과 미동산 일본잎갈나무 1본은 연구에서 제외하였다. 현미경으로 월악산과 미동산 일본잎갈나무의 형성층 개시 일을 관찰한 결과, 4월 28일에 월악산에서 2본, 미동산에서 3본이 개시하였다. 나머지인 월악산 2본과 미동산 1본은 일주일 후인 5월 4일에 개시하였다. 형성층 활동 개시를 유도한 적산온도는 월악산의 경우 196.4-271.8이었으며, 미동산은 204.7-277.3로 유사하였다. 형성층 활동 종료는 월악산 8월 4일 ~ 8월 25일, 미동산 8월 4일 ~ 9월 1일이었다. 이상의 결과를 근거로 월악산과 미동산에 적합한 일본잎갈나무 식재 시기는 형성층 활동 약 한 달 전인 4월 이전이며, 벌채 시기는 형성층 활동이 완전히 종료되는 10월부터로 확인되었다.


This study was conducted to suggest the optimal periods for planting and felling Larix kaempferi tree by monitoring its cambial activity period. In addition, the heat summation to induce the cambial activity of Larix kaempferi was investigated. The study sites were at Mt. Worak and Mt. Midong. After selecting 5 trees at Mt. Worak and Mt. Midong, the cambium samples were collected using a mini trephor with 2 mm diameter from April 7 to October 6, 2017 at Mt. Worak, and from April 7 to September 29, 2017 at Mt. Midong. After the collected cambium samples were embedded in PEG2000, transverse thin sections with a thickness of 1 0 to 1 5 μm were prepared using a microtome. One Larix kaempferi sample from each site, Mt. Worak and Mt. Midong, in which the accurate monitoring of cambial activity was impossible due to the formation of traumatic resin canal, was excluded from the study. The observation of the initiation date of cambial activity under a light microscopy revealed that 2 specimens from Mt. Worak and 3 from Mt. Midong showed the initiation on April 28. The remaining 2 specimens of Mt. Worak and 1 specimen of Mt. Midong were initiated on May 4, which was a week later than the others. The heat summation that induced the initiation of cambial activity was 196.4-271.8 at Mt. Worak and 204.7-277.3 at Mt. Midong, which was similar. The termination of cambial activity occurred between August 4 and 25 at Mt. Worak, and between August 4 and September 1 at Mt. Midong. Based on the above results, it was found that the optimal planting period for Larix kaempferi in Mt. Worak and Mt. Midong was before April, about a month before the cambium activity, and the felling period was from October when the cambial activity was completely terminated.

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4Wood Chemical Compositions of Raru Species Originating from Central Tapanuli, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Effect of Differences in Wood Species and Log Positions

저자 : Apri Heri Iswanto , Fazilla Oktaviani Tarigan , Arida Susilowati , Atmawi Darwis , Widya Fatriasari

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 416-429 (14 pages)

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Raru is a lesser-known plant species originating from North Sumatra, Indonesia. Information on the characteristics is still limited, especially its chemical component. Therefore, this study aims to examine the chemical composition information of Cotylelobium lanceolatum, Cotylelobium melanoxylon, and Vatica pauciflora woods based on their axial log positions (bottom, middle, and top). The wood chemical analysis was performed in terms of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) method. Furthermore, the analysis measured holocellulose, α-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin content, alcohol benzene extractive content, the extractive substance in hot and water, and solubility in NaOH 1%. The results indicated that the species and their log axial positions affected different chemical components, which included α-cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of C. lanceolatum amounting to 41.88%, 19.39%, and 28.68% respectively. Meanwhile, for C. Melanoxylon, they were 42.01%, 21.11%, and 24.76% respectively; and for V. pauciflora wood, they were 42.95%, 23.24%, and 30.11% respectively. The average values of the extractive contents including the solubility in 1: 2 ethanol benzene, NaOH, and hot water for C. lanceolatum, C. melanoxylon, and V. pauciflora wood were (10.58%, 27.62%, 8.13%), (14.54%, 28.22%, 7.82%), and (10.95%, 28.60%, 7.57%) respectively. The wood species had a significant effect on chemical components including lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, and extractive solubility in cold water. Furthermore, the axial log position had a significant effect on all the parameters of the chemical composition of the wood being tested.

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5A Study on Classification of Wood Cultural Resources in South Korea

저자 : Yeonjung Han , Sang-min Lee , Jinyoung Choi , Chun-young Park

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 430-452 (23 pages)

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The recent social atmosphere has been a preference for wood utilization and woodworks. The general public does not have many opportunities to enjoy wood culture, so there is a lack of awareness and foundation of wood culture. In this study, classification and case analysis of wood culture were conducted as basic research for establishing a promotion strategy for the general public to enjoy wood culture. The specificity of wood culture and cultural resources was analyzed to establish the concept of wood cultural resources. Through the analysis, wood cultural resources were defined as products created as a result of human activities that implied the cultural value of wood and wood use in terms of conservation, discovery, and utilization. The types of wood cultural resources were classified into seven categories using the classification examples performed on cultural resources: cultural heritage, cultural facilities, cultural festival, wood architecture, culture contents, culture education, and wood products. In addition, cases were searched and proposed for each type of wood cultural resources.

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6Simultaneous Improvement of Formaldehyde Emission and Adhesion of Medium-Density Fiberboard Bonded with Low-Molar Ratio Urea-Formaldehyde Resins Modified with Nanoclay

저자 : Eko Setio Wibowo , Muhammad Adly Rahandi Lubis , Byung-dae Park

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 453-461 (9 pages)

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In wood-based composite panels, low-molar ratio (LMR) urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins usually result in reduced formaldehyde emission (FE) at the expense of poor adhesion. However, the FE and adhesion of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) bonded with LMR UF resins were both improved in this study. The modified LMR UF resins with transition metal ion-modified bentonite (TMI-BNT) nanoclay simultaneously improved the FE and adhesion of MDF panels. The modified LMR UF resins with 5% TMI-BNT resulted in a 37.1% FE reduction and 102.6% increase in the internal bonding (IB) strength of MDF panels. Furthermore, thickness swelling and water absorption also significantly decreased to 13.0% and 24.9%, respectively. These results imply that TMI-BNT modification of LMR UF resins could enhance the formation of a three-dimensional network rather than crystalline domains, resulting in improved cohesion.

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조선후기 국용목재에 사용된 수종을 파악하기 위하여 영건의궤 조선후기 11종의 영건에 명시된 수종을 분석하였다. 주요 용도로는 궁궐, 제실, 사묘, 성곽의 수리와 보수 공사에 사용된 것으로 파악되었다. 17세기∼20세기 영건의궤에 명시된 수종 중 활엽수재로는 가래나무, 느티나무, 물푸레나무, 박달나무, 오동나무, 참나무류(갈참나무, 굴참나무, 떡갈나무, 상수리나무, 신갈나무, 졸참나무)가 확인되었으며, 침엽수재로는 소나무와 잣나무가 확인되었다. 문화재를 수리할 때에는 동일 수종을 원칙으로 하기 때문에 수종 조사는 중요한 부분이다. 각 수종에 대한 목재해부학적 이미지는 실제 사용된 목부재를 대신해서 국립산림과학원 목재표본실에 소장 되어있는 같은 수종 재감을 활용하였다. 조선후기 영건의궤 편역본을 통하여 목조문화재 건축물에 사용된 주요 수종을 알 수 있었으며, 수리ㆍ보수 시 사용될 목재 수종을 판정하는 데 필요한 목재해부학적 이미지를 마련하였다.


To find out the wood species used in national wood structures in the late Joseon Dynasty, 11 volumes of Yeonggeon-Uigwes were reviewed. It was confirmed that the wood was mainly used for the repair and restoration of palaces, shrines, and fortresses. In the 17th to 20th centuries, the wood species specified in Yeonggeon-Uigwes have revealed either hardwood or softwood. As hardwood species, Juglans mandshurica, Zelkova serrata, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Betula schmidtii, Paulownia coreana, or Quercus spp. (Quercus aliena; Q, variabilis; Q, dentata; Q, acutissima; Q, mongolica; Q, serrata) were used. As softwood species, Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis were used. Investigation of the wood species is important part because the same species is required as a principle when reparing cultural heritage. In this study, the anatomical images of the wood species were investigated for some samples which were taken from the same species that has been stored in the wood specimen room of the National Institute of Forest Science, instead of the actual wood material used. It was possible to find out the wood species of each member in the wooden cultural heritage buildings by reviewing the Yeonggeon-Uigwes in the late Joseon Dynasty, and the anatomical images of the wood species required for determining the wood species in the repair or restoration of the buildings.

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8Hygroscopicity and Ultraviolet (UV) Deterioration Characteristics of Finished Woods

저자 : Ji-yeol Kim , Byung-ro Kim

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 471-481 (11 pages)

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This study investigated the hygroscopicity and UV deterioration characteristics of 3 domestic and 4 imported woods using natural oil, stain, and varnish paints. In terms of hygroscopicity, it was found that the hygroscopicity of the painted wood was lower than that of the unpainted wood, and that as the number of coatings increased, the hygroscopicity decreased. In terms of anti-absorption, oil-based chemical paints showed higher resistance than water-based paints, and natural oils showed results comparable to oil-based paints. As for the UV deterioration, the amount of color change of the painted wood was lower than that of the unpainted wood, and there was no significant difference according to the number of times of painting. The amount of color change was found to be low in oil-based paints and hardwoods. Through this study, we confirmed effective moisture blocking and small color changes during painting using paints, and it is believed that wood can be protected from internal and external defects through selective and efficient painting based on data for excellent painting performance.

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9Effects of Air-Dried Leaves of Evergreen Broad-Leaved Trees on Sound Absorption Property

저자 : Su-young Jung , Ree-keun Kong , Kwang-soo Lee , Hee-seop Byeon

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 482-490 (9 pages)

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This research was conducted to analyze the sound absorption effect of air-dried leaves from two evergreen tree species found in Korea's warm-temperate and subtropical regions. As eco-friendly sound absorption materials, Dendropanax morbiferusa, and Fatsia japonica leaves were prepared in three specimen units sizes 0 .5 × 0 .5㎠, 1 .0 × 1 .0㎠, and 2 .0 × 2 .0 ㎠, and each of them was formed at a thickness of 1.00 cm, 1.75 cm, and 2.50 cm. The measured sound absorption coefficients (SAC) for 18 conditions were comparatively analyzed in this study. The SAC of both tree species was significantly improved by increasing the dried leaf layer thickness. These results showed a more consistent and distinct trend for both tree species under the condition of 0.5 ㎠ in dried leaf size compared to other leaf specimen sizes. However, as the thickness increased, the difference in sound absorption effect according to the leaf size tends to decrease overall. In the case of D. morbiferus, there was no significant difference in SAC based on leaf size under the condition of 2.5 cm thickness (p < 0.05). The highest mean SAC was found in a 2.5 cm thick condition with a leaf size of 0.5 × 0.5㎠, 0.549 for D. morbiferusa, and 0.594 for F. japonica, respectively.

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10Wood Classification of Japanese Fagaceae using Partial Sample Area and Convolutional Neural Networks

저자 : Taufik Fathurahman , P. H. Gunawan , Esa Prakasa , Junji Sugiyama

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 491-503 (13 pages)

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Wood identification is regularly performed by observing the wood anatomy, such as colour, texture, fibre direction, and other characteristics. The manual process, however, could be time consuming, especially when identification work is required at high quantity. Considering this condition, a convolutional neural networks (CNN)-based program is applied to improve the image classification results. The research focuses on the algorithm accuracy and efficiency in dealing with the dataset limitations. For this, it is proposed to do the sample selection process or only take a small portion of the existing image. Still, it can be expected to represent the overall picture to maintain and improve the generalisation capabilities of the CNN method in the classification stages. The experiments yielded an incredible F1 score average up to 93.4% for medium sample area sizes (200 × 200 pixels) on each CNN architecture (VGG16, ResNet50, MobileNet, DenseNet121, and Xception based). Whereas DenseNet121-based architecture was found to be the best architecture in maintaining the generalisation of its model for each sample area size (100, 200, and 300 pixels). The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can be an accurate and reliable solution.

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1표지 및 목차

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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3Soda Pulping of Torch Ginger Stem: Promising Source of Nonwood-Based Cellulose

저자 : Herman Marius ZENDRATO , Yunita Shinta DEVI , Nanang MASRUCHIN , Nyoman J. WISTARA

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 287-298 (12 pages)

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Torch ginger (Etlingera elatior Jack) is a potential source of lignocellulose material for various derivative products. This study aims to determine the chemical components, ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl units (S/G) in lignin, and crystallinity of the biomass of torch ginger. The effects of soda pulping on the chemical characteristics of torch ginger pulp were also studied. Pulping of the chips was conducted with active alkali of 15%, 20%, and 25% and a Liquor-to-Wood (L/W) ratio of 4:1, 5:1, and 6:1. The impregnation and pulping times at maximum temperature (170℃) were 120 and 90 min, respectively. To assess the effect of treatments on the properties of pulping, a two-factorial experimental design was applied. Results showed that the content of α-cellulose and hemicellulose in the torch ginger was 48.48% and 31.50%, respectively, with an S/G ratio of 0.70 in lignin. Soda pulping changed the crystalline structure of the biomass from triclinic to monoclinic. Active alkali, L/W ratio, and interactions considerably influenced the observed responses. The degree of delignification increased with an increase in the loading of active alkali, which lead to a decrease in the kappa number of the pulp. An active alkali content of 25% and an L/W ratio of 6:1 resulted in the highest delignification selectivity with a kappa number of 2.78 and a yield of 24%. Given its cellulose content and ease of pulping, torch ginger can be a potential raw material for derivative products that require delignification as pretreatment. However, the increase in cellulose crystallinity should be considered when converting torch ginger to bioethanol.

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본 연구에서는 리그닌 기반 다공성 탄소(lignin-based porous carbon; LBPC)를 수산화칼륨(KOH)으로 활성화할 때 온도가 비표면적과 전기화학적 특성에 미치는 영향을 알아보았다. 리그닌과 acrylonitrile을 그라프트 중합으로 합성한 리그닌-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 공중합체를 전구체로 하여 LBPC를 제조한 후 LBPC를 KOH로 600, 700, 800, 900℃에서 활성화하여 활성화 처리한 LBPC (KA-LBPC-6, 7, 8, 9)를 제조하였다. KA-LBPC의 표면 특성을 알아보기 위해 주사전자현미경으로 관찰하였으며, 비표면적 분석을 통해 기공 특성을 파악하였다. 전기화학적 특성은 3전극 시스템으로 분석하였다. 실험 결과 SEM 사진상에서 활성화 처리에 의한 미세기공 형성을 관찰하였다. KA-LBPC-7의 비표면적은 2480.1 ㎡/g, 미세기공 부피는 0.64 ㎤/g, 중기공 부피는 0.76 ㎤/g으로 KA-LBPC 중에서 가장 좋은 기공 특성을 보였다. 전기화학적 특성 역시 2 mV/s의 주사속도에서 비정전용량이 151.3 F/g이었던 KA-LBPC-7이 가장 좋은 것으로 나타났다.

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본 연구에서는 제재부산물인 톱밥과 농업부산물인 왕겨의 이용방안을 검토하고자 친환경재료인 숯을 첨가하여 밀도별, 혼합비율별로 혼합보드를 제조하고 휨성능을 조사하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 톱밥과 왕겨 및 숯의 첨가율을 50:20:20, 수지첨가율을 10%로하여 밀도별로 제조한 혼합보드의 밀도가 0.5 g/㎤에서 0.7 g/㎤로 증가할수록 휨강도는 0.42∼3.24 N/㎟, 동적탄성계수는 94.5∼888.4 N/㎟ 그리고 정적탄성계수는 31.4∼220.7 N/㎟의 범위를 나타내, 밀도가 증가할수록 휨성능이 증가하여 밀도가 휨성능에 크게 영향을 끼쳤다. 밀도 0.6 g/㎤, 톱밥첨가율을 50%로 하고, 왕겨와 숯의 첨가율을 달리하여 제조한 보드에서 숯의 첨가율이 증가할수록 휨성능이 감소하는 경향을 나타냈다. 왕겨 및 숯의 첨가율과 휨강도, 공진주파수, 동적 및 정적 휨 탄성계수사이의 관계는 결정계수의 값(R2)은 각각 0.4562, 0.4310, 0.4589, 0.5847으로 다소 낮은 상관관계를 나타내 첨가율이 휨성능에 끼치는 영향은 적은 것을 알 수 있었다.

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6Preprocessing Miscanthus sacchariflorus with Combination System of Cone Grinder and Air Classifier

저자 : Hyoung-Woo LEE , Chang-Deuk EOM

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 328-335 (8 pages)

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Considerable differences exist in the characteristics of size reduction and classification because of biomass species. Miscanthus sacchariflorus (M. sacchariflorus) Goedae-Uksae 1 is not used efficiently because of the imperfections of the processing technology for this biomass. Therefore, for the best use of specific biomass, improvement in the feedstock preparation of the biomass for processing, such as pellet manufacturing, is necessary. In this study, a laboratory-scale cone grinder and air classifier were designed and combined to investigate the performance of the combination system for M. sacchariflorus. The average equivalent spherical diameter of particles showed a close relationship with air velocity for air classification. The air velocity range to classify proper particles for pelletization was determined to be 6.0-6.8 m/s. The mass ratios of the collected particles to feed mass for four lengths of chopped M. sacchariflorus were 45.1%:46.1%, 39.1%:46.6%, and 44.1%:52.8% at the first, second, and third steps in simulating the multistep combination system, respectively.

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본 연구는 고층 목조건축에 사용되는 대형 목재 패널인 CLT의 낮은 rolling shear strength를 개선하기 위해 hybrid CLT의 연구 개발 동향을 분석하였다. 이를 통해 CLT의 국산화를 위한 연구개발 방향에 활용 가능한 기초자료를 마련하고자 하였고, 낮은 rolling shear strength를 향상시키기 위한 방안으로 활엽수 층재 사용, 층재 배열 각도 변화, 구조용 목질복합체의 사용이 주를 이루고 있다. 활엽수 층재는 침엽수 보다 rolling shear strength와 shear modulus 모두 2배 이상의 높은 값을 나타내므로 활엽수 층재 사용 및 미이용 수종의 활용이 가능함을 확인하였다. 층재 배열 각도 변화에 따라 rolling shear stength 1.5배, shear modulus 8.3배, bending stiffness 4.1배 향상되어 층재 배열 각도를 감소시킴으로써 CLT 강도 향상을 확인하였다. 구조용 목질재료는 기존에 강도성능이 확보된 재료로 층재로 사용하였을 때 최대 MOR 1.35배, MOE 1.5배, rolling shear strength 2배 향상되었고, 층재 간의 접착강도 또한 집성재 블록전단강도 기준인 7.0 N/mm²을 확보할 수 있었다. 선행연구 결과를 통해 MOE 7.0 GPa, MOR 40.0 MPa 이상의 휨 특성을 가진 구조용 목질재료를 사용하였을 때 강도성능이 향상됨을 확인하였다. 이를 통해 구조용 목질재료 층재 강도 기준으로 판단하였다. rolling shear strength 개선하기 위한 최적의 방법은 기존 규격에 의한 강도값을 가진 구조용 목질재료의 적용이 가장 유리할 것으로 판단하나, 구조용 목질재료의 섬유 배열에 따른 CLT 층재 배열 방향, 층재 간 접착 강도 등에 대한 추가적인 연구가 필요하다.

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본 연구는 거대억새의 활용방안을 찾기 위하여 거대억새 파티클로 보드를 제조한 다음 페놀수지를 함침한 후 수지함침율이 30 ± 2%, 40 ± 2%, 50 ± 2%, 60 ± 2% 인 함침보드를 탄화온도 800℃로 탄화하여 수지함침율에 따라 밀도 및 역학적 성질을 조사하였다. 밀도, 휨강도성능, Brinell경도 및 압축강도는 수지함침율이 증가 할수록 증가하여 거대억새 파티클로 제조된 세라믹의 물리 및 역학적 성질에 영향을 주었다.

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9Cytotoxic Evaluation of the Essential Oils from Korean Native Plant on Human Skin and Lung Cells

저자 : Changhwan AHN , Yeong-Min YOO , Mi-Jin PARK , Youngseok HAM , Jiyoon YANG , Eui-Bae JEUNG

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 371-383 (13 pages)

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Plant essential oils are used in products such as fragrances and cosmetics due to their individual aromatic characteristics. Currently, essential oils are not only used in cosmetics but also in pharmaceutical products with anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, psychophysiological, or anti-aging effects. Despite their pharmaceutical properties, some studies reported cytotoxic effects in high doses. Therefore, for pharmaceutical purposes, the margin of safety of essential oils needs to be examined. Herein, we evaluated the IC50 of 10 essential oil from Korean native plants: Juniperus chinensis L. var. sargentii Henry, Citrus natsudaidai Hayata, Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus unshiu (Yu. Tanaka ex Swingle) Marcow, Artemisia capillaris Thunb, Aster glehnii F. Schmidt, Juniperus chinensis L, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold & Zucc, Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) D, and Cinnamomum loureirii. In addition, gene regulation of the cell-cycle gene and apoptosis marker CASP3 was examined at the IC50 level. The purpose of this study was to describe the toxic concentrations of essential oils extracted from Korean native plants, thereby providing toxic concentration guidelines for inclusion in a toxicity database and in the application of plant essential oils in various fields.

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10The Effect of Wood Extract as a Water-Soluble Fertilizer in the Growth of Lactuca sativa

저자 : Ji Young JUNG , Si Young HA , Jae-Kyung YANG

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 384-393 (10 pages)

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Recently, due to environmental and toxicity issues, there has been increasing attention on research regarding natural products that can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Wood extracts derived from the biorefining process contain various fertilizer ingredients. HPLC analysis revealed that wood extract contains approximately 5.2% hemicellulosic sugar. The growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) upon treatment with wood extract (extract obtained from steam-exploded pine) or water-soluble fertilizers containing different nutrients was analyzed in this study. After two weeks, the growth characteristics of lettuce as affected by wood extract or water-soluble fertilizers were significantly different. The effect of water-soluble fertilizers containing ascorbic acid, magnesium sulfate, citric acid, potassium nitrate, amino acids, or seaweed extract was less desirable than that of wood extracts regarding plant height (18.6 cm), number of leaves (10), leaf length (14.1 cm), shoot fresh wight (9.8 g/plant), root fresh weight (0.8 g/plant) and shoot dry weight (0.6 g/plant). The plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, shoot fresh wight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight of water-soluble fertilizers containing wood extract were significantly different compared to the control (plant height :13.5 cm, number of leaves : 7, leaf length : 9.4 cm, shoot fresh wight : 5.3 g/plant, root fresh weight : 0.7 g/plant, shoot dry weight : 0.4 g/plant, root dry weight : 0.07 g/plant). From these results, it was concluded that wood extract can be used as a potential water-soluble fertilizer to increase the yield of leafy vegetables.

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