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한국운동역학회> 한국운동역학회지> 데이터마이닝을 활용한 골프 스윙 최적화 분석

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데이터마이닝을 활용한 골프 스윙 최적화 분석

Quantitative Golf Swing Analysis based on Kinematic Mining Approach

Kyu Jong Lee , Okhyun Ryou , Jihoon Kang
  • : 한국운동역학회
  • : 한국운동역학회지 31권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 06월
  • : 87-94(8pages)
한국운동역학회지

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHOD
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES

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Objective: Identification of meaningful patterns and trends in large volumes of unstructured data is an important task in various research areas. In the present study, we gathered golf swing image data and did quantitative analysis of swing image.
Method: We collected golf swing images of 30 novice players and 30 professional players in this study.
Results: We selected important features of swing posture and employed data mining algorithm to classify whether a player is an expert or a novice. Moreover, our proposed method could offer quantitative advices for golf beginners for correcting their swing.
Conclusion: Finally, we found a possibility that our proposed method can be expanded to golf swing correction system

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간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-2226
  • : 2093-9752
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1992-2021
  • : 1209


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1Shoulder Arthrokinematics of Collegiate Ice Hockey Athletes Based on the 3D-2D Model Registration Technique

저자 : Hee Seong Jeong , Junbom Song , Inje Lee , Doosup Kim , Sae Yong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 155-161 (7 pages)

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Objective: There is a lack of studies using the 3D-2D image registration techniques on the mechanism of a shoulder injury for ice hockey players. This study aimed to analyze in vivo 3D glenohumeral joint arthrokinematics in collegiate ice hockey athletes and compare shoulder scaption with or without a hockey stick using the 3D-2D image registration technique.
Method: We recruited 12 male elite ice hockey players (age, 19.88 ± 0.65 years). For arthrokinematic analysis of the common shoulder abduction movements of the injury pathogenesis of ice hockey players, participants abducted their dominant arm along the scapular plane and then grabbed a stick using the same motion under C-arm fluoroscopy with 16 frames per second. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the shoulder complex were obtained with a 0.6-mm slice pitch. Data from the humerus translation distances, scapula upward rotation, anterior-posterior tilt, internal to external rotation angles, and scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) ratio on glenohumeral (GH) joint kinematics were outputted using a MATLAB customized code.
Results: The humeral translation in the stick hand compared to the bare hand moved more anterior and more superior until the abduction angle reached 40°. When the GH joint in the stick hand was at the maximal abduction of the scapula, the scapula was externally rotated 2~5° relative to 0°. The SHR ratio relative to the abduction along the scapular plane at 40° indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: With arm loading with the stick, the humeral and scapular kinematics showed a significant correlation in the initial section of the SHR. Although these correlations might be difficult in clinical settings, ice hockey athletes can lead to the movement difference of the scapulohumeral joints with inherent instability.

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2여자 윈드서핑 선수의 경기 중 Global Positioning System 정보를 활용한 경기력 분석

저자 : Sa Bin Chun , Jong Chul Park , Sang Ha Park , Jin Soo Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 162-167 (6 pages)

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Objective: This study aimed to identify the different wind speed categories and competitive level among windsurfers through GPS variables to provide the useful information on the development of training programs for enhancing windsurfers' performance.
Method: Data from 69 female athletes who participated in 27 races during the 2018-2019 windsurfing season were used for the analysis. Average board speed, total race time, total distance, upwind race time, downwind race time, beam reach race time were collected through GPS. Unconfirmed data were excluded along with penalty point data. The wind conditions were classified as light, light to medium, medium, medium to heavy, and heavy wind, the competitive levels were classified as level 1, level 2, and level 3.
Results: As for the average board speed, the level 1 or level 2 group showed higher board speed than the level 3 group in all wind conditions except for the light wind. The total race time and upwind race time showed less time in level 1 or level 2 group than level 3 group in all wind conditions. The total distance, downwind race time and beam reach race time showed less distance and time in level1 group than level 3 group under sufficient wind conditions.
Conclusion: Our results show that the aerobic capacity to sustain pumping during upwind course in wind conditions below 15 kts effects performance. In wind conditions of 15 kts or more, indicated that the board control for the fast board speed and small distance required during up, down, beam reach courses had an effect on competition performance. This information can be provided to windsurfers and coaching as basic data for training programs to improve performance.

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3만성 발목 불안정성(CAI) 환자와 건강 대조군 간 종합적 발목관절복합체의 생체역학적 특성

저자 : Byong Hun Kim , Hee Seong Jeong , Inje Lee , Hyung Gyu Jeon , Sae Yong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 168-175 (8 pages)

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Objective: To investigate the static and dynamic analysis of ankle joint complex between subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy controls.
Method: A total of 38 subjects and CAI group (N=19) and healthy control (N=19) participated in this first study. Variables that were measured in this study were as follows: 1) Subtalar joint axis inclination and deviation 2) Rearfoot angle 3) Navicular drop test 4) Heel alignment view in alignment analysis. Intra Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is used for reliability. A secondary 17 subjects are recruited including 9 of CAI and healthy for gait analysis between group. Lower extremity sagittal, frontal, and transverse kinematics were measured. All data were analyzed to ensemble curve analysis.
Results: 1) There were statistically significant differences in standing rearfoot, navicular drop, heel alignment view, subtalar joint (STJ) inclination and deviation. 2) Only in sagittal, meaningful difference is showed during walking in gait analysis.
Conclusion: Morphological problem can affect ankle sprain in aspect of structure with no relation to compensation of neuromuscular.

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4Three-dimensional Kinematics of Knee Joint in a Complete Gait Cycle: A Comparative Study between Handball Players and Non-athletes

저자 : Paudel Dinesh , Jin-ho Back

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 176-182 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the athletic knee show greater rotation and translation movement than non-athletic knee during the treadmill walking with their preferred speed in a complete gait cycle.
Method: Thirty young and healthy male subjects participated in the study, fifteen handball players (mean age: 19.6 ± 1.4 years old, mean weight: 85 ± 11.9 Kg, mean height: 179.8 ± 4.7) and fifteen non-athletes (mean age: 22.8 ± 1.2 years old, mean weight: 74.5 ± 8.6 Kg, mean height: 175 ± 5.9). Three-dimensional positional coordinate of lower limb during treadmill walking were analyzed.
Results: There were significant differences (t (22.014)=1.585, p=0.127 in the range of internal and external rotation with mean value for handball player (M=14.4513, SD=2.3839) was higher than non-athletes (M= 13.3327, SD=1.337). The magnitude of the difference in the means (mean difference=1.11867, 95% CI: -0.34489 to 2.5822) was significant. There were also significant differences (t (17.956)=1.654, p=0.116 in the max abduction and adduction with mean value for handball player (M=5.7160, SD=2.49281) was higher than non-athletes (M=4.5773, SD=0.94667). The magnitude of the difference in the means (mean difference=1.138, 95% CI: -0.30805 to 2.58539) was significant. At significance level 0.05.
Conclusion: Finding of this study suggest that to understand the actual characteristic of knee motion studies have to be done in different walking and running trial at variable speed.

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5은 나노입자 프린팅 기반의 재활치료용 신축성 관절센서 개발

저자 : Woen-sik Chae , Jae-hu Jung

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 183-188 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a stretchable joint motion sensor that is based on silver nano-particle. Through this sensor, it can be utilized as an equipment for rehabilitation and analyze joint movement.
Method: In this study, precursor solution was created, after that, nozel printer (Musashi, Image master 350PC) was used to print on a circuit board. Sourcemeter (Keithley, Keithley-2450) was used in order to evaluate changes of electric resistance as the sensor stretches. In addition, the sensor was attached on center of a knee joint to 2 male adults, and performed knee flexion-extension in order to evaluate accurate analysis; 3 infrared cameras (100 Hz, Motion Master 100, Visol Inc., Korea) were also used to analyze three dimensional movement. Descriptive statistics were suggested for comparing each accuracy of measurement variables of joint motions with the sensor and 3D motions.
Results: The change of electric resistance of the sensor indicated multiple of 30 times from initial value in 50% of elongation and the value of electric resistance were distinctively classified by following 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% of elongation respectively. Through using the sensor and 3D camera to analyze movement variable, it showed a resistance of 99% in a knee joint extension, whereas, it indicated about 80% in flexion phase.
Conclusion: In this research, the stretchable joint motion sensor was created based on silver nanoparticle that has high conductivity. If the sensor stretches, the distance between nanoparticles recede which lead gradual disconnection of an electric circuit and to have increment of electric resistance. Through evaluating angle of knee joints with observation of sensor's electric resistance, it showed similar a result and propensity from 3D motion analysis. However, unstable electric resistance of the stretchable sensor was observed when it stretches to maximum length, or went through numerous joint movements. Therefore, the sensor need complement that requires stability when it comes to measuring motions in any condition.

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6환경조건에 따른 보행 시 낙상 위험 여성 노인과 정상 여성 노인의 생체역학적 변인 비교 연구

저자 : Tae-whan Kim , Dae-hyun Kim , Seok-ki Min , Eun-hyung Cho , Jin-seok Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 189-198 (10 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of biomechanical variables on gait according to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions in elderly women at risk of falling.
Method: 26 elderly women aged 70 years or older, and consisted of 13 elderly people with a walking speed of less 1.0 m/s and 13 people in the fall risk group as normal groups. Depending on the purpose of the study, physical examination and psychological questionnaire were prepared, and then walking was performed in an indoor/outdoor environment, and the gait pattern, muscle activity, and plantar pressure results were compared and analyzed in the elderly females through a 2 group × 2 environment 2-way repeted ANOVA analysis.
Results: The gait variable showed an interaction effect the cadence. The muscle variables showed interaction effects in the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles, and the interaction effects of the plantar pressure variables were confirmed in the forefoot and midfoot of the contact area, and the midfoot of the mean pressure.
Conclusion: These results indicate that both groups are exposed to falls risk when gait in an outdoor environment, but the fall risk group has a higher risk of falls in both the gait pattern, muscle activity, and plantar pressure variables. The results of this study are considered to be helpful as basic data and development of exercise programs to prevent falls.

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7관성센서를 활용한 새로운 품새 경기력 평가 방법 연구

저자 : Young-kwan Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 199-204 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to present a new idea of methodology to evaluate Poomsae performance using inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors in terms of signal processing techniques.
Method: Ten collegian Taekwondo athletes, consisting of five Poomsae elite athletes (age: 21.4 ± 0.9 years, height: 168.4 ± 11.3 cm, weight: 65.0 ± 10.6 kg, experience: 12 ± 0.7 years) and five breaking demonstration athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.0 years, height: 168.4 ± 4.7 cm, weight: 63.8 ± 8.2 kg, experience: 13.0 ± 2.1 years), voluntarily participated in this study. They performed three different black belt Poomsae such as Goryeo, Geumgang, and Taebaek Poomsae repeatedly twice. Repeated measured motion data on the wrist and ankle were calculated by the methods of cosine similarity and Euclidean distance.
Results: The Poomsse athletes showed superior performance in terms of temporal consistency at Goryeo and Taebaek Poomsae, cosine similarity at Geumgang and Taebaek Poomsae, and Euclidian distance at Geumgang Poomsae.
Conclusion: IMU sensor would be a useful tool for monitoring and evaluating within-subject temporal variability of Taekwondo Poomsae motions. As well it distinguished spatiotemporal characteristics among three different Poomsae.

KCI등재

8달리기 시 인솔의 굽힘 강성 증가에 따른 발목과 중족골 관절의 운동학적 변인 및 관절 협응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Sungmin Kim , Jeheon Moon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 205-213 (9 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze body stability Joint coordination pattern though as bending stiffness of shoes during stance phase of running.
Method: 47 male subjects (Age: 26.33 ± 2.11 years, Height: 177.32 ± 4.31 cm, Weight: 65.8 ± 3.87 kg) participated in this study. All subjects tested wearing the same type of running shoes by classifying bending stiffness (A shoes: 3.2~4.1 N, B shoes: 9.25~10.53 N, C shoes: 20.22~21.59 N). They ran 10 m at 3.3 m/s (SD ±3%) speed, and the speed was monitored by installing a speedometer at 3 m intervals between force plate, and the measured data were analyzed five times. During running, ankle joint, MTP joint, coupling angle, inclination angle (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral) was collected and analyzed. Vector coding methods were used to calculate vector angle of 2 joint couples during running: MTP-Ankle joint frontal plane. All analyses were performed with SPSS 21.0 and for repeated measured ANOVA and Post-hoc was Bonferroni.
Results: Results indicated that there was an interaction between three shoes and phases for MTP (Metatarsalphalangeal) joint angle (p = .045), the phases in the three shoes showed difference with heel strike~ impact peak (p1) (p = .000), impact peak~active peak (p2) (p = .002), from active peak to half the distance to take-off until take-off (p4) (p = .032) except for active peak~from active peak to half the distance to take-off (p3) (p = .155). ML IA (medial-lateral inclination angle) for C shoes was increased than other shoes. The coupling angle of ankle angle and MTP joint showed that there was significantly difference of p2 (p = .005), p4 (p = .045), and the characteristics of C shoes were that single-joint pattern (ankle-phase, MTP-phase) was shown in each phase.
Conclusion: In conclusion, by wearing high bending stiffness shoes, their body instability was increased during running.

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9양발의 위치에 따른 스위스 볼 운동이 뒤넙다리근 근활성도에 미치는 영향

저자 : Yujin Jang , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 214-219 (6 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in muscle activity of hamstring muscle depending on the position of the feet during Swiss ball hamstring curl exercise.
Method: Total of 15 male participants with no history of hamstring muscle injuries and musculoskeletal disorders in the past 6 months were participated in this study (Age: 29.27 ± 4.96 yrs, Height: 173.47 ± 5.18 cm, Body mass: 75.47 ± 12.50 kg). The muscle activation of semitendinosus and biceps femoris with four different feet positions including neutral stance, internal rotation, external rotation, and wide stance were measured during a Swiss ball hamstring curl exercise. For the analysis, the Swiss ball exercise movement comprised of 3 events (90°→ 0°→ 90°) based on the knee angle and 2 phases relative to the mechanism of muscle contraction (eccentric/concentric contraction). To pursue the study goal, an one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was performed with statistical significance as α = 0.05.
Results: There was no statistically significant feet position effect found during the Swiss ball hamstring curl with eccentric contraction phase (p>.05). It is, however, semitendinosus showed an enhanced muscle activation in concentric contraction phase, displaying the highest muscle activity in wide stance and the lowest in external rotation (p<.05).
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this exercise can be beneficial in selectively training the semitendinosus. In other words, Swiss ball hamstring curls performed in wide stance strengthens semitendinosus, which improves the stability of knee and are effective in preventing knee injuries and reinforces rehabilitation.

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10가슴압박소생술 시 교육수준에 따른 지면반력 및 압력중심의 차이

저자 : Kihoon Han , Ho-jong Gil , Mi-kyoung Lee , Joonsung Park , Jongbin Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 220-225 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of education on ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters during chest compression resuscitation.
Method: Twenty male university students were divided into two groups; certified group (CG, n=10) and non-certified group (NCG, n=10). Two force plates were used to measure ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters during 30 times (three trials) chest compression resuscitation. Independent t-tests were used to compare ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters between two groups. An alpha level of 0.05 was used in all tests.
Results: All chest-compression time parameters (total time, 1 systolic time, and diastolic time) in CG were significantly shorter than those in NCG (p<.05). Fy of the diastolic and Fz of the systolic in CG revealed significantly the larger GRF values and Fy of the systolic in CG showed significantly the smaller GRF value (p<.05). The standard deviation of Fz of the systolic and diastolic within the subject during 30 times chestcompression resuscitation revealed significantly the smaller values in CG (p<.05).
Conclusion: First, CG performed chest compressions efficiently at an appropriate rate compared to NCG. Second, CG showed lower Fx and Fy values in both the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes compared to NCG, which reduced unnecessary chest-compression force consumption and minimized the movement in patients with cardiac arrest. Third, CG showed high Fz value of the systolic and low Fz value of the diastolic. Based on this, chest compression resuscitation was performed to increase the survival rate of cardiac arrest patients.

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1만성 발목 불안정성 환자군과 정상인 군의 발바닥 감각기능 저하에 따른 운동학적 보행 패턴의 변화

저자 : Tae Kyu Kang , Sae Yong Lee , Inje Lee , Byong Hun Kim , Hee Seong Jeong , Chang Young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 79-86 (8 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of reduced plantar cutaneous sensation on gait kinematics during walking with and without CAI.
Method: A total of 20 subjects involved in this study and ten healthy subjects and 10 CAI subjects participated underwent ice-immersion of the plantar aspect of the feet before walking test in this study. The gait kinematics were measured before and after ice-immersion.
Results: We observed a before ice-immersion on plantar cutaneous sensation, CAI subject were found to reduced ankle dorsiflexion, knee external rotation, hip adduction, and internal rotation compared to control subject. After ice-immersion, CAI subjects were found to reduce knee external rotation, hip adduction. However, no significant ankle joint kinematics.
Conclusion: While walking, gait pattern differences were perceived between groups with and without plantar cutaneous sensation. The results of the study may explain the abductions in the hip angle movements in CAI patients at initial contact compared to healthy subjects in the control group when plantar cutaneous sensation was reduced. A change in proximal joint kinematics may be a conservative strategy to promote normal gait patterns in CAI patients.

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2데이터마이닝을 활용한 골프 스윙 최적화 분석

저자 : Kyu Jong Lee , Okhyun Ryou , Jihoon Kang

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 87-94 (8 pages)

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Objective: Identification of meaningful patterns and trends in large volumes of unstructured data is an important task in various research areas. In the present study, we gathered golf swing image data and did quantitative analysis of swing image.
Method: We collected golf swing images of 30 novice players and 30 professional players in this study.
Results: We selected important features of swing posture and employed data mining algorithm to classify whether a player is an expert or a novice. Moreover, our proposed method could offer quantitative advices for golf beginners for correcting their swing.
Conclusion: Finally, we found a possibility that our proposed method can be expanded to golf swing correction system

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3발의 형태학적 특성에 따른 시공간 보행 변인과 하지의 기능 및 통증 차이

저자 : Hyung Gyu Jeon , Inje Lee , Sae Yong Lee , Sunghe Ha

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 95-103 (9 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal gait performance, function, and pain of lower-extremity according to foot morphological characteristics.
Method: This case-control study recruited 42 adults and they were classified into 3 groups according to foot morphology using navicular-drop test: pronated (≥ 10 mm), normal (5~9 mm), and supinated (≤ 4 mm) feet. Spatiotemporal gait analysis and questionnaires including Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activities of daily living / Sports, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Tegner activity score were conducted. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The pronated feet group showed longer loading response and double limb support in both feet and increased pre-swing phase in non-dominant feet. The supinated feet group demonstrated a longer swing phase in non-dominant feet and single limb support in dominant feet. However, there was no significant group difference in function and pain of knee joint and lower-extremity between groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that abnormal spatiotemporal gait performance according to foot morphology. Although there was no difference in lower extremity dysfunction and pain according to the difference in foot morphology, they have the possibility of symptom occurs as a result of continuous participation in activities of daily living and sports. Therefore, individuals with pronated or supinated foot should be supplemented by utilizing an orthosis or training to restore normal gait performance.

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4뒤꿈치 들기 자세를 이용한 전신진동 운동이 외발서기 시 근신경 반응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Dae Dong Kim , Myeounggon Lee , Changhong Youm

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 104-112 (9 pages)

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Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effects of consecutive whole body vibration through heel raise posture on the center of pressure and electromyography of anterior tibial muscle, lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during single-leg stance.
Method: The subjects of this study included 30 healthy males in their 20's, with the following inclusion criteria: no history of orthopaedic medical history, no participation in regular exercises, no history of whole body vibration exercise, and right leg being the dominant leg. The experimental procedure involved pretreatment measurement of eye open single-leg stance, application of whole body vibration for 30 seconds, post-treatment measurement (3 measurements in total). Static and dynamic movements have been measured over 2 separate experiments, with 72 hours gap between the experiments. Static movement involved maintaining single-leg heel raise posture for 30 seconds while applying whole body vibration, and dynamic movement involved heel raise (15 repetitions over 30 seconds) while applying whole body vibration. The strength of applied whole body vibration was 35 Hz frequency and 2~4 mm amplitude.
Results: As the single-leg posture after static heel raise posture, mediolateral velocity of the center of pressure at post 2 and post 3 were significantly reduced compared to the pre-treatment measurement. In addition, the percentage for reference voluntary contraction in anterior tibial muscle and soleus and median frequency at anterior tibial muscle and lateral gastrocnemius muscle at post 3 were significantly decreased compared to the pre-treatment value. As the single-leg posture after dynamic heel raise posture, the mediolateral 95% edge frequency of the center of pressure and median frequency at anterior tibial muscle, lateral gastrocnemius muscle, and soleus muscle at post 3 were significantly reduced compared to the pre-treatment value.
Conclusion: Acute whole body vibration via static and dynamic heel raise posture have positive effect on mediolateral posture control during single-leg stance.

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5양발 드롭랜딩 시 만성적인 발목 불안정성 유무에 따른 하지주요관절의 역학적 특성

저자 : Kyoungkyu Jeon , Jinhee Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-118 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences of landing strategy between people with or without chronic ankle instability (CAI) during double-leg drop landing.
Method: 34 male adults participated in this study (CAI = 16, Normal = 18). Participants performed double-leg drop landing task on a 30 cm height and 20 cm horizontal distance away from the force plate. Lower Extremities Kinetic and Kinematic data were obtained using 8 motion capture cameras and 2 force plates and loading rate was calculated. Independent samples t-test were used to identify differences between groups.
Results: Compared with normal group, CAI group exhibits significantly less hip internal rotation angle (CAI = 1.52±8.12, Normal = 10.63±8.44, p = 0.003), greater knee valgus angle (CAI = -6.78±5.03, Normal = -12.38 ±6.78, p = 0.011), greater ankle eversion moment (CAI = 0.0001±0.02, Normal = -0.03±0.05, p = 0.043), greater loading Rate (CAI = 32.65±15.52, Normal = 18.43±10.87, p = 0.003) on their affected limb during maximum vertical Ground Reaction Force moment.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that CAI group exhibits compensatory movement to avoid ankle inversion during double-leg drop landing compared with normal group. Further study about how changed kinetic and kinematic affect shock absorption ability and injury risk in participants with CAI is needed.

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6골프 선수와 일반 성인의 동적 균형 제어에 대한 연구

저자 : Jun-sung Park , Young-tae Lim , Jae-woo Lee , Moon-seok Kwon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 119-125 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dynamic postural balance control against tilting platform between golfers and non-golfers.
Method: 24 golfers and 26 non-golfers were participated. Eight motion capture cameras, two force plates, and one dynamic balance control platform were used for sensory perception test. It was performed two-way repeated ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment at a significant level of a 0.05.
Results: Golfers' perception ability was higher than non-golfer according to slope. the CoP, time, angle variables were indicated main effect and interaction effect between golfer and non-golfer.
Conclusion: It was known that golfer's proprioception perception ability was higher than non-golfers. Repeated practice such as shots and putting on the uneven ground might improve their balance control.

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7드롭랜딩 시 시선 방향의 차이가 하지관절의 안정성과 협응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Kewwan Kim , Seji Ahn

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 126-132 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how three gaze directions (bottom, normal, up) affects the coordination and stability of the lower limb during drop landing.
Method: 20 female adults (age: 21.1±1.1 yrs, height: 165.7±6.2 cm, weight: 59.4±5.9 kg) participated in this study. Participants performed single-leg drop landing task on a 30 cm height and 20 cm horizontal distance away from the force plate. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained using 8 motion capture cameras and 1 force plates and leg stiffness, loading rate, DPSI were calculated. All statistical analyses were computed by using SPSS 25.0 program. One-way repeated ANOVA was used to compared the differences between the variables in the direction of gaze. To locate the differences, Bonferroni post hoc was applied if significance was observed.
Results: The hip flexion angle and ankle plantar flexion angle were significantly smaller when the gaze direction was up. In the kinetic variables, when the gaze direction was up, the loading rate and DPSI were significantly higher than those of other gaze directions.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that decreased hip and ankle flexion angles, increased loading rate and DPSI when the gaze direction was up. This suggests that the difference in visual information can increase the risk of injury to the lower limb during landing.

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8오버핸드 그립과 언더핸드 그립, 무엇이 컨벤셔널 데드리프트에 효과적일까?

저자 : Jaeho Kim , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 133-139 (7 pages)

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Objective: This study aims to verify the conventional deadlift motions using by two different grips, thereby elucidating the grounds for effective training methods that can minimize the risk of injury.
Method: Total of 18 healthy young adults were recruited for this study (age: 25.11±2.19 yrs., height: 175.67±5.22 cm, body mass: 78.5±8.09 kg, 1-RM: 125.75±19.48 kg). All participants were asked to perform conventional deadlift with two types of grips which are overhand grip (OG) and underhand grip (UG). In each grip, participant perform the deadlift with 50% and 80% of the pre-measured 1-RM. A 3-dimensional motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras and 3 channels of EMG was performed in this study. A two-way ANOVA (group × load) with repeated measure was used for statistical verification. The significant level was set at α=.05.
Results: There were significant differences in grip type and weight on the right shoulder joint, and only significant difference in grip on the left shoulder joint (p<.05). The hip joint ROM was significantly increased as the weight increased in both types of grips on phase 1, while the ROM of hip joint was significantly decreased as the weight increased only in the case of OG on phase 2 (p<.05). In case of the OG, as the weight, increased significantly increased L1 ROM and L3 ROM were revealed on phase 1 and phase 2, respectively (p<.05). Moreover, as the weight increased, UG revealed significantly decreased L5 ROM on phase 1, while both grips showed significantly increased ROM on phase 2 (p<.05). In addition, the erector spinae and the biceps femoris, which are synergist for the motion, showed a significant difference in both types of grip according to the weight (p<.05). The muscle activity ratio of gluteus maximus/biceps femoris showed a significant difference only in the UG according to the weight (p<.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, beginners might be suggested to use the UG for maintaining the neutral state of the lumbar spine and focus on the gluteus maximus muscle, which is the main activation muscle. For the experts, it may recommend alternative use of the OG and UG according to the training purpose to minimize the compensation effect.

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9등척성 무릎 토크 발생 시 사전활성화 유형의 차이가 최대 자발적 토크 생성에 미치는 영향

저자 : Jong-ah Kim , Narae Shin , Sungjune Lee , Dayuan Xu , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 140-147 (8 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanism of changes in maximum voluntary torque with the magnitude and duration of pre-activation torque during voluntary isometric knee extension.
Method: 11 male subjects (age: 25.91±2.43 yrs., height: 173.12±3.51 cm, weight: 76.45±7.74 kg) participated in this study. The subjects were required to produce maximal voluntary isometric torque with a particular pre-activation torque condition. The properties of pre-activation torque consisted of the combinations of 1) three levels of magnitude, e.g., 32 Nm, 64 Nm, 96 Nm, and 2) two levels of duration, e.g., 1 sec, and 3 sec; thus, a total of six conditions were given to the subjects. The force and EMG data were measured using the force transducers and wireless EMG sensor, respectively.
Results: The results showed that the maximum voluntary torque increased the most with relatively large and fast (96 Nm, 1 sec) pre-activation condition. Similarly, with relatively large and fast (96 Nm, 1 sec) pre-activation, it was found that the integrated EMG (iEMG) of the agonist muscles increased, while no significant changes in the co-contraction of the antagonist muscles for the knee extension. Also, the effect of pre-activation conditions on the rate of torque development was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The current findings suggest that relatively larger in magnitude and shorter in duration as the properties of pre-activation lead to a larger magnitude of maximal voluntary torque, possibly due to the increased activity of the agonist muscles during knee extension.

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10역도 인상, 용상 기록향상과 관계가 높은 주요 훈련종목 추출

저자 : Young Jin Moon , Tae Min Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 148-153 (6 pages)

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Objective: It is to extract training items that have a high relationship with the improvement of weightlifting records through correlation and regression analysis between training methods used commonly in the field and Snatch records and jerk records. Through this, it is intended to promote training efficiency to improve the records of weightlifters.
Method: For 90 elite weightlifters of the professional teams, 4 groups (lightweight (30 people): 61 kg, 67 kg, 73 kg., middleweight (30 people): 81 kg, 89 kg, 96 kg., heavyweight (30 people): 102 kg, 109 kg, +109 kg., the whole group (90 people)) were divided. At the significance level of 0.05, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were performed between record of training methods used widely in the field and Snatch records and Jerk records.
Results: First, the better the record in Jerk, the better the Snatch record. Second, the three training methods HS, ForceS and WP performed in the field were all found to be important factors related to the improvement of Snatch record. Third, In the jerk where there are more types of training than Snatch, three training methods (HC, ForceS, BPP) appeared to be an important training method for improving the jerk record.
Conclusion: While many training methods have been devised and carried out in the field, 3 types of training (HS, ForceS, WP) for improving Snatch record and 3 types of training (HC, ForceS, BPP) for improving Jerk record was found to be the most influential training method. Since all of them showed a large value of explanatory power by regression analysis, it is considered that this study is meaningful in that it can promote training efficiency by simplifying although there are many types of training for athletes.

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