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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원> Seoul Journal of Korean Studies> Community, Outsider, and Literature: Memorial Stones for Stone Bridges of the Chosŏn Dynasty and “The Epigraph of Kwangnigyo”

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Community, Outsider, and Literature: Memorial Stones for Stone Bridges of the Chosŏn Dynasty and “The Epigraph of Kwangnigyo”

Kyusik Sim
  • : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
  • : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 06월
  • : 87-121(35pages)
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies

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This study examines the bridge memorial stones of Chosŏn, considering the intersection between public literature and exile literature. Bridge memorial stones are erected to commemorate stone bridge construction in a community. The entire community―from the local administration to the people―contributed to the bridge construction and the compositon of the epigraphs on bridge memorial stones. The genre developed into a type of public literature, forming a practical style without personal narratives. This paper categorizes the contents of bridge memorial stones into three parts: prose, verse, and name lists, and analyzes the general characteristics and literary style of each part. Furthermore, this paper introduces “The Epigraph of Kwangnigyo” by the exile Sim Yŏlchi (1707-1759?) and compares it with conventional epigraphs of bridge memorial stones in Chosŏn. Although written by an outsider to the Kijang (Gijang) community, it captured the local identity by adopting folklore of the dragon king Kwangniwang and affirmed the leading power of the local people. In addition, the author included an image of himself as marginalized from the community in a fictional story. This unique manuscript presents a new perspective on exile literature as a result of active participation in a community.

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  • : 인문과학분야  > 한국사
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 반년간
  • : 1225-0201
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1988-2021
  • : 488


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1All Are the Ruler's Domain, but All Are Different: Mongol-Yuan Rule and Koryŏ Sovereignty in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries

저자 : King Kwong Wong

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-30 (30 pages)

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During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Mongols incorporated Koryŏ through a myriad of interstate relations. Either approaching from the Tributary-Investiture practice or from the thesis of Koryŏ as a part of the Mongol empire, scholars have previously focused on only one of the many aspects of Koryŏ-Yuan relations to provide a clear picture. By examining the institution of the Branch Secretariat for the Eastern Campaign and Koryŏ graduates of the Yuan civil service examination and their concepts of sovereignty, this paper suggests a new direction to consider Koryŏ-Yuan relations, in which sovereignty and allegiance were not so clear-cut. The Mongols originally established the Branch Secretariat in Koryŏ to facilitate their invasions of Japan. But the Branch Secretariat continued to evolve and became a political institution that symbolized the Mongols' sovereignty over Koryŏ and conferred on Koryŏ literati political and legal statuses to partake in the Yuan civil service examination and to attain offices in the empire after graduation. This, by no means, suggests that these Koryŏ literati shifted their allegiance. Rather, one example, Yi Kok (1298-1351), defended Koryŏ's autonomy by appealing to the Mongols' Confucian rhetoric and emphasizing the difference between Koryŏ and Yuan. The Mongols' use of a Confucian legitimation strategy―the concept of All-under-Heaven―ironically became a means for Koryo literati to subvert certain elements of the Mongols' sovereignty. At the same time, their appeals also acknowledged the Mongols' right to rule All-under-Heaven. This paper thus reveals the ambiguity of Koryŏ-Yuan relations and concepts of sovereignty.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

2Dealing with Uncertainty: Divination During the Imjin War (1592-1598) as Recorded in O Huimun's Swaemirok

저자 : Michael C. E. Fin Ch

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 31-52 (22 pages)

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O Huimun, a Joseon yangban who had never passed the civil service examination and consequently never been appointed to a government position, was travelling around Jeolla Province in 1592 when the first Japanese invasion of the Imjin War (1592-1598) occurred. From the outset of his travels at the end of 1591 until his return to Seoul early in 1601, O Huimun kept an almost unbroken daily record of his and his family's life experiences as they struggled to survive in the adverse conditions of wartime Joseon. One of the most salient features of the “Gabo illok” (Daily record of the lunar year 1594) section of the diary is O Huimun's frequent recourse to divination during the time when he and his family were taking refuge in Imcheon 林川 in Chungcheong Province and came into contact with Yi Bongnyeong, a divination official (myeonggwagwan 命課官) in the Office of Observance of Natural Phenomena (Gwansanggam 觀象監) of the Joseon government, who was also taking refuge there. In order to help us better understand the daily life and world view of a Neo-Confucian yangban in mid-Joseon times, this article examines O Huimun's frequent recourse to Yi Bongnyeong's divination in relation to health matters, his daughter's marriage and childbirth, his sons' prospects in the civil service examination, and general fortune telling.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3The State Celebration Examination and the Civil Service Examination System in the Late Chosŏn Period

저자 : Hyun Soon Park

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 53-86 (34 pages)

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The implementation of a regularly scheduled civil service examination every three years was a common feature of the civil service examination systems in Chosŏn Korea, Ming and Qing China, and Le and Nguyễn Vietnam. In Chosŏn, however, the custom of implementing the civil service examination as an element of the rites marking the observance of “joyous occasions” (kyŏngsa 慶事) emerged in the fifteenth century. This particular type of examination was known as the “state celebration examination” (kyŏngkwa 慶科). As justifications for its implementation proliferated in the late Chosŏn period, the state celebration became the linchpin of the civil service examination system. While there emerged in China and Vietnam in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the “grace examination” (Ch. enke 恩科), a conceivable counterpart to the Korean state celebration examination, the justifications for and frequency of this examination were comparatively restricted. The centrality of the state celebration examination could thus be described as an important and unique characteristic of the civil service examination system in Korea. This article investigates the question of why state celebration examinations were held in Chosŏn. It focuses on the process by which the state celebration examination became so frequent in the late Chosŏn period in terms of the increasingly diverse justifications for its implementation.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Community, Outsider, and Literature: Memorial Stones for Stone Bridges of the Chosŏn Dynasty and “The Epigraph of Kwangnigyo”

저자 : Kyusik Sim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 87-121 (35 pages)

다운로드

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초록보기

This study examines the bridge memorial stones of Chosŏn, considering the intersection between public literature and exile literature. Bridge memorial stones are erected to commemorate stone bridge construction in a community. The entire community―from the local administration to the people―contributed to the bridge construction and the compositon of the epigraphs on bridge memorial stones. The genre developed into a type of public literature, forming a practical style without personal narratives. This paper categorizes the contents of bridge memorial stones into three parts: prose, verse, and name lists, and analyzes the general characteristics and literary style of each part. Furthermore, this paper introduces “The Epigraph of Kwangnigyo” by the exile Sim Yŏlchi (1707-1759?) and compares it with conventional epigraphs of bridge memorial stones in Chosŏn. Although written by an outsider to the Kijang (Gijang) community, it captured the local identity by adopting folklore of the dragon king Kwangniwang and affirmed the leading power of the local people. In addition, the author included an image of himself as marginalized from the community in a fictional story. This unique manuscript presents a new perspective on exile literature as a result of active participation in a community.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5The “Bunce Plan” and the Aborted Land Reform of 1946

저자 : Il-young Jung

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 123-157 (35 pages)

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The first land reform in South Korea after liberation from Japanese colonial rule took place in 1948, three years after US forces established a military government in the south. While the 1948 land reform is often evaluated as a success, less attention is given as to why it took so long to be carried out, especially when demand was high among people in a postcolonial agricultural society still suffering from long-term exploitation. The focus of this research is to take a closer look at the earlier years of US occupation on the Korean Peninsula, and examine the events leading up to the first plan for land reform in 1946, the so-called “Bunce plan.” Addressing the question as to why it failed, based on an analysis of the early postcolonial situation in the South, this research argues that the inconsistency of policy decisions and structural weakness of the occupation regime led to an overall delay of many social and economic reforms, including the redistribution of farmland.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6The Perfect Man: The Ideal Imaginary Beauty of K-pop Idols for Chilean Fans

저자 : Wonjung Min

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 159-194 (36 pages)

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This paper aims to determine why Chilean fans of K-pop enjoy the incompatible aesthetics of K-pop idols. It will analyze the variation of the ideal of beauty according to socioeconomic level in Chile and fans' perception of the beauty canons of K-pop. Hypothesizing that the relationship between race (rather skin color) and class in Chile affects K-pop consumption, this study will delve into why the canon of beauty attracts Chilean fans, despite the contrast that exists with the Chilean canon of male beauty. Latin American culture is constituted by sexual roles marked and determined by gender (Cristian Valenzuela 2015); these roles perpetuate male superiority based on the figure of the male. Specifically, the hegemonic masculinity present in the region stands out for having such characteristics as strength, rationality, seriousness, domination, heterosexuality, and sexual activity. Asians are often called Chino, and K-pop fans are considered strange. Though Chileans tend to conflate all Asian pop cultures, they are particularly suspicious of the sexual identity of K-pop fans. Based on a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with sixteen upper-class and twenty middle-lower-class Chileans, this paper investigates how Chilean K-pop fans consume and negotiate with the aesthetics of K-pop in a conservative, European-oriented, oligarchic society.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7The Fantasy Garden in East Asian Tradition: A Case Study of a Garden Record in Seo Yugu's Treatises on Rural Living

저자 : Hui Zou , Myengsoo Seo

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 195-222 (28 pages)

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This paper presents an annotated translation and hermeneutic interpretation of a garden record in Seo Yugu's nineteenth-century Korean encyclopedia Treatises on Rural Living (Imwon gyeongje ji 林園經濟志). This particular garden record is about a fantasy garden called To-Become Garden (Jangchwiwon 將就園). The translation, historical annotations, and hermeneutic interpretation presented in this paper help define the concept of a fantasy garden in East Asian architecture and uncover the Taoist hermitage in the humanistic, social, and environmental context of premodern Korea, at a time when Korea was experiencing a philosophical shift from traditional Neo-Confucianism to the emerging social movement of “practical learning” (Sirhak). This paper demonstrates that Seo's encyclopedic composition of garden theories mixes his cultural perception of Korean mountain landscapes, his life experience of a practical hermitage, and his fantasy of a Taoist paradise. A comparison is drawn between Seo's philosophy of life and Western critical philosophy at the dawn of modernity.

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During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Mongols incorporated Koryŏ through a myriad of interstate relations. Either approaching from the Tributary-Investiture practice or from the thesis of Koryŏ as a part of the Mongol empire, scholars have previously focused on only one of the many aspects of Koryŏ-Yuan relations to provide a clear picture. By examining the institution of the Branch Secretariat for the Eastern Campaign and Koryŏ graduates of the Yuan civil service examination and their concepts of sovereignty, this paper suggests a new direction to consider Koryŏ-Yuan relations, in which sovereignty and allegiance were not so clear-cut. The Mongols originally established the Branch Secretariat in Koryŏ to facilitate their invasions of Japan. But the Branch Secretariat continued to evolve and became a political institution that symbolized the Mongols' sovereignty over Koryŏ and conferred on Koryŏ literati political and legal statuses to partake in the Yuan civil service examination and to attain offices in the empire after graduation. This, by no means, suggests that these Koryŏ literati shifted their allegiance. Rather, one example, Yi Kok (1298-1351), defended Koryŏ's autonomy by appealing to the Mongols' Confucian rhetoric and emphasizing the difference between Koryŏ and Yuan. The Mongols' use of a Confucian legitimation strategy―the concept of All-under-Heaven―ironically became a means for Koryo literati to subvert certain elements of the Mongols' sovereignty. At the same time, their appeals also acknowledged the Mongols' right to rule All-under-Heaven. This paper thus reveals the ambiguity of Koryŏ-Yuan relations and concepts of sovereignty.

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2Dealing with Uncertainty: Divination During the Imjin War (1592-1598) as Recorded in O Huimun's Swaemirok

저자 : Michael C. E. Fin Ch

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 31-52 (22 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

O Huimun, a Joseon yangban who had never passed the civil service examination and consequently never been appointed to a government position, was travelling around Jeolla Province in 1592 when the first Japanese invasion of the Imjin War (1592-1598) occurred. From the outset of his travels at the end of 1591 until his return to Seoul early in 1601, O Huimun kept an almost unbroken daily record of his and his family's life experiences as they struggled to survive in the adverse conditions of wartime Joseon. One of the most salient features of the “Gabo illok” (Daily record of the lunar year 1594) section of the diary is O Huimun's frequent recourse to divination during the time when he and his family were taking refuge in Imcheon 林川 in Chungcheong Province and came into contact with Yi Bongnyeong, a divination official (myeonggwagwan 命課官) in the Office of Observance of Natural Phenomena (Gwansanggam 觀象監) of the Joseon government, who was also taking refuge there. In order to help us better understand the daily life and world view of a Neo-Confucian yangban in mid-Joseon times, this article examines O Huimun's frequent recourse to Yi Bongnyeong's divination in relation to health matters, his daughter's marriage and childbirth, his sons' prospects in the civil service examination, and general fortune telling.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

3The State Celebration Examination and the Civil Service Examination System in the Late Chosŏn Period

저자 : Hyun Soon Park

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 53-86 (34 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

The implementation of a regularly scheduled civil service examination every three years was a common feature of the civil service examination systems in Chosŏn Korea, Ming and Qing China, and Le and Nguyễn Vietnam. In Chosŏn, however, the custom of implementing the civil service examination as an element of the rites marking the observance of “joyous occasions” (kyŏngsa 慶事) emerged in the fifteenth century. This particular type of examination was known as the “state celebration examination” (kyŏngkwa 慶科). As justifications for its implementation proliferated in the late Chosŏn period, the state celebration became the linchpin of the civil service examination system. While there emerged in China and Vietnam in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the “grace examination” (Ch. enke 恩科), a conceivable counterpart to the Korean state celebration examination, the justifications for and frequency of this examination were comparatively restricted. The centrality of the state celebration examination could thus be described as an important and unique characteristic of the civil service examination system in Korea. This article investigates the question of why state celebration examinations were held in Chosŏn. It focuses on the process by which the state celebration examination became so frequent in the late Chosŏn period in terms of the increasingly diverse justifications for its implementation.

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

This study examines the bridge memorial stones of Chosŏn, considering the intersection between public literature and exile literature. Bridge memorial stones are erected to commemorate stone bridge construction in a community. The entire community―from the local administration to the people―contributed to the bridge construction and the compositon of the epigraphs on bridge memorial stones. The genre developed into a type of public literature, forming a practical style without personal narratives. This paper categorizes the contents of bridge memorial stones into three parts: prose, verse, and name lists, and analyzes the general characteristics and literary style of each part. Furthermore, this paper introduces “The Epigraph of Kwangnigyo” by the exile Sim Yŏlchi (1707-1759?) and compares it with conventional epigraphs of bridge memorial stones in Chosŏn. Although written by an outsider to the Kijang (Gijang) community, it captured the local identity by adopting folklore of the dragon king Kwangniwang and affirmed the leading power of the local people. In addition, the author included an image of himself as marginalized from the community in a fictional story. This unique manuscript presents a new perspective on exile literature as a result of active participation in a community.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

5The “Bunce Plan” and the Aborted Land Reform of 1946

저자 : Il-young Jung

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 123-157 (35 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

The first land reform in South Korea after liberation from Japanese colonial rule took place in 1948, three years after US forces established a military government in the south. While the 1948 land reform is often evaluated as a success, less attention is given as to why it took so long to be carried out, especially when demand was high among people in a postcolonial agricultural society still suffering from long-term exploitation. The focus of this research is to take a closer look at the earlier years of US occupation on the Korean Peninsula, and examine the events leading up to the first plan for land reform in 1946, the so-called “Bunce plan.” Addressing the question as to why it failed, based on an analysis of the early postcolonial situation in the South, this research argues that the inconsistency of policy decisions and structural weakness of the occupation regime led to an overall delay of many social and economic reforms, including the redistribution of farmland.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

6The Perfect Man: The Ideal Imaginary Beauty of K-pop Idols for Chilean Fans

저자 : Wonjung Min

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 159-194 (36 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

This paper aims to determine why Chilean fans of K-pop enjoy the incompatible aesthetics of K-pop idols. It will analyze the variation of the ideal of beauty according to socioeconomic level in Chile and fans' perception of the beauty canons of K-pop. Hypothesizing that the relationship between race (rather skin color) and class in Chile affects K-pop consumption, this study will delve into why the canon of beauty attracts Chilean fans, despite the contrast that exists with the Chilean canon of male beauty. Latin American culture is constituted by sexual roles marked and determined by gender (Cristian Valenzuela 2015); these roles perpetuate male superiority based on the figure of the male. Specifically, the hegemonic masculinity present in the region stands out for having such characteristics as strength, rationality, seriousness, domination, heterosexuality, and sexual activity. Asians are often called Chino, and K-pop fans are considered strange. Though Chileans tend to conflate all Asian pop cultures, they are particularly suspicious of the sexual identity of K-pop fans. Based on a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with sixteen upper-class and twenty middle-lower-class Chileans, this paper investigates how Chilean K-pop fans consume and negotiate with the aesthetics of K-pop in a conservative, European-oriented, oligarchic society.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

7The Fantasy Garden in East Asian Tradition: A Case Study of a Garden Record in Seo Yugu's Treatises on Rural Living

저자 : Hui Zou , Myengsoo Seo

발행기관 : 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 간행물 : Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 195-222 (28 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

This paper presents an annotated translation and hermeneutic interpretation of a garden record in Seo Yugu's nineteenth-century Korean encyclopedia Treatises on Rural Living (Imwon gyeongje ji 林園經濟志). This particular garden record is about a fantasy garden called To-Become Garden (Jangchwiwon 將就園). The translation, historical annotations, and hermeneutic interpretation presented in this paper help define the concept of a fantasy garden in East Asian architecture and uncover the Taoist hermitage in the humanistic, social, and environmental context of premodern Korea, at a time when Korea was experiencing a philosophical shift from traditional Neo-Confucianism to the emerging social movement of “practical learning” (Sirhak). This paper demonstrates that Seo's encyclopedic composition of garden theories mixes his cultural perception of Korean mountain landscapes, his life experience of a practical hermitage, and his fantasy of a Taoist paradise. A comparison is drawn between Seo's philosophy of life and Western critical philosophy at the dawn of modernity.

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