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21세기영어영문학회> 영어영문학21> 『오렌지만이 과일은 아니다』에 나타난 전복적 젠더 정체성 ―주디스 버틀러의 퀴어이론을 중심으로

KCI등재

『오렌지만이 과일은 아니다』에 나타난 전복적 젠더 정체성 ―주디스 버틀러의 퀴어이론을 중심으로

Subversive Gender Identity in Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit: On the Basis of Judith Butler’s Queer Theory

이희정 ( Heejung Lee )
  • : 21세기영어영문학회
  • : 영어영문학21 34권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 06월
  • : 71-90(20pages)
영어영문학21

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 남근적 전략을 통한 규범적 젠더의 산출
Ⅲ. 우울증적 젠더 주체
Ⅳ. 규범적 젠더로 묶일 수 없는 복수적 주체
Ⅴ. 여성의 젠더 역할의 전복적 재의미화
Ⅵ. 결론
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The main purpose of this paper is to analyze Jeanette Winterson’s Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit, from the perspective of Judith Butler’s queer theory, particularly using Butler’s views on performativity and melancholia. According to Butler, the radical disjunction between heterosexuality and homosexuality is simply not true: there are structures of psychic homosexuality within heterosexual relations. Therefore, the abjected outside is, after all, no more than the inside of the melancholic subject as its own founding repudiation. For Butler, gender as an identity is a tenuous social construction built through a repetition of stylized acts. Consequently, the postulation of an objective gender identity turns out to be a fiction which regulates behaviors and social roles. Jeanette, the heroine, embarks on a journey of discovering her sexuality, which is in conflict with compulsory heterosexuality. The pain that Jeanette had to endure as a homosexual, as well as her methods of recovery from that pain, takes on an expansive meaning when Butler’s discussion of gender identity is applied to the work. This paper focuses on the possibility of discovering new gender identities through Jeanette, the subject of paradoxical obedience that repeatedly performs gender norms but constantly deviates from consistency in the repetition.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1738-4052
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1982-2021
  • : 1099


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1셸리의 여행 삼부작 『얼래스터』, 『몽블랑』, 그리고 『마렝기』 ―자연으로의 복귀

저자 : 양승갑 ( Sungkap Yang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 5-38 (34 pages)

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This research combines Shelly's three poems Alastor, Mont Blanc and Marenghi into a so called Travel Trilogy. The unprecedented combination allow us to see Shelley's eco-consciousness in a different light. Usually he has been considered as a radical revolutionist, as indicated by one of his representative nickname “meliorist.” Inevitably, the myth around him attributes his eco-consciousness to “Social Ecology,” which finds all reasons for the ecological crises in the human society and seeks the management of them in the system of society.
Conventionally, most quest myths have as their frame the deep-rooted stereotype of “separation-initiation-return.” In combining three poems, this frame provides a meaningful coherence for the combination. The first work, Alastor, which deals with the separation from the anthropocentrism through the travel of a young poet, can be considered to be the first stage of the quest, “separation.” In Mont Blanc, Shelley expresses ecocentrism, provoked by the overwhelming sublimity of the mountain. In many ways, the travel to the mountain is the quest for the inversion of human's superiority over nature. The last travel in Marenghi leads to the complete return to nature and also completes the cycle of the quest myth. Consequently, Shelley's quest in the travel poems results in man's symbiosis in nature.
In these three poems, the trajectory of the travel shows a gradual shift from anthropocentric to ecocentric consciousness. And the Rousseauian return to nature reveals that Shelley is a Romantic forerunner of “Deep Ecology.”

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2밀레니엄 라티나 성모송―코노시미엔토 서사로 읽는 디메트리아 마르티네즈의 『모국어』

저자 : 이승례 ( Seungrae Lee )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 39-66 (28 pages)

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Mother Tongue can be said to be a poetic novel or long prose poem that combines the themes of Latina spirituality, erotics, and activism. This novel, which embodies the author's identity and vision as a political activist, is subversive in that it depicts a colorful decolonial Latina single mother-the Virgin Mary-who desires and acts while resisting the bleached image of the Holy Virgin Mary from colonial imaginary. This study reads Demetria Martinez's postmodern coming of age novel as the Conocimiento Narrative of Gloria Anzaldua, a Latina-style rite of healing and development and focuses particularly on the spiritual journey of the Millennial Goddess-to-be.
The Conocimiento Narrative to acquire the aura of the immortal Guadalupe, transforming from the victim to the spiritual activist, naturally resonates with the author's poem “Hail Mary.” In addition, the herstory of Mother Tongue rewrites the history of the Holy Family and converges it with the aesthetic portrait of the Millennial Virgin Mary.

KCI등재

3릴리언 헬먼의 반파시스트 극 『라인의 감시』와 『스며드는 바람』에 대한 연구 ―여성인물의 도덕적 선택을 중심으로

저자 : 정효숙 ( Hyo Sook Chung )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 67-87 (21 pages)

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This research paper examines the war plays of Lillian Hellman from a feminist perspective, and relates each work in terms of the major female characters. Watch on the Rhine and The Searching Wind are anti-fascist propaganda plays dealing with the background of World WarⅡ. Watch on the Rhine and The Searching Wind are both concerned with the struggle against fascism and the response of middle class Americans to the issue of World War Ⅱ. Hellman's political message is that fascist Germany must be opposed. Despite these political concerns, Hellman always focuses on the individual in her dramas, and the moral choices he or she makes. So this paper not only analyzes the ideological and political situation of Watch on the Rhine and The Searching Wind, but also tries to analyze Hellman's female characters in such an era.
It is obvious Hellman offers Fanny and Sara as role models for American women in the upcoming struggle even though the struggle for women's rights and separate identity is nowhere hinted in Watch on the Rhine. In The Searching Wind, Hellman demonstrated that women could think seriously about large issues, and face moral questions with bravery and maturity, athough Cassie could be seen in a negative light because of the play's depiction of adultery and retaliation. Hellman's plays showed that by participating in the war, albeit in a supporting role, women were able to advance the cause of their own liberation.

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4파울즈의 소설 이론과 소설의 진화

저자 : 황혜리 ( Hyeli Hwang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 89-112 (24 pages)

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John Fowles is one of the representative English writers in the postmodern age of the twentieth century. He is known as an existentialist and metafiction writer in England. Fowles started writing novels in the 1950s. He was interested in human self-consciousness and depictions of himself as a novelist. He also wanted to incorporate both style and theme in his texts.
The theory of evolution emerged in the nineteenth century and influenced English social classism. This theory is the most important criterion to define Fowles's view of his third novel, The French Lieutenant's Woman. Evolution is inherent in this novel in that a novel and a writer need to evolve to survive in times of uncertainty.
Thematically, Fowles criticized the dichotomy of Victorians' attitude in his depiction of the main character Charles Smithson, and parodied the tradition of realist novels to show self-consciousness. Structurally, Fowles appeared directly or indirectly in his novels and presented multiple endings. This feature encouraged readers to intervene in the process of meaning creation with creative works which is a unique structure and narrative style. We can see Fowles's purpose and efforts as crucial elements of the evolution of his novel.

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5A Connecticut Yankee's Individuation: The Collective Unconsciousness of an American Imperialistic Dream

저자 : Yeeun Park

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-132 (20 pages)

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The imperialistic modernization of Hank Morgan from Mark Twain's novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, who embodies the ideals of his period, such as individualism and mechanization depicts a failure in Jungian individuation, a concept of attaining a mature psyche. Hank regards the collectivist feudal Arthurian kingdom symbolizing the collective unconscious as lacking modern individualism developed by mechanization and hence inferior to his own time period. His consequent project of imperialistic modernization serves as a metaphor for American expansion which destroyed Native American communities with modern machines. The Jungian approach to this narrative attaches Hank's individualistic qualities to the psyche's conscious, while collectivistic spirit, an opposing value, is linked to the unconscious. Through the lens of dream analysis, the mythical Arthurian land represents collective unconsciousness in Jung's theory and Hank, the symbol of nineteenth-century America, meets a dire end due to his unconditional repression. In Jungian terms, although the modern individual succeeds in assimilating the anima's values, he does not do so for the shadow. The fact that mechanical America fails to attain individuation because of such neglect in accepting the unconscious realm's collectivistic characteristics holds significant bearing not only upon nineteenth-century America, but also on communities of today where polarization threatens the collective health. Such conflict may ultimately result in a severe resistance endangering the entire community. In this light, the Jungian reading construes a future road to reaching a better community. Understanding the differences between opposites, as within an individual psyche, becomes key to extending the Jungian individuation to a societal level.

KCI등재

6초등 영어 교과서의 의사소통적 활동 분석과 형태 초점 교수를 위한 과업 설계 방안

저자 : 김영현 ( Young Hyun Kim )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 133-153 (21 pages)

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This paper has dual aims. One is to analyze communicative activities included in each period of lessons in Korean elementary school English textbooks for sixth graders, in terms of focused or unfocused tasks for focus on form (FonF) and task-based language teaching (TBLT). The other is to discuss strategies for designing tasks for planned and incidental FonF in elementary school English classrooms. The results of analyzing communicative activities in each period of lessons are as follows: (1) The activities in 1st and 2nd periods are designed based on free production activities of PPP for focus on forms (FonFs) or free activities for task-supported language teaching (TSLT). (2) The activities in 3rd, 4th, and 5th periods are designed based largely on free activities for FonFs or TSLT, but partly reflect some features of focused tasks for planned FonF in that they elicit natural language use but also elicit the use of predetermined linguistic features. The strategies for designing tasks for FonF in elementary school English classrooms are as follows: (1) Focused tasks can be designed to elicit the natural use of what students have learned in previous lessons as well as the intentional use of predetermined language forms. (2) Unfocused tasks can be designed to elicit the free use of language in general that students know or have learned in previous grades rather than the use of specific, predetermined linguistic forms. This study will help elementary school English teachers recognize that both TBLT and FonF are required to enhance students' English fluency and accuracy simultaneously.

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7실시간 쌍방향 원격수업에서 의사소통중심 교수법

저자 : 양소영 ( Soyoung Yang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 155-177 (23 pages)

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This study explores not only Korean college students' perceptions of employing Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in a synchronous online course using Zoom, a videoconferencing tool, but also factors influencing their perceptions. Twenty students, who had low English proficiency taking Practical English III during the COVID-19 pandemic, took part in this study. Data from surveys and individual interviews were collected. Both descriptive analysis of survey data and thematic analysis of interviews with eight volunteers were carried out. The results show that students perceived the Zoom class positively with no preference for pair work or whole class work. In addition, there were two factors affecting students' perceptions: the promotion of authentic interaction and participation in interesting communicative activities. The findings not only support the possibility of adopting CLT in synchronous online settings, but also suggest balancing form-focused and meaning-focused activities for beginners.

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8MOOC 학습활동이 대학생의 영어 학업성취와 자기주도적 학습능력에 미치는 효과

저자 : 윤희정 ( Hee-jeong Yoon )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 179-195 (17 pages)

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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of massive open online course(MOOC) learning based on self-directed learning and academic achievement of college students. For this study, twelve college students were chosen as participants. They were asked to take a MOOC, carry out team-based activities and fill in a self-reflection log of their learning over 15 weeks. The data consisted of shortened TOEIC practice tests(only 100 items) which were conducted at the beginning and end of the study period, self-directed learning ability questions, and students' learning logs. The results of this study have been showed as follows; First, there was meaningful improvement in English academic achievement based on listening and reading comprehension scores. Second, there were positive changes in self-directed learning ability. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of MOOC learning over a longer period to boost self-directed learning ability with instructor feedback.

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1『추락』에서 신뢰할 수 없는 화자가 전하는 서사 뒤집기

저자 : 강윤숙 ( Yoonsook Kang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 5-22 (18 pages)

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This paper explores the voice of J. M. Coetzee, the real narrator of his novel Disgrace, as he modifies and turns over the narrative described by the unreliable third-person narrator David Lurie. Coetzee deftly overlaps with the racist protagonist, focusing on Melanie and Isaacs. The first section of this paper examines the meanings of Coetzee's deliberately adopted ambiguous point-of-view narrative strategy, noting that the story unfolds in a third-person narrator's point of view but is tilted toward David. The second section analyzes how David's rape of Melanie is distorted in its depiction by the unreliable narrator. The last section traces the twisted portrayal of Isaacs and at the same time explores the other narrative voice created of narrative by Coetzee. The multi-layered narrative of Disgrace shows the reality of white South Africans' refusal to accept the changes after Apartheid and the distorted view of Black people created by the country's troubled history. Coetzee sharply criticizes the reality of South Africa through narrative strategies that realistically express David's racist views and correct them.

KCI등재

2『팔월의 빛』에 생성된 레나의 욕망과 유목적 주체성―근친상간을 넘어서는 리비도

저자 : 김기현 ( Ki-hyun Kim )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 23-50 (28 pages)

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Southern lady codes forbade women to satisfy their desires. Also, Southern lady codes were combined with religion, the patriarchal system, the capitalistic system, racism, etc. Nevertheless, Lena Grove in William Faulkner's Light in August has a positive estimation, which is mostly based on a mythological approach. However, this article will focus on how realistic she is. Lena's journey is for liberty from endless process of these lady codes. Above all, Lena's line of flight can be seen as positive through a mythological approach as well as the positive process of seeking her desire. Also her travel is significant because it helps to build solidarity with minority. Against the opinion of considering Lena to be a fool, this article reveals that she de-territorilizes the Oedipal region so as to seek her desire for an anti-Oedipus. Lena's parents were dead when she was young. She was supported by her brother, who was a married man struggling to survive in poverty. Furthermore, she suffered from hard house-work and Oedipal structure. Lena tries to seek her desire through becoming a sexually liberated woman. she shows the possibility of incest with her brother McKinley Grove by moving through the flow of her libido.

KCI등재

3호주 식민역사의 상징 토끼 울타리―도리스 필킹턴의 『토끼 울타리를 따라가라』

저자 : 이성진 ( Sungjin Lee )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 51-70 (20 pages)

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This paper analyzes the rabbit-proof fence as a symbol of Australian colonial history in Doris Pilkington's Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence. The rabbit-proof fence began with the English colonization of Australia. Through sport hunting, the colonizers wanted to improve their social status as new landed gentries, and the colonial government operated colonial discourse by practicing the “Englishness.”
Just as the white settlers built the fences to control rabbits, they governed Australian Aboriginal people through an assimilation policy. The Australian government, in the name of civilizing Aboriginal people, tried to separate the Stolen Generations and assimilate them into white society. In the process, however, the traditional culture of the indigenous people was disconnected, and the indigenous community was disbanded.

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4『오렌지만이 과일은 아니다』에 나타난 전복적 젠더 정체성 ―주디스 버틀러의 퀴어이론을 중심으로

저자 : 이희정 ( Heejung Lee )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 71-90 (20 pages)

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The main purpose of this paper is to analyze Jeanette Winterson's Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit, from the perspective of Judith Butler's queer theory, particularly using Butler's views on performativity and melancholia. According to Butler, the radical disjunction between heterosexuality and homosexuality is simply not true: there are structures of psychic homosexuality within heterosexual relations. Therefore, the abjected outside is, after all, no more than the inside of the melancholic subject as its own founding repudiation. For Butler, gender as an identity is a tenuous social construction built through a repetition of stylized acts. Consequently, the postulation of an objective gender identity turns out to be a fiction which regulates behaviors and social roles. Jeanette, the heroine, embarks on a journey of discovering her sexuality, which is in conflict with compulsory heterosexuality. The pain that Jeanette had to endure as a homosexual, as well as her methods of recovery from that pain, takes on an expansive meaning when Butler's discussion of gender identity is applied to the work. This paper focuses on the possibility of discovering new gender identities through Jeanette, the subject of paradoxical obedience that repeatedly performs gender norms but constantly deviates from consistency in the repetition.

KCI등재

5마녀의 해방 ―「뉴잉글랜드의 수녀」에 나타난 뉴잉글랜드 지역주의

저자 : 장기윤 ( Ki Yoon Jang )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 91-117 (27 pages)

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“A New England Nun” is considered Mary E. Wilkins Freeman's most representative work. Though she wrote numerous short stories, this one particularly serves as a marker of how scholarly views of Freeman's literary disposition have been formulated. Freeman first earned her reputation as one of the bestselling female local-color writers who dominated the American literary market in the latter half of the 19th century. But she was soon forgotten during the burgeoning American literary scholarship in the early twentieth century that eventually constructed a white-male-centered canon of national literature. Freeman was rescued out of obscurity and included in the tradition of women's literature by feminist critics in the 1980s and '90s. Since then, Freeman has been a household name of proto-feminist scholarship by virtue of her portrayal of unmarried or widowed women's quiet yet radical pursuit of independence and freedom despite the patriarchal surroundings of hyper-conservative New England rural areas.
Feminist critics contend that they have rediscovered her significance by means of so-called 'literary regionalism,' which proposes that 19th-century American women writers created an alternative 'region' of women's own apart from androcentric society. That criticism is supposed to be a backlash against earlier dismissal of Freeman's work as too localized, too domestic, and thus too feminine. However, it commits one and the same misunderstanding as local-color criticism of Freeman's authorial intention, which in fact attempts to combine the local and the feminine and suggest her own regionalism. This essay aims to prove that intention by reading “A New England Nun” anew as a story of the 'New England witch,' which was an extremely popular literary icon throughout the 19th century that functioned to contain the undesirable―that is, un-Protestant and un-patriarchal― aspects of America and label them as the nation's long-gone past. Such reading will help us comprehend Freeman's keen perception of the much more complex and dynamic realities of New England at the time that were full of energies to lead the modernization of the relationship between individuality and community as well as locality and nationality.

KCI등재

6A Study on the Trauma of 'Forgotten Wars' During America's Golden Age in Toni Morrison's Home

저자 : Michael Emerson Amante

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 119-150 (32 pages)

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This paper examines how the racial trauma experienced by Frank and Ycidra (pronounced Isidra) and discusses the process of their regaining agency as free Black Americans. The racial trauma that Black Americans experienced created psychological oppressions within them revealing undesirable influences and traits in their personalities. Centuries after obtaining freedom from their physical and psychological enslavement, many Black Americans are still stigmatized so much as to possess distorted personalities with the lingering 'memories of trauma.' Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison introduces us to the tumultuous life of siblings, Frank and Ycidra “Cee” Money in her 2012 novel, Home. The sibling's journey back to their hometown in Lotus, Georgia is not without challenging obstacles, which compelled them to reconnect and confront the trauma of their past in a quest of obtaining their agency as free blacks during the American Golden Age. The repulsive memories of racial violence they witnessed during their childhood and the tenacious racism they have to undergo in the US during the 1950s added up in the fragmentation of their agency. For Frank, rescuing Ycidra from the foreboding threat of death from the hands of a white male eugenicists is a form of redemption and healing from the emasculation he experienced. For Ycidra, becoming independent from Frank and gaining connection to the community of women is a method of healing to gain her own sense of agency.

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7Perpetuating the Other: Mourning and Alterity in Sarah Ruhl's Eurydice

저자 : Hyun-kyung Lee

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 151-167 (17 pages)

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This paper traces the strategy of the work of mourning in Eurydice (2004), which restore the status of the Other by mourning. The work of mourning conducted by Eurydice and her father employs the ethical responsibilities for the silenced and repressed practice of mourning itself, which has been the subject of institutional control since ancient times. Represented by female mourning, the practice of mourning responds to the demand of those who strive to remember their loss and celebrate the memory of their loved ones. The crossing line of the mourning that carries out the celebratory ritual for the Other and its alterity constructs a unique work of mourning in Eurydice. By integrating the mourning of historical Others and mourning on the individual level, Ruhl navigates the intricacy of the alterity of mourning.

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8초등영어 수업에서 그림책 활용 극화 활동의 효과

저자 : 정해지 ( Hae-ji Jeong ) , 김혜리 ( Hae-ri Kim )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 169-193 (25 pages)

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This paper aims to understand the effect of English picture books as language input sources in dramatization activities and to explore how small-group dramatization activities have an effect on the cultivation of community competence. The result of the study emerged in two steps. First, in dramatization activities, picture books served as a source of language input and had a positive effect on developing learners' English communicative skills. Learners also expanded their vocabulary and better understood their dramatization topics and contents by reading picture books. Second, the small-group dramatization activity had a positive effect on the cultivation of community competence. Small-group work had a positive effect on the improvement of interpersonal skills and the ability to maintain relationships, and overcome conflicts. Based on the results, some suggestions for future studies are provided.

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9likely NP 구문의 사용

저자 : 조영순 ( Youngsoon Cho )

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 195-215 (21 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to explore the use of likely NP construction. This modern structure, which has been more increasingly found in American English since 2015, shows a new behaviour of likely, unlike the common and aged use of likely as an adjective or an adverb. Two types of analyses have been conducted to examine the behavior of likely NP: collexeme analyses employing Stefanowitch and Gries (2003) and Gries and Stefanowitsch (2004), and configural frequency analyses utilizing Gries(2004). It has been found that the construction has two seemingly different characteristics, which become clearer when comparing it with the use of the synonymous construction likely to be NP: likely NP structure is characteristically used when describing the possibility of logical reasoning, which can be reasonably inferred from strong logical collexemes; However, it is actually preferred in personal registers such as blogs and is frequently accompanied by degree adverbs, which implies the reasoning is not rigorous, but mostly loose.

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10Learners' Attitudes Towards English Learning and Online English Learning in a Korean University Context

저자 : Young Ah Cho

발행기관 : 21세기영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학21 34권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 217-239 (23 pages)

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This study examines how learners' attitudes vary regarding English language learning in general and online English language learning in particular, and notes how students with different levels of English adapt to the different learning contexts. Ninety-five participants were classified into low-, medium-, and high-proficiency groups based on their English performance. A background questionnaire, along with the Attitudes towards English Language Learning (AELL) scale, and the Attitudes towards Online English Language Learning (AOELL) scale were employed in the study. The findings of the study indicate that the performance of the high- and medium-proficiency groups was significantly greater than that of the low-proficiency group in terms of cognition and learning-effort on the AELL and surplus value of online English language learning on the AOELL. Based on those results, this study suggests pedagogical implications and in-class activities teachers can use to better foster positive learning attitudes in their EFL classes.

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