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한국환경농학회> 한국환경농학회지> 축산물 중 CS2 포집방법을 이용한 Dithiocarbamate계 살균제 분석법 개발 및 검증

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축산물 중 CS2 포집방법을 이용한 Dithiocarbamate계 살균제 분석법 개발 및 검증

Development and Validation of Dithiocarbamates Fungicide Analytical Method using CS2 Trap Method in Livestock Product

조형욱 ( Hyeong-wook Jo ) , 선정훈 ( Jung-hun Sun ) , 허효민 ( Hyo-min Heo ) , 이상협 ( Sang-hyeob Lee ) , 김장억 ( Jang-eok Kim ) , 문준관 ( Joon-kwan Moon )
  • : 한국환경농학회
  • : 한국환경농학회지 40권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 06월
  • : 127-133(7pages)
한국환경농학회지

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서 론
재료 및 방법
결과 및 고찰
Note
Acknowledgment
References

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BACKGROUND: Dithiocarbamte fungicides have been used in crop cultivation for diseases protection and treatment. And cultivated agricultrual products were used as feedstuff, and residual pesticides are likely to be absorbed and transferred to livestock. But the maximum residue limits (MRLs) were not established for dithiocarbate fungicides in livestock products, and thus an analysis method was developed and validated for dithiocarbamate fungicides to establish MRLs.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples were prepared using CS2 trap method and detected with UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Calibration line (0.1 ∼ 10 ㎍/mL) was linear with r2 > 0.99. For validation, the recovery tests were carried out at three fortification levels (MLOQ, 10 MLOQ and 50 MLOQ) from livestock samples (egg, milk, beef, pork, and chicken). The results for mancozeb, propineb, and thiram ranged between 76.8 to 109.6%, 79.4 to 108.8%, and 80.2 to 107.8%, respectively and % RSD (relative standard deviation) values were below 9.5%. Furthermore, inter-laboratory analysis was performed to validate the method.
CONCLUSION: All values were corresponded with the criteria ranges requested by both the CODEX (CAC/GL 40-1993, 2003) and MFDS guidelines (2016). This might be used as an official analytical method for determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides at established MRLs and monitoring.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 농학분야  > 농화학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1225-3537
  • : 2233-4173
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1982-2021
  • : 1662


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11년생 '대능' 대추 회초리 묘목 재식 시 주간 절단 정도 설정

저자 : 조이혁 ( Lee-hyuk Cho ) , 사공동훈 ( Dong-hoon Sagong )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 73-82 (10 pages)

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BACKGROUND: The successful management of jujube trees depends on maintaining a balance between reproductive and vegetative growth. In general, heading cuts of trunk stimulate rather vegetative growth, but could decrease flower initiation. This study was conducted to establish a heading-back pruning severities at planting in the one year old 'Daeneung' jujube whip nursery tree by investigating vegetative growth and fruit yield.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The heading back pruning severity was assigned as 5 different ranges as follow: one bud (TR-10, heading back pruning was 10 cm above the ground), three buds (TR-30), five buds (TR-50), seven buds (TR-70), and nine buds (TR-90) were left of scion. The number of buds on whip trunk was correlated to the central leader length and increment of trunk cross-sectional area, negatively, and to the tree height and canopy volume, positively. The yields in the TR-50 treatment were higher about 2 times than other treatments. The fruit diameter was not significantly different among the treatments.
CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the optimum location of heading-back pruning in one year old 'Daeneung' jujube tree was 50 cm above the ground as evaluated by the balance of reproductive and vegetative growth.

KCI등재

2석탄회를 이용한 염류집적 토양 개선과 작물 생육 증진

저자 : 이종철 ( Jong Cheol Lee ) , 오세진 ( Se Jin Oh ) , 강민우 ( Min Woo Kang ) , 김영현 ( Young Hyun Kim ) , 김동진 ( Dong Jin Kim ) , 이상수 ( Sang Soo Lee )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 83-91 (9 pages)

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본 연구는 폐자원 재활용 측면에서 농업적 유용활용(beneficial use)이 가능할 것으로 판단되는 영가철과 석탄회로 제조한 토양개량제를 투입하여 토양 염류 농도와 작물 생산량에 미치는 영향을 배양시험과 재배시험으로 평가하였다. 토양개량제는 석탄회를 구형으로 제형하고 영가철이 함유된 용액(0.1, 1.0%)을 표면에 살포하여 제조하였다. 토양개량제는 밭토양으로 충진된 와그너포트에 40 g/10a과 400 g/10a를 처리하였고, 30일 간 배양한 후 토양 EC와 염 농도를 분석하였다. 토양의 EC는 400 g/10a 실험구에서 대조구 대비 약 50% 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 국내 대표적인 염류인 유효인산의 경우 개량제의 처리 후 1/3 수준으로 감소되었다. 개량제 처리에 따른 토양 내 EC와 염 농도의 감소는 매우 유의한 수준으로 분석되었다(r=0.672~0.985). 또한 개량제 처리 후 뿌리와 줄기의 생육은 약 10% 증가였고, 건중량 또한 대조구에 비해 줄기와 뿌리에서 각각 30-50%와 60-75% 유의하게 증가하였다. 석탄회와 영가철을 농업용 토양개량제로 재활용 할 경우 농업 환경 개선뿐만 아니라 농업 생산성 증대에도 기여할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.


BACKGROUND: Cultivation area using agricultural plastic film facilities in Korea is rapidly increasing every year; however, it accelerates the salt accumulation in soils due to repeated cultivation and excessive use of chemical fertilizers. Coal ash contains various trace elements and has high potential to be used in agricultural purposes. This research was aimed to improve the quality of salts-accumulated soils and crop growth grown in the plastic film facilities using the soil amendment derived from coal ash and zero-valent iron powder.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Soil amendment used in the study was manufactured using coal ash with iron powder and subjected to a typical upland soil for soil quality enhancement and two salts-accumulated soils for crop growth. After one month incubation of the salts-accumulated soils treated with the soil amendment, soil pH increased significantly and soil EC decreased by approximately 50%, compared to the control or the treatment without the soil amendment. Since the soil salts' concentration is proportional to EC, the subjected soil amendment can be proposed as an effective way to overcome soil salts accumulation in agricultural plastic film facilities. For crop growth, the length of roots and stems increased by approximately 10% and the dry weight also increased by a maximum of 75%, compared to the control.
CONCLUSION: The soil amendment made from waste resources such as coal ash and zero-valent iron was found to not only be effective in improving salt-accumulated soils and crop yield but also be safe against harmful heavy metals.

KCI등재

3전작물 재배를 위해 토양에 혼화처리된 Ethoprophos의 후작물 흡수이행

저자 : 곽세연 ( Se-yeon Kwak ) , 이상협 ( Sang-hyeob Lee ) , 김효영 ( Hyo-young Kim ) , 신병곤 ( Byung-gon Shin ) , 김장억 ( Jang-eok Kim )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 92-98 (7 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Unintentional residual pesticide in soil derived from preceding crops and the transfer to succeeding crops was considered a critical barrier for positive list system (PLS). Thus, an uncertain risk is predicted for ethoprophos applied at cultivation of preceding crop (Korean cabbage) to succeeding crop (spinach).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Ethoprophos was treated on soil following the recommended dose and 5 times dose according to the safe use guidelines for Korean cabbage after seeding. On the 4 days after harvesting of preceding crop, spinach was sowed. The initial residual amounts of ethoprophos on soil (7.081-19.493 mg/kg) were decreased to 3.832-7.218 mg/kg until the harvest of Korean cabbage, and then finally decreased to 0.011-0.079 mg/kg after spinach cultivation. The uptake rates of ethoprophos from soil by Korean cabbage were 0.01-0.03% and distributed to root (0.150-0.903 mg/kg) and shoot (0.021-0.151 mg/kg), respectively. The residual amounts of uptake and translocation from preceding crop cultivated soil to spinach edible part were found to be below LOQ.
CONCLUSION: The plant back internal (PBI) for ethoprophos is not recommended during sequential cultivation of leafy vegetables, since the residual amounts of ethoprophos in spinach were less than MRL (0.02 mg/kg).

KCI등재

4Fluopyram의 전작물 유래 및 나지조건 토양잔류성에 기초한 알타리무의 식물식재후방기간

저자 : 김영은 ( Young Eun Kim ) , 윤지현 ( Ji Hyun Yoon ) , 임다정 ( Da Jung Lim ) , 김선욱 ( Seon Wook Kim ) , 조현정 ( Hyunjeong Cho ) , 신병곤 ( Byeung Gon Shin ) , 김효영 ( Hyo Young Kim ) , 김인선 ( In Seon Kim )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 99-107 (9 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Pesticide uptake by a rotational crop after being used for the primary crop is a potential cause of violation against the pesticide law if the pesticide is not registered in the secondary crop. This study was conducted to investigate the plant back interval (PBI) of fluopyram for the rotational cultivation of radish.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Two experimental approaches were performed the evaluation of residues in radish cultivated successively in soil 16 days after treated with fluopyram onto pepper plant (T1) and in radish cultivated in bare soil treated with fluopyram at PBI 30 and PBI 60 days (T2). A modified QuEChERS method coupled with LC/MS/MS analysis showed good linearity of matrixmatched standard calibration of fluopyram with the coefficient values of determination greater than 0.995. Recovery values at levels of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg ranged from average 84.9 to 117.6% with RSD less than 10%. Fluopyram residues in radish harvested from T1 and T2 were found as levels less than maximum residue limit.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests 20~30 days as the PBI of fluopyram for the rotational cultivation of radish in the greenhouse soil treated with fluopyram used for pepper as the primary crop.

KCI등재

5LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Dichlobentiazox 시험법 개발 및 검증

저자 : 구선영 ( Sun Young Gu ) , 이한솔 ( Han Sol Lee ) , 박지수 ( Ji-su Park ) , 이수정 ( Su Jung Lee ) , 신혜선 ( Hye-sun Shin ) , 강성은 ( Sung Eun Kang ) , 정윤미 ( Yun Mi Chung ) , 최하나 ( Ha Na Choi ) , 윤상순 ( Sang Soon Yoon ) , 정용현 ( Young-hyun Jung ) , 윤혜정 ( Hae Jung Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 108-117 (10 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Dichlobentiazox is a newly registered pesticide in Korea as a triazole fungicide and requires establishment of an official analysis method for the safety management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the residual analysis method of dichlobentiazox for the five representative agricultural products.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Three QuEChERS methods were applied to establish the extraction method, and the EN method was finally selected through the recovery test. In addition, various adsorbent agents were applied to establish the clean-up method. As a result, it was found that the recovery of the tested pesticide was reduced when using the d-SPE method with PSA and GCB, but C18 showed an excellent recovery. Therefore this method was established as the final analysis method. For the analysis, LC-MS/MS was used with consideration of the selectivity and sensitivity of the target pesticide and was operated in MRM mode. The results of the recovery test using the established analysis method and inter laboratory validation showed a valid range of 70-120%, with standard deviation and coefficient of variation of less than 3.0% and 11.6%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Dichlobentiazox could be analyzed with a modified QuEChERS method, and the method determined would be widely available to ensure the safety of residual pesticides in Korea.

KCI등재

6충북지역 생산단계 수삼 중 잔류농약 모니터링 및 위해성 평가(2019)

저자 : 송태화 ( Tae Hwa Song ) , 이영욱 ( Young Wook Lee ) , 윤택한 ( Taek Han Youn ) , 박은아 ( Eun A Park ) , 심은선 ( Eun Sun Shim ) , 이주희 ( Ju Hee Lee ) , 경기성 ( Kee Sung Kyung )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 118-126 (9 pages)

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BACKGROUND: It is very important to monitor the residual characteristics of pesticides in pre-harvest fresh ginseng to ensure consumer safety.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight fresh ginseng samples were collected from 8 ginseng-growing fields 10 days before harvest and pesticide residues in fresh ginseng with and without rhizome (head of ginseng) and rhizome were analyzed for 320 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. As a result of the pesticide residue analysis, the number of pesticides detected from the fresh ginseng with rhizome, that without rhizome and rhizome were 26, 25, and 40, respectively, indicating that high number of pesticides found in rhizome, compared with the other parts. Pyraclostrobin was detected with the highest frequency in all samples, reaching to 21.2% in fresh ginseng with rhizome, 16.8% in that without rhizome, and 14.8% in rhizome.
CONCLUSION: The residue levels of pesticides detected did not exceed their maximum residue limits, in spite of residual data in fresh ginseng before harvest. The amounts of the estimated daily intakes of all the detected pesticides were found to be from 0.018 to 1.818% of their acceptable daily intakes, indicating that concentrations of pesticides detected from fresh ginseng with and without rhizome collected before harvest do not pose the immediate health risks.

KCI등재

7축산물 중 CS2 포집방법을 이용한 Dithiocarbamate계 살균제 분석법 개발 및 검증

저자 : 조형욱 ( Hyeong-wook Jo ) , 선정훈 ( Jung-hun Sun ) , 허효민 ( Hyo-min Heo ) , 이상협 ( Sang-hyeob Lee ) , 김장억 ( Jang-eok Kim ) , 문준관 ( Joon-kwan Moon )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 127-133 (7 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Dithiocarbamte fungicides have been used in crop cultivation for diseases protection and treatment. And cultivated agricultrual products were used as feedstuff, and residual pesticides are likely to be absorbed and transferred to livestock. But the maximum residue limits (MRLs) were not established for dithiocarbate fungicides in livestock products, and thus an analysis method was developed and validated for dithiocarbamate fungicides to establish MRLs.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples were prepared using CS2 trap method and detected with UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Calibration line (0.1 ∼ 10 ㎍/mL) was linear with r2 > 0.99. For validation, the recovery tests were carried out at three fortification levels (MLOQ, 10 MLOQ and 50 MLOQ) from livestock samples (egg, milk, beef, pork, and chicken). The results for mancozeb, propineb, and thiram ranged between 76.8 to 109.6%, 79.4 to 108.8%, and 80.2 to 107.8%, respectively and % RSD (relative standard deviation) values were below 9.5%. Furthermore, inter-laboratory analysis was performed to validate the method.
CONCLUSION: All values were corresponded with the criteria ranges requested by both the CODEX (CAC/GL 40-1993, 2003) and MFDS guidelines (2016). This might be used as an official analytical method for determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides at established MRLs and monitoring.

KCI등재

8축산물 중 살균제 Chinomethionat의 개별 잔류분석법 확립

저자 : 양승현 ( Seung-hyun Yang ) , 김정한 ( Jeong-han Kim ) , 최훈 ( Hoon Choi )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 134-141 (8 pages)

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본 연구는 축산물 중 퀴녹사린계 살균제 chinomethionat의 잔류분석법을 확립하였다. 소고기, 돼지고기, 닭고기, 우유, 계란을 대표 시료로 선정하고 GC-ECD를 이용한 chinomethionat 단성분 정량 시험법을 개발하였다. 축산물 중 chinomethionat 잔류물을 acetone/dichloromethane (9/1, v/v)로 추출하고 추출첨가제 MgSO4 및 NaCl을 첨가한 후, dichloromethane로 분배하고 Florisil 흡착제로 정제하였다. 축산물 중 chinomethionat 정량한계는 0.02 mg/kg으로 결정되었으며, MLOQ 수준의 회수율은 84.8-100.9%, MLOQ 10배 수준에서는 85.7-103.0%의 우수한 회수율을 보였으며, 분석오차는 최대 5.2%로 재현성 역시 양호하였다. 본 연구에서 확립한 chinomethionat의 잔류분석법은 국내·외 축산물의 잔류농약 검사 및 분석에 적용 가능할 것으로 기대된다.


BACKGROUND: The analytical method was established for determination of fungicide chinomethionat in several animal commodities using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with electron capture detector (ECD).
METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to verify the applicability, the method was optimized for determining chinomethonat in various livestock products including beef, pork, chicken, milk and egg. Chinomethionat residual was extracted using acetone/dichloromethane(9/1, v/v) with magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride (salting outassociated liquid-liquid extraction). The extract was diluted by direct partitioning into dichloromethane to remove polar co-extractives in the aqueous phase. The extract was finally purified with optimized silica gel 10 g.
CONCLUSION: The method limit of quantitation (MLOQ) was 0.02 mg/kg, which was in accordance with the maximum residue level (MRL) of chinomathionate as 0.05 mg/kg in livestock product. Recovery tests were carried out at two levels of concentration (MLOQ, 10 MLOQ) and resulted in good recoveries (84.8~103.0%). Reproducibilities were obtained (Coefficient of variation <5.2%), and the linearity of calibration curves were reasonable (r2>0.995) in the range of 0.01-0.2 μg/mL. This established analytical method was fully validated and could be useful for quantification of chinomathionat in animal commodities as official analytical method.

KCI등재

9축산물 중 Thiodicarb와 대사산물 Methomyl의 동시분석법개발

저자 : 장희라 ( Hee-ra Chang ) , 유정선 ( Jung-sun You ) , 반선우 ( Sun-woo Ban ) , 곽혜민 ( Hye-min Gwak )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 142-147 (6 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Agricultural use and pest control purposes of pesticides may lead to livestock products contamination. Thiodicarb and its degraded product, methomyl, are carbamate insecticides that protect soya bean, maize, fruit, and vegetables and control flies in animal and poultry farms. For maximum residue limit enforcement and monitoring, the JMPR residue definition of thiodicarb in animal products is the sum of thiodicarb and methomyl, expressed as methomyl. This residue definition was set to consider the fact that thiodicarb was readily degraded to methomyl in animal commodities. And therefore the simultaneous analytical method of thiodicarb and methomyl is required for monitoring in livestock products.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and HPLC-MS/MS to determine the thiodicarb and methomyl in livestock products. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg for livestock products, including beef, pork, chicken, milk, and egg. The coefficient of determinations (r2) for the calibration curve were > 0.99, which was acceptable values for linearity. Average recoveries at spiked levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, and 50LOQ, n=5) in triplicate ranged from 73.2% to 102.1% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10% in all matrices.
CONCLUSION: The analytical method was validated for the performance parameters (specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision) in livestock products to be acceptable by the CODEX guidelines.

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11년생 '대능' 대추 회초리 묘목 재식 시 주간 절단 정도 설정

저자 : 조이혁 ( Lee-hyuk Cho ) , 사공동훈 ( Dong-hoon Sagong )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 73-82 (10 pages)

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BACKGROUND: The successful management of jujube trees depends on maintaining a balance between reproductive and vegetative growth. In general, heading cuts of trunk stimulate rather vegetative growth, but could decrease flower initiation. This study was conducted to establish a heading-back pruning severities at planting in the one year old 'Daeneung' jujube whip nursery tree by investigating vegetative growth and fruit yield.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The heading back pruning severity was assigned as 5 different ranges as follow: one bud (TR-10, heading back pruning was 10 cm above the ground), three buds (TR-30), five buds (TR-50), seven buds (TR-70), and nine buds (TR-90) were left of scion. The number of buds on whip trunk was correlated to the central leader length and increment of trunk cross-sectional area, negatively, and to the tree height and canopy volume, positively. The yields in the TR-50 treatment were higher about 2 times than other treatments. The fruit diameter was not significantly different among the treatments.
CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the optimum location of heading-back pruning in one year old 'Daeneung' jujube tree was 50 cm above the ground as evaluated by the balance of reproductive and vegetative growth.

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2석탄회를 이용한 염류집적 토양 개선과 작물 생육 증진

저자 : 이종철 ( Jong Cheol Lee ) , 오세진 ( Se Jin Oh ) , 강민우 ( Min Woo Kang ) , 김영현 ( Young Hyun Kim ) , 김동진 ( Dong Jin Kim ) , 이상수 ( Sang Soo Lee )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 83-91 (9 pages)

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본 연구는 폐자원 재활용 측면에서 농업적 유용활용(beneficial use)이 가능할 것으로 판단되는 영가철과 석탄회로 제조한 토양개량제를 투입하여 토양 염류 농도와 작물 생산량에 미치는 영향을 배양시험과 재배시험으로 평가하였다. 토양개량제는 석탄회를 구형으로 제형하고 영가철이 함유된 용액(0.1, 1.0%)을 표면에 살포하여 제조하였다. 토양개량제는 밭토양으로 충진된 와그너포트에 40 g/10a과 400 g/10a를 처리하였고, 30일 간 배양한 후 토양 EC와 염 농도를 분석하였다. 토양의 EC는 400 g/10a 실험구에서 대조구 대비 약 50% 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 국내 대표적인 염류인 유효인산의 경우 개량제의 처리 후 1/3 수준으로 감소되었다. 개량제 처리에 따른 토양 내 EC와 염 농도의 감소는 매우 유의한 수준으로 분석되었다(r=0.672~0.985). 또한 개량제 처리 후 뿌리와 줄기의 생육은 약 10% 증가였고, 건중량 또한 대조구에 비해 줄기와 뿌리에서 각각 30-50%와 60-75% 유의하게 증가하였다. 석탄회와 영가철을 농업용 토양개량제로 재활용 할 경우 농업 환경 개선뿐만 아니라 농업 생산성 증대에도 기여할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.

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3전작물 재배를 위해 토양에 혼화처리된 Ethoprophos의 후작물 흡수이행

저자 : 곽세연 ( Se-yeon Kwak ) , 이상협 ( Sang-hyeob Lee ) , 김효영 ( Hyo-young Kim ) , 신병곤 ( Byung-gon Shin ) , 김장억 ( Jang-eok Kim )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 92-98 (7 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Unintentional residual pesticide in soil derived from preceding crops and the transfer to succeeding crops was considered a critical barrier for positive list system (PLS). Thus, an uncertain risk is predicted for ethoprophos applied at cultivation of preceding crop (Korean cabbage) to succeeding crop (spinach).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Ethoprophos was treated on soil following the recommended dose and 5 times dose according to the safe use guidelines for Korean cabbage after seeding. On the 4 days after harvesting of preceding crop, spinach was sowed. The initial residual amounts of ethoprophos on soil (7.081-19.493 mg/kg) were decreased to 3.832-7.218 mg/kg until the harvest of Korean cabbage, and then finally decreased to 0.011-0.079 mg/kg after spinach cultivation. The uptake rates of ethoprophos from soil by Korean cabbage were 0.01-0.03% and distributed to root (0.150-0.903 mg/kg) and shoot (0.021-0.151 mg/kg), respectively. The residual amounts of uptake and translocation from preceding crop cultivated soil to spinach edible part were found to be below LOQ.
CONCLUSION: The plant back internal (PBI) for ethoprophos is not recommended during sequential cultivation of leafy vegetables, since the residual amounts of ethoprophos in spinach were less than MRL (0.02 mg/kg).

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4Fluopyram의 전작물 유래 및 나지조건 토양잔류성에 기초한 알타리무의 식물식재후방기간

저자 : 김영은 ( Young Eun Kim ) , 윤지현 ( Ji Hyun Yoon ) , 임다정 ( Da Jung Lim ) , 김선욱 ( Seon Wook Kim ) , 조현정 ( Hyunjeong Cho ) , 신병곤 ( Byeung Gon Shin ) , 김효영 ( Hyo Young Kim ) , 김인선 ( In Seon Kim )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 99-107 (9 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Pesticide uptake by a rotational crop after being used for the primary crop is a potential cause of violation against the pesticide law if the pesticide is not registered in the secondary crop. This study was conducted to investigate the plant back interval (PBI) of fluopyram for the rotational cultivation of radish.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Two experimental approaches were performed the evaluation of residues in radish cultivated successively in soil 16 days after treated with fluopyram onto pepper plant (T1) and in radish cultivated in bare soil treated with fluopyram at PBI 30 and PBI 60 days (T2). A modified QuEChERS method coupled with LC/MS/MS analysis showed good linearity of matrixmatched standard calibration of fluopyram with the coefficient values of determination greater than 0.995. Recovery values at levels of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg ranged from average 84.9 to 117.6% with RSD less than 10%. Fluopyram residues in radish harvested from T1 and T2 were found as levels less than maximum residue limit.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests 20~30 days as the PBI of fluopyram for the rotational cultivation of radish in the greenhouse soil treated with fluopyram used for pepper as the primary crop.

KCI등재

5LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Dichlobentiazox 시험법 개발 및 검증

저자 : 구선영 ( Sun Young Gu ) , 이한솔 ( Han Sol Lee ) , 박지수 ( Ji-su Park ) , 이수정 ( Su Jung Lee ) , 신혜선 ( Hye-sun Shin ) , 강성은 ( Sung Eun Kang ) , 정윤미 ( Yun Mi Chung ) , 최하나 ( Ha Na Choi ) , 윤상순 ( Sang Soon Yoon ) , 정용현 ( Young-hyun Jung ) , 윤혜정 ( Hae Jung Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 108-117 (10 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Dichlobentiazox is a newly registered pesticide in Korea as a triazole fungicide and requires establishment of an official analysis method for the safety management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the residual analysis method of dichlobentiazox for the five representative agricultural products.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Three QuEChERS methods were applied to establish the extraction method, and the EN method was finally selected through the recovery test. In addition, various adsorbent agents were applied to establish the clean-up method. As a result, it was found that the recovery of the tested pesticide was reduced when using the d-SPE method with PSA and GCB, but C18 showed an excellent recovery. Therefore this method was established as the final analysis method. For the analysis, LC-MS/MS was used with consideration of the selectivity and sensitivity of the target pesticide and was operated in MRM mode. The results of the recovery test using the established analysis method and inter laboratory validation showed a valid range of 70-120%, with standard deviation and coefficient of variation of less than 3.0% and 11.6%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Dichlobentiazox could be analyzed with a modified QuEChERS method, and the method determined would be widely available to ensure the safety of residual pesticides in Korea.

KCI등재

6충북지역 생산단계 수삼 중 잔류농약 모니터링 및 위해성 평가(2019)

저자 : 송태화 ( Tae Hwa Song ) , 이영욱 ( Young Wook Lee ) , 윤택한 ( Taek Han Youn ) , 박은아 ( Eun A Park ) , 심은선 ( Eun Sun Shim ) , 이주희 ( Ju Hee Lee ) , 경기성 ( Kee Sung Kyung )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 118-126 (9 pages)

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BACKGROUND: It is very important to monitor the residual characteristics of pesticides in pre-harvest fresh ginseng to ensure consumer safety.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight fresh ginseng samples were collected from 8 ginseng-growing fields 10 days before harvest and pesticide residues in fresh ginseng with and without rhizome (head of ginseng) and rhizome were analyzed for 320 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. As a result of the pesticide residue analysis, the number of pesticides detected from the fresh ginseng with rhizome, that without rhizome and rhizome were 26, 25, and 40, respectively, indicating that high number of pesticides found in rhizome, compared with the other parts. Pyraclostrobin was detected with the highest frequency in all samples, reaching to 21.2% in fresh ginseng with rhizome, 16.8% in that without rhizome, and 14.8% in rhizome.
CONCLUSION: The residue levels of pesticides detected did not exceed their maximum residue limits, in spite of residual data in fresh ginseng before harvest. The amounts of the estimated daily intakes of all the detected pesticides were found to be from 0.018 to 1.818% of their acceptable daily intakes, indicating that concentrations of pesticides detected from fresh ginseng with and without rhizome collected before harvest do not pose the immediate health risks.

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7축산물 중 CS2 포집방법을 이용한 Dithiocarbamate계 살균제 분석법 개발 및 검증

저자 : 조형욱 ( Hyeong-wook Jo ) , 선정훈 ( Jung-hun Sun ) , 허효민 ( Hyo-min Heo ) , 이상협 ( Sang-hyeob Lee ) , 김장억 ( Jang-eok Kim ) , 문준관 ( Joon-kwan Moon )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 127-133 (7 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Dithiocarbamte fungicides have been used in crop cultivation for diseases protection and treatment. And cultivated agricultrual products were used as feedstuff, and residual pesticides are likely to be absorbed and transferred to livestock. But the maximum residue limits (MRLs) were not established for dithiocarbate fungicides in livestock products, and thus an analysis method was developed and validated for dithiocarbamate fungicides to establish MRLs.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples were prepared using CS2 trap method and detected with UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Calibration line (0.1 ∼ 10 ㎍/mL) was linear with r2 > 0.99. For validation, the recovery tests were carried out at three fortification levels (MLOQ, 10 MLOQ and 50 MLOQ) from livestock samples (egg, milk, beef, pork, and chicken). The results for mancozeb, propineb, and thiram ranged between 76.8 to 109.6%, 79.4 to 108.8%, and 80.2 to 107.8%, respectively and % RSD (relative standard deviation) values were below 9.5%. Furthermore, inter-laboratory analysis was performed to validate the method.
CONCLUSION: All values were corresponded with the criteria ranges requested by both the CODEX (CAC/GL 40-1993, 2003) and MFDS guidelines (2016). This might be used as an official analytical method for determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides at established MRLs and monitoring.

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8축산물 중 살균제 Chinomethionat의 개별 잔류분석법 확립

저자 : 양승현 ( Seung-hyun Yang ) , 김정한 ( Jeong-han Kim ) , 최훈 ( Hoon Choi )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 134-141 (8 pages)

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본 연구는 축산물 중 퀴녹사린계 살균제 chinomethionat의 잔류분석법을 확립하였다. 소고기, 돼지고기, 닭고기, 우유, 계란을 대표 시료로 선정하고 GC-ECD를 이용한 chinomethionat 단성분 정량 시험법을 개발하였다. 축산물 중 chinomethionat 잔류물을 acetone/dichloromethane (9/1, v/v)로 추출하고 추출첨가제 MgSO4 및 NaCl을 첨가한 후, dichloromethane로 분배하고 Florisil 흡착제로 정제하였다. 축산물 중 chinomethionat 정량한계는 0.02 mg/kg으로 결정되었으며, MLOQ 수준의 회수율은 84.8-100.9%, MLOQ 10배 수준에서는 85.7-103.0%의 우수한 회수율을 보였으며, 분석오차는 최대 5.2%로 재현성 역시 양호하였다. 본 연구에서 확립한 chinomethionat의 잔류분석법은 국내·외 축산물의 잔류농약 검사 및 분석에 적용 가능할 것으로 기대된다.

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9축산물 중 Thiodicarb와 대사산물 Methomyl의 동시분석법개발

저자 : 장희라 ( Hee-ra Chang ) , 유정선 ( Jung-sun You ) , 반선우 ( Sun-woo Ban ) , 곽혜민 ( Hye-min Gwak )

발행기관 : 한국환경농학회 간행물 : 한국환경농학회지 40권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 142-147 (6 pages)

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BACKGROUND: Agricultural use and pest control purposes of pesticides may lead to livestock products contamination. Thiodicarb and its degraded product, methomyl, are carbamate insecticides that protect soya bean, maize, fruit, and vegetables and control flies in animal and poultry farms. For maximum residue limit enforcement and monitoring, the JMPR residue definition of thiodicarb in animal products is the sum of thiodicarb and methomyl, expressed as methomyl. This residue definition was set to consider the fact that thiodicarb was readily degraded to methomyl in animal commodities. And therefore the simultaneous analytical method of thiodicarb and methomyl is required for monitoring in livestock products.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and HPLC-MS/MS to determine the thiodicarb and methomyl in livestock products. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg for livestock products, including beef, pork, chicken, milk, and egg. The coefficient of determinations (r2) for the calibration curve were > 0.99, which was acceptable values for linearity. Average recoveries at spiked levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, and 50LOQ, n=5) in triplicate ranged from 73.2% to 102.1% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10% in all matrices.
CONCLUSION: The analytical method was validated for the performance parameters (specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision) in livestock products to be acceptable by the CODEX guidelines.

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