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한국운동역학회> 한국운동역학회지> 발의 형태학적 특성에 따른 시공간 보행 변인과 하지의 기능 및 통증 차이

KCI등재

발의 형태학적 특성에 따른 시공간 보행 변인과 하지의 기능 및 통증 차이

Differences in Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters and Lower Extremity Function and Pain in Accordance with Foot Morphological Characteristics

Hyung Gyu Jeon , Inje Lee , Sae Yong Lee , Sunghe Ha
  • : 한국운동역학회
  • : 한국운동역학회지 31권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 06월
  • : 95-103(9pages)
한국운동역학회지

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal gait performance, function, and pain of lower-extremity according to foot morphological characteristics.
Method: This case-control study recruited 42 adults and they were classified into 3 groups according to foot morphology using navicular-drop test: pronated (≥ 10 mm), normal (5~9 mm), and supinated (≤ 4 mm) feet. Spatiotemporal gait analysis and questionnaires including Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activities of daily living / Sports, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Tegner activity score were conducted. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The pronated feet group showed longer loading response and double limb support in both feet and increased pre-swing phase in non-dominant feet. The supinated feet group demonstrated a longer swing phase in non-dominant feet and single limb support in dominant feet. However, there was no significant group difference in function and pain of knee joint and lower-extremity between groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that abnormal spatiotemporal gait performance according to foot morphology. Although there was no difference in lower extremity dysfunction and pain according to the difference in foot morphology, they have the possibility of symptom occurs as a result of continuous participation in activities of daily living and sports. Therefore, individuals with pronated or supinated foot should be supplemented by utilizing an orthosis or training to restore normal gait performance.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-2226
  • : 2093-9752
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1992-2021
  • : 1199


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31권2호(2021년 06월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1만성 발목 불안정성 환자군과 정상인 군의 발바닥 감각기능 저하에 따른 운동학적 보행 패턴의 변화

저자 : Tae Kyu Kang , Sae Yong Lee , Inje Lee , Byong Hun Kim , Hee Seong Jeong , Chang Young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 79-86 (8 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of reduced plantar cutaneous sensation on gait kinematics during walking with and without CAI.
Method: A total of 20 subjects involved in this study and ten healthy subjects and 10 CAI subjects participated underwent ice-immersion of the plantar aspect of the feet before walking test in this study. The gait kinematics were measured before and after ice-immersion.
Results: We observed a before ice-immersion on plantar cutaneous sensation, CAI subject were found to reduced ankle dorsiflexion, knee external rotation, hip adduction, and internal rotation compared to control subject. After ice-immersion, CAI subjects were found to reduce knee external rotation, hip adduction. However, no significant ankle joint kinematics.
Conclusion: While walking, gait pattern differences were perceived between groups with and without plantar cutaneous sensation. The results of the study may explain the abductions in the hip angle movements in CAI patients at initial contact compared to healthy subjects in the control group when plantar cutaneous sensation was reduced. A change in proximal joint kinematics may be a conservative strategy to promote normal gait patterns in CAI patients.

KCI등재

2데이터마이닝을 활용한 골프 스윙 최적화 분석

저자 : Kyu Jong Lee , Okhyun Ryou , Jihoon Kang

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 87-94 (8 pages)

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Objective: Identification of meaningful patterns and trends in large volumes of unstructured data is an important task in various research areas. In the present study, we gathered golf swing image data and did quantitative analysis of swing image.
Method: We collected golf swing images of 30 novice players and 30 professional players in this study.
Results: We selected important features of swing posture and employed data mining algorithm to classify whether a player is an expert or a novice. Moreover, our proposed method could offer quantitative advices for golf beginners for correcting their swing.
Conclusion: Finally, we found a possibility that our proposed method can be expanded to golf swing correction system

KCI등재

3발의 형태학적 특성에 따른 시공간 보행 변인과 하지의 기능 및 통증 차이

저자 : Hyung Gyu Jeon , Inje Lee , Sae Yong Lee , Sunghe Ha

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 95-103 (9 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal gait performance, function, and pain of lower-extremity according to foot morphological characteristics.
Method: This case-control study recruited 42 adults and they were classified into 3 groups according to foot morphology using navicular-drop test: pronated (≥ 10 mm), normal (5~9 mm), and supinated (≤ 4 mm) feet. Spatiotemporal gait analysis and questionnaires including Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activities of daily living / Sports, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Tegner activity score were conducted. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The pronated feet group showed longer loading response and double limb support in both feet and increased pre-swing phase in non-dominant feet. The supinated feet group demonstrated a longer swing phase in non-dominant feet and single limb support in dominant feet. However, there was no significant group difference in function and pain of knee joint and lower-extremity between groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that abnormal spatiotemporal gait performance according to foot morphology. Although there was no difference in lower extremity dysfunction and pain according to the difference in foot morphology, they have the possibility of symptom occurs as a result of continuous participation in activities of daily living and sports. Therefore, individuals with pronated or supinated foot should be supplemented by utilizing an orthosis or training to restore normal gait performance.

KCI등재

4뒤꿈치 들기 자세를 이용한 전신진동 운동이 외발서기 시 근신경 반응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Dae Dong Kim , Myeounggon Lee , Changhong Youm

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 104-112 (9 pages)

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Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effects of consecutive whole body vibration through heel raise posture on the center of pressure and electromyography of anterior tibial muscle, lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during single-leg stance.
Method: The subjects of this study included 30 healthy males in their 20's, with the following inclusion criteria: no history of orthopaedic medical history, no participation in regular exercises, no history of whole body vibration exercise, and right leg being the dominant leg. The experimental procedure involved pretreatment measurement of eye open single-leg stance, application of whole body vibration for 30 seconds, post-treatment measurement (3 measurements in total). Static and dynamic movements have been measured over 2 separate experiments, with 72 hours gap between the experiments. Static movement involved maintaining single-leg heel raise posture for 30 seconds while applying whole body vibration, and dynamic movement involved heel raise (15 repetitions over 30 seconds) while applying whole body vibration. The strength of applied whole body vibration was 35 Hz frequency and 2~4 mm amplitude.
Results: As the single-leg posture after static heel raise posture, mediolateral velocity of the center of pressure at post 2 and post 3 were significantly reduced compared to the pre-treatment measurement. In addition, the percentage for reference voluntary contraction in anterior tibial muscle and soleus and median frequency at anterior tibial muscle and lateral gastrocnemius muscle at post 3 were significantly decreased compared to the pre-treatment value. As the single-leg posture after dynamic heel raise posture, the mediolateral 95% edge frequency of the center of pressure and median frequency at anterior tibial muscle, lateral gastrocnemius muscle, and soleus muscle at post 3 were significantly reduced compared to the pre-treatment value.
Conclusion: Acute whole body vibration via static and dynamic heel raise posture have positive effect on mediolateral posture control during single-leg stance.

KCI등재

5양발 드롭랜딩 시 만성적인 발목 불안정성 유무에 따른 하지주요관절의 역학적 특성

저자 : Kyoungkyu Jeon , Jinhee Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-118 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences of landing strategy between people with or without chronic ankle instability (CAI) during double-leg drop landing.
Method: 34 male adults participated in this study (CAI = 16, Normal = 18). Participants performed double-leg drop landing task on a 30 cm height and 20 cm horizontal distance away from the force plate. Lower Extremities Kinetic and Kinematic data were obtained using 8 motion capture cameras and 2 force plates and loading rate was calculated. Independent samples t-test were used to identify differences between groups.
Results: Compared with normal group, CAI group exhibits significantly less hip internal rotation angle (CAI = 1.52±8.12, Normal = 10.63±8.44, p = 0.003), greater knee valgus angle (CAI = -6.78±5.03, Normal = -12.38 ±6.78, p = 0.011), greater ankle eversion moment (CAI = 0.0001±0.02, Normal = -0.03±0.05, p = 0.043), greater loading Rate (CAI = 32.65±15.52, Normal = 18.43±10.87, p = 0.003) on their affected limb during maximum vertical Ground Reaction Force moment.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that CAI group exhibits compensatory movement to avoid ankle inversion during double-leg drop landing compared with normal group. Further study about how changed kinetic and kinematic affect shock absorption ability and injury risk in participants with CAI is needed.

KCI등재

6골프 선수와 일반 성인의 동적 균형 제어에 대한 연구

저자 : Jun-sung Park , Young-tae Lim , Jae-woo Lee , Moon-seok Kwon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 119-125 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dynamic postural balance control against tilting platform between golfers and non-golfers.
Method: 24 golfers and 26 non-golfers were participated. Eight motion capture cameras, two force plates, and one dynamic balance control platform were used for sensory perception test. It was performed two-way repeated ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment at a significant level of a 0.05.
Results: Golfers' perception ability was higher than non-golfer according to slope. the CoP, time, angle variables were indicated main effect and interaction effect between golfer and non-golfer.
Conclusion: It was known that golfer's proprioception perception ability was higher than non-golfers. Repeated practice such as shots and putting on the uneven ground might improve their balance control.

KCI등재

7드롭랜딩 시 시선 방향의 차이가 하지관절의 안정성과 협응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Kewwan Kim , Seji Ahn

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 126-132 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how three gaze directions (bottom, normal, up) affects the coordination and stability of the lower limb during drop landing.
Method: 20 female adults (age: 21.1±1.1 yrs, height: 165.7±6.2 cm, weight: 59.4±5.9 kg) participated in this study. Participants performed single-leg drop landing task on a 30 cm height and 20 cm horizontal distance away from the force plate. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained using 8 motion capture cameras and 1 force plates and leg stiffness, loading rate, DPSI were calculated. All statistical analyses were computed by using SPSS 25.0 program. One-way repeated ANOVA was used to compared the differences between the variables in the direction of gaze. To locate the differences, Bonferroni post hoc was applied if significance was observed.
Results: The hip flexion angle and ankle plantar flexion angle were significantly smaller when the gaze direction was up. In the kinetic variables, when the gaze direction was up, the loading rate and DPSI were significantly higher than those of other gaze directions.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that decreased hip and ankle flexion angles, increased loading rate and DPSI when the gaze direction was up. This suggests that the difference in visual information can increase the risk of injury to the lower limb during landing.

KCI등재

8오버핸드 그립과 언더핸드 그립, 무엇이 컨벤셔널 데드리프트에 효과적일까?

저자 : Jaeho Kim , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 133-139 (7 pages)

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Objective: This study aims to verify the conventional deadlift motions using by two different grips, thereby elucidating the grounds for effective training methods that can minimize the risk of injury.
Method: Total of 18 healthy young adults were recruited for this study (age: 25.11±2.19 yrs., height: 175.67±5.22 cm, body mass: 78.5±8.09 kg, 1-RM: 125.75±19.48 kg). All participants were asked to perform conventional deadlift with two types of grips which are overhand grip (OG) and underhand grip (UG). In each grip, participant perform the deadlift with 50% and 80% of the pre-measured 1-RM. A 3-dimensional motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras and 3 channels of EMG was performed in this study. A two-way ANOVA (group × load) with repeated measure was used for statistical verification. The significant level was set at α=.05.
Results: There were significant differences in grip type and weight on the right shoulder joint, and only significant difference in grip on the left shoulder joint (p<.05). The hip joint ROM was significantly increased as the weight increased in both types of grips on phase 1, while the ROM of hip joint was significantly decreased as the weight increased only in the case of OG on phase 2 (p<.05). In case of the OG, as the weight, increased significantly increased L1 ROM and L3 ROM were revealed on phase 1 and phase 2, respectively (p<.05). Moreover, as the weight increased, UG revealed significantly decreased L5 ROM on phase 1, while both grips showed significantly increased ROM on phase 2 (p<.05). In addition, the erector spinae and the biceps femoris, which are synergist for the motion, showed a significant difference in both types of grip according to the weight (p<.05). The muscle activity ratio of gluteus maximus/biceps femoris showed a significant difference only in the UG according to the weight (p<.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, beginners might be suggested to use the UG for maintaining the neutral state of the lumbar spine and focus on the gluteus maximus muscle, which is the main activation muscle. For the experts, it may recommend alternative use of the OG and UG according to the training purpose to minimize the compensation effect.

KCI등재

9등척성 무릎 토크 발생 시 사전활성화 유형의 차이가 최대 자발적 토크 생성에 미치는 영향

저자 : Jong-ah Kim , Narae Shin , Sungjune Lee , Dayuan Xu , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 140-147 (8 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanism of changes in maximum voluntary torque with the magnitude and duration of pre-activation torque during voluntary isometric knee extension.
Method: 11 male subjects (age: 25.91±2.43 yrs., height: 173.12±3.51 cm, weight: 76.45±7.74 kg) participated in this study. The subjects were required to produce maximal voluntary isometric torque with a particular pre-activation torque condition. The properties of pre-activation torque consisted of the combinations of 1) three levels of magnitude, e.g., 32 Nm, 64 Nm, 96 Nm, and 2) two levels of duration, e.g., 1 sec, and 3 sec; thus, a total of six conditions were given to the subjects. The force and EMG data were measured using the force transducers and wireless EMG sensor, respectively.
Results: The results showed that the maximum voluntary torque increased the most with relatively large and fast (96 Nm, 1 sec) pre-activation condition. Similarly, with relatively large and fast (96 Nm, 1 sec) pre-activation, it was found that the integrated EMG (iEMG) of the agonist muscles increased, while no significant changes in the co-contraction of the antagonist muscles for the knee extension. Also, the effect of pre-activation conditions on the rate of torque development was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The current findings suggest that relatively larger in magnitude and shorter in duration as the properties of pre-activation lead to a larger magnitude of maximal voluntary torque, possibly due to the increased activity of the agonist muscles during knee extension.

KCI등재

10역도 인상, 용상 기록향상과 관계가 높은 주요 훈련종목 추출

저자 : Young Jin Moon , Tae Min Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 148-153 (6 pages)

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Objective: It is to extract training items that have a high relationship with the improvement of weightlifting records through correlation and regression analysis between training methods used commonly in the field and Snatch records and jerk records. Through this, it is intended to promote training efficiency to improve the records of weightlifters.
Method: For 90 elite weightlifters of the professional teams, 4 groups (lightweight (30 people): 61 kg, 67 kg, 73 kg., middleweight (30 people): 81 kg, 89 kg, 96 kg., heavyweight (30 people): 102 kg, 109 kg, +109 kg., the whole group (90 people)) were divided. At the significance level of 0.05, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were performed between record of training methods used widely in the field and Snatch records and Jerk records.
Results: First, the better the record in Jerk, the better the Snatch record. Second, the three training methods HS, ForceS and WP performed in the field were all found to be important factors related to the improvement of Snatch record. Third, In the jerk where there are more types of training than Snatch, three training methods (HC, ForceS, BPP) appeared to be an important training method for improving the jerk record.
Conclusion: While many training methods have been devised and carried out in the field, 3 types of training (HS, ForceS, WP) for improving Snatch record and 3 types of training (HC, ForceS, BPP) for improving Jerk record was found to be the most influential training method. Since all of them showed a large value of explanatory power by regression analysis, it is considered that this study is meaningful in that it can promote training efficiency by simplifying although there are many types of training for athletes.

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KCI등재

1만성 발목 불안정성 환자군과 정상인 군의 발바닥 감각기능 저하에 따른 운동학적 보행 패턴의 변화

저자 : Tae Kyu Kang , Sae Yong Lee , Inje Lee , Byong Hun Kim , Hee Seong Jeong , Chang Young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 79-86 (8 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of reduced plantar cutaneous sensation on gait kinematics during walking with and without CAI.
Method: A total of 20 subjects involved in this study and ten healthy subjects and 10 CAI subjects participated underwent ice-immersion of the plantar aspect of the feet before walking test in this study. The gait kinematics were measured before and after ice-immersion.
Results: We observed a before ice-immersion on plantar cutaneous sensation, CAI subject were found to reduced ankle dorsiflexion, knee external rotation, hip adduction, and internal rotation compared to control subject. After ice-immersion, CAI subjects were found to reduce knee external rotation, hip adduction. However, no significant ankle joint kinematics.
Conclusion: While walking, gait pattern differences were perceived between groups with and without plantar cutaneous sensation. The results of the study may explain the abductions in the hip angle movements in CAI patients at initial contact compared to healthy subjects in the control group when plantar cutaneous sensation was reduced. A change in proximal joint kinematics may be a conservative strategy to promote normal gait patterns in CAI patients.

KCI등재

2데이터마이닝을 활용한 골프 스윙 최적화 분석

저자 : Kyu Jong Lee , Okhyun Ryou , Jihoon Kang

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 87-94 (8 pages)

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Objective: Identification of meaningful patterns and trends in large volumes of unstructured data is an important task in various research areas. In the present study, we gathered golf swing image data and did quantitative analysis of swing image.
Method: We collected golf swing images of 30 novice players and 30 professional players in this study.
Results: We selected important features of swing posture and employed data mining algorithm to classify whether a player is an expert or a novice. Moreover, our proposed method could offer quantitative advices for golf beginners for correcting their swing.
Conclusion: Finally, we found a possibility that our proposed method can be expanded to golf swing correction system

KCI등재

3발의 형태학적 특성에 따른 시공간 보행 변인과 하지의 기능 및 통증 차이

저자 : Hyung Gyu Jeon , Inje Lee , Sae Yong Lee , Sunghe Ha

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 95-103 (9 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal gait performance, function, and pain of lower-extremity according to foot morphological characteristics.
Method: This case-control study recruited 42 adults and they were classified into 3 groups according to foot morphology using navicular-drop test: pronated (≥ 10 mm), normal (5~9 mm), and supinated (≤ 4 mm) feet. Spatiotemporal gait analysis and questionnaires including Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activities of daily living / Sports, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Tegner activity score were conducted. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The pronated feet group showed longer loading response and double limb support in both feet and increased pre-swing phase in non-dominant feet. The supinated feet group demonstrated a longer swing phase in non-dominant feet and single limb support in dominant feet. However, there was no significant group difference in function and pain of knee joint and lower-extremity between groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that abnormal spatiotemporal gait performance according to foot morphology. Although there was no difference in lower extremity dysfunction and pain according to the difference in foot morphology, they have the possibility of symptom occurs as a result of continuous participation in activities of daily living and sports. Therefore, individuals with pronated or supinated foot should be supplemented by utilizing an orthosis or training to restore normal gait performance.

KCI등재

4뒤꿈치 들기 자세를 이용한 전신진동 운동이 외발서기 시 근신경 반응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Dae Dong Kim , Myeounggon Lee , Changhong Youm

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 104-112 (9 pages)

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Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effects of consecutive whole body vibration through heel raise posture on the center of pressure and electromyography of anterior tibial muscle, lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during single-leg stance.
Method: The subjects of this study included 30 healthy males in their 20's, with the following inclusion criteria: no history of orthopaedic medical history, no participation in regular exercises, no history of whole body vibration exercise, and right leg being the dominant leg. The experimental procedure involved pretreatment measurement of eye open single-leg stance, application of whole body vibration for 30 seconds, post-treatment measurement (3 measurements in total). Static and dynamic movements have been measured over 2 separate experiments, with 72 hours gap between the experiments. Static movement involved maintaining single-leg heel raise posture for 30 seconds while applying whole body vibration, and dynamic movement involved heel raise (15 repetitions over 30 seconds) while applying whole body vibration. The strength of applied whole body vibration was 35 Hz frequency and 2~4 mm amplitude.
Results: As the single-leg posture after static heel raise posture, mediolateral velocity of the center of pressure at post 2 and post 3 were significantly reduced compared to the pre-treatment measurement. In addition, the percentage for reference voluntary contraction in anterior tibial muscle and soleus and median frequency at anterior tibial muscle and lateral gastrocnemius muscle at post 3 were significantly decreased compared to the pre-treatment value. As the single-leg posture after dynamic heel raise posture, the mediolateral 95% edge frequency of the center of pressure and median frequency at anterior tibial muscle, lateral gastrocnemius muscle, and soleus muscle at post 3 were significantly reduced compared to the pre-treatment value.
Conclusion: Acute whole body vibration via static and dynamic heel raise posture have positive effect on mediolateral posture control during single-leg stance.

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5양발 드롭랜딩 시 만성적인 발목 불안정성 유무에 따른 하지주요관절의 역학적 특성

저자 : Kyoungkyu Jeon , Jinhee Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-118 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences of landing strategy between people with or without chronic ankle instability (CAI) during double-leg drop landing.
Method: 34 male adults participated in this study (CAI = 16, Normal = 18). Participants performed double-leg drop landing task on a 30 cm height and 20 cm horizontal distance away from the force plate. Lower Extremities Kinetic and Kinematic data were obtained using 8 motion capture cameras and 2 force plates and loading rate was calculated. Independent samples t-test were used to identify differences between groups.
Results: Compared with normal group, CAI group exhibits significantly less hip internal rotation angle (CAI = 1.52±8.12, Normal = 10.63±8.44, p = 0.003), greater knee valgus angle (CAI = -6.78±5.03, Normal = -12.38 ±6.78, p = 0.011), greater ankle eversion moment (CAI = 0.0001±0.02, Normal = -0.03±0.05, p = 0.043), greater loading Rate (CAI = 32.65±15.52, Normal = 18.43±10.87, p = 0.003) on their affected limb during maximum vertical Ground Reaction Force moment.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that CAI group exhibits compensatory movement to avoid ankle inversion during double-leg drop landing compared with normal group. Further study about how changed kinetic and kinematic affect shock absorption ability and injury risk in participants with CAI is needed.

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6골프 선수와 일반 성인의 동적 균형 제어에 대한 연구

저자 : Jun-sung Park , Young-tae Lim , Jae-woo Lee , Moon-seok Kwon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 119-125 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dynamic postural balance control against tilting platform between golfers and non-golfers.
Method: 24 golfers and 26 non-golfers were participated. Eight motion capture cameras, two force plates, and one dynamic balance control platform were used for sensory perception test. It was performed two-way repeated ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment at a significant level of a 0.05.
Results: Golfers' perception ability was higher than non-golfer according to slope. the CoP, time, angle variables were indicated main effect and interaction effect between golfer and non-golfer.
Conclusion: It was known that golfer's proprioception perception ability was higher than non-golfers. Repeated practice such as shots and putting on the uneven ground might improve their balance control.

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7드롭랜딩 시 시선 방향의 차이가 하지관절의 안정성과 협응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Kewwan Kim , Seji Ahn

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 126-132 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how three gaze directions (bottom, normal, up) affects the coordination and stability of the lower limb during drop landing.
Method: 20 female adults (age: 21.1±1.1 yrs, height: 165.7±6.2 cm, weight: 59.4±5.9 kg) participated in this study. Participants performed single-leg drop landing task on a 30 cm height and 20 cm horizontal distance away from the force plate. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained using 8 motion capture cameras and 1 force plates and leg stiffness, loading rate, DPSI were calculated. All statistical analyses were computed by using SPSS 25.0 program. One-way repeated ANOVA was used to compared the differences between the variables in the direction of gaze. To locate the differences, Bonferroni post hoc was applied if significance was observed.
Results: The hip flexion angle and ankle plantar flexion angle were significantly smaller when the gaze direction was up. In the kinetic variables, when the gaze direction was up, the loading rate and DPSI were significantly higher than those of other gaze directions.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that decreased hip and ankle flexion angles, increased loading rate and DPSI when the gaze direction was up. This suggests that the difference in visual information can increase the risk of injury to the lower limb during landing.

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8오버핸드 그립과 언더핸드 그립, 무엇이 컨벤셔널 데드리프트에 효과적일까?

저자 : Jaeho Kim , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 133-139 (7 pages)

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Objective: This study aims to verify the conventional deadlift motions using by two different grips, thereby elucidating the grounds for effective training methods that can minimize the risk of injury.
Method: Total of 18 healthy young adults were recruited for this study (age: 25.11±2.19 yrs., height: 175.67±5.22 cm, body mass: 78.5±8.09 kg, 1-RM: 125.75±19.48 kg). All participants were asked to perform conventional deadlift with two types of grips which are overhand grip (OG) and underhand grip (UG). In each grip, participant perform the deadlift with 50% and 80% of the pre-measured 1-RM. A 3-dimensional motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras and 3 channels of EMG was performed in this study. A two-way ANOVA (group × load) with repeated measure was used for statistical verification. The significant level was set at α=.05.
Results: There were significant differences in grip type and weight on the right shoulder joint, and only significant difference in grip on the left shoulder joint (p<.05). The hip joint ROM was significantly increased as the weight increased in both types of grips on phase 1, while the ROM of hip joint was significantly decreased as the weight increased only in the case of OG on phase 2 (p<.05). In case of the OG, as the weight, increased significantly increased L1 ROM and L3 ROM were revealed on phase 1 and phase 2, respectively (p<.05). Moreover, as the weight increased, UG revealed significantly decreased L5 ROM on phase 1, while both grips showed significantly increased ROM on phase 2 (p<.05). In addition, the erector spinae and the biceps femoris, which are synergist for the motion, showed a significant difference in both types of grip according to the weight (p<.05). The muscle activity ratio of gluteus maximus/biceps femoris showed a significant difference only in the UG according to the weight (p<.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, beginners might be suggested to use the UG for maintaining the neutral state of the lumbar spine and focus on the gluteus maximus muscle, which is the main activation muscle. For the experts, it may recommend alternative use of the OG and UG according to the training purpose to minimize the compensation effect.

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9등척성 무릎 토크 발생 시 사전활성화 유형의 차이가 최대 자발적 토크 생성에 미치는 영향

저자 : Jong-ah Kim , Narae Shin , Sungjune Lee , Dayuan Xu , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 140-147 (8 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanism of changes in maximum voluntary torque with the magnitude and duration of pre-activation torque during voluntary isometric knee extension.
Method: 11 male subjects (age: 25.91±2.43 yrs., height: 173.12±3.51 cm, weight: 76.45±7.74 kg) participated in this study. The subjects were required to produce maximal voluntary isometric torque with a particular pre-activation torque condition. The properties of pre-activation torque consisted of the combinations of 1) three levels of magnitude, e.g., 32 Nm, 64 Nm, 96 Nm, and 2) two levels of duration, e.g., 1 sec, and 3 sec; thus, a total of six conditions were given to the subjects. The force and EMG data were measured using the force transducers and wireless EMG sensor, respectively.
Results: The results showed that the maximum voluntary torque increased the most with relatively large and fast (96 Nm, 1 sec) pre-activation condition. Similarly, with relatively large and fast (96 Nm, 1 sec) pre-activation, it was found that the integrated EMG (iEMG) of the agonist muscles increased, while no significant changes in the co-contraction of the antagonist muscles for the knee extension. Also, the effect of pre-activation conditions on the rate of torque development was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The current findings suggest that relatively larger in magnitude and shorter in duration as the properties of pre-activation lead to a larger magnitude of maximal voluntary torque, possibly due to the increased activity of the agonist muscles during knee extension.

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10역도 인상, 용상 기록향상과 관계가 높은 주요 훈련종목 추출

저자 : Young Jin Moon , Tae Min Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 148-153 (6 pages)

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Objective: It is to extract training items that have a high relationship with the improvement of weightlifting records through correlation and regression analysis between training methods used commonly in the field and Snatch records and jerk records. Through this, it is intended to promote training efficiency to improve the records of weightlifters.
Method: For 90 elite weightlifters of the professional teams, 4 groups (lightweight (30 people): 61 kg, 67 kg, 73 kg., middleweight (30 people): 81 kg, 89 kg, 96 kg., heavyweight (30 people): 102 kg, 109 kg, +109 kg., the whole group (90 people)) were divided. At the significance level of 0.05, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were performed between record of training methods used widely in the field and Snatch records and Jerk records.
Results: First, the better the record in Jerk, the better the Snatch record. Second, the three training methods HS, ForceS and WP performed in the field were all found to be important factors related to the improvement of Snatch record. Third, In the jerk where there are more types of training than Snatch, three training methods (HC, ForceS, BPP) appeared to be an important training method for improving the jerk record.
Conclusion: While many training methods have been devised and carried out in the field, 3 types of training (HS, ForceS, WP) for improving Snatch record and 3 types of training (HC, ForceS, BPP) for improving Jerk record was found to be the most influential training method. Since all of them showed a large value of explanatory power by regression analysis, it is considered that this study is meaningful in that it can promote training efficiency by simplifying although there are many types of training for athletes.

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