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조선대학교 치의학연구원(구 조선대학교 구강생물학연구소)> Oral Biology Research (OBR)> Effect of erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of resorbable blast media titanium

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Effect of erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of resorbable blast media titanium

So-won Uhm , In-seok Lee , Bo-hyun Kim , Young-joon Kim
  • : 조선대학교 치의학연구원
  • : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 06월
  • : 49-58(10pages)
Oral Biology Research (OBR)

DOI


목차

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conflict of Interest
ORCID
References

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초록 보기

Er:YAG laser irradiation can modify the surface characteristics of titanium surface. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser irradiation on mechanical, chemical, and biological characteristics of resorbable blast media (RBM) titanium surfaces. RBM disks were divided into 4 groups. Control groups were nonirradiated RBM disks. Laser irradiated groups were divided into the RBM-50, RBM-100, and RBM-250 group which irradiated Er:YAG laser at energy level 50, 100, and 250 mJ/pulse, respectively. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, whereas the RBM-50 group showed slightly melted surface area, RBM-100 and RBM- 250 groups showed broken areas caused by Er:YAG laser. Laser irradiated groups had significantly higher roughness than the control group. The roughness of the RBM-50 group was comparable with the RBM-100 group and significantly lower than the RBM-250 group (p<0.05). In X-ray diffractometer analysis of the laser irradiated group, Ti (002) (rutile) proportion to Ti (101) (anatase) was decreased according to energy level. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, RBM-50 and RBM-100 groups show the crystal change from acidic Ti-OH to basic Ti-OH. MC3T3-E1 cells of all groups adhered and proliferated well on the surfaces and their morphology was not different between groups in SEM images. The alkaline phosphatase activity levels of RBM-50 and RBM-100 groups showed higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, within the limitations of this study, Er:YAG laser irradiation at low energy levels can modify mechanical and chemical characteristics of the RBM surface, leading to improve the biological responses of osteoblastic cells on the surface.

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간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 기초치의학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 2508-2558
  • : 2508-2566
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1978-2021
  • : 1462


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1Evaluation of superoxide dismutase 3, heme-oxygenase, and myeloperoxidase expression levels associated with oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis

저자 : Yong Yoon , Hyerin Kim , Jae Mok Lee

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 99-106 (8 pages)

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This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), heme-oxygenase (HO), and myeloperoxidase (MPOs), which are known to be associated with oxidative stress induction in chronic inflammatory conditions like periodontitis. We compared the expression levels of SOD3, HO, and MPO in the periodontal tissues of healthy individuals with those in the periodontal tissues of chronic periodontitis patients. The expression levels of SOD3, HO, and MPO were determined by Western blot technique, and the data were statistically analyzed. The expression levels of SOD3 and HO increased in periodontitis patients compared with those in healthy controls, and the degree of increase was dependent on the severity of periodontitis (p<0.05). In contrast, the expression level of MPO was lower in the periodontal tissues of healthy controls than that in the periodontal tissues of periodontitis patients (p<0.05). SOD and HO are involved in oxidative stress via antioxidative activity, and MPO is involved in oxidative stress via peroxidative activity. Hence, these findings suggest that antioxidative activity depends on the severity of inflammation. In conclusion, SOD3, HO, and MPO may play a role in oxidative stress-induced periodontitis, and these three factors may be related to the severity of inflammation. These factors are expected to be applied to the diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis through more comprehensive studies.

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2Nasal packing with bupivacaine during nasotracheal intubation can reduce intubation-related epistaxis

저자 : Ho Kyung Yu , Jiyoung Park , Young-hoon Kang , Hee Bin Park , Sung Il Bae , Soo Hee Lee , Seong-ho Ok , Sang-ho Jeong , Miyeong Park

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 107-114 (8 pages)

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Epistaxis often is caused by nasal mucosal damage and vascular injury after nasotracheal (NT) intubation. Bupivacaine constricts blood vessels at low concentrations and dilates them at high concentrations. In this study, in which we evaluated the effects of intranasal packing with bupivacaine to prevent epistaxis and pain induced by NT intubation, we classified 180 patients into three groups: an untreated group (n=60), a group pretreated with epinephrine (n=60), and a group pretreated with bupivacaine (n=60). In all groups, we used nasal Ring-Adair-Elwyn tubes with the thermosoftening method for NT intubation. We classified the degree of epistaxis as Grade 0 (none), Grade 1 (mild), Grade 2 (moderate), or Grade 3 (severe). We assessed postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nose pain in the recovery room. We found that the incidence of epistaxis in the group pretreated with bupivacaine was significantly less than was that of the untreated group (55% vs. 35%, p<0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed a reduction in epistaxis with bupivacaine nasal packing (odds ratio=0.689, 95% confidence interval=0.478, 0.992). Postoperative VAS scores after 30 minutes in the nasal area were lower in the group pretreated with bupivacaine than were those in the untreated group or the group pretreated with epinephrine (p<0.05). Therefore, we conclude that nasal packing with bupivacaine can help reduce epistaxis and nasal pain more effectively as compared to cases without pretreatment with this anesthetic.

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3Comparison between the Rapid ID 32 Strep test system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the identification of α-hemolytic streptococci

저자 : Si Young Lee

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 115-118 (4 pages)

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Oral viridans streptococcus is the most common bacterial species present in human dental plaque. The Rapid ID 32 Strep (bioMerieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) test system allows for the identification of most streptococci within 4 hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of this test in identifying isolates of α-hemolytic oral streptococci in human dental plaque and compare it with that of the 16S rRNA sequencing method. A total of eighty-five α-hemolytic streptococcal isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Rapid ID 32 Strep. The Rapid ID 32 Strep method correctly identified 80% of the species and 87% of the streptococcal groups but failed to accurately identify five isolates (three S. cristatus, one S. australis, and one S. tigurinus).

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4Differences in the accuracy of potato dextrose agar and CHROMagar media in diagnosing oral candidiasis

저자 : Hyun-jeong Park , Ji Hoo Kim , Ji-won Ryu

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 119-124 (6 pages)

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For the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, the most commonly used method is culturing the Candida strains acquired by rubbing the mucous membrane in the mouth using a sterile cotton swab on the medium. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and chromogenic CHROMagar media in diagnosing oral candidiasis. This study included patients diagnosed with oral candidiasis who visited Chosun University Dental Hospital between January 1, 2018 and February 28, 2019. All study subjects were tested using the culture method to diagnose oral candidiasis. For statistical analysis of this study, IBM SPSS version 25.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Cross analysis was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PDA and CHROMagar media as well as treatment effects and diagnoses using each medium. When diagnosed using PDA medium, the sensitivity was high at 91.3% but the specificity was relatively low at 46.0%. It was observed that the accuracy of the diagnosis method using PDA medium was relatively lower than that of the diagnosis method using CHROMagar medium. But the treatment effects in groups diagnosed with PDA medium were higher than those diagnosed with CHROMaga medium. According to the results of our study, CHROMagar medium is recommended for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis; as an alternative, a nonselective medium, such as PDA medium, can be used for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis.

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5Image findings of filler-related radiopacities and multiple miliary osteoma in facial region

저자 : Young-eun Kwon , Seo-young An

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 125-134 (10 pages)

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The identification of radiopacities in the facial region is important during routine radiographic examination. This study analyzed the radiographic findings of filler-related radiopacities (FRR) and multiple miliary osteomas (MMO) in this region using dental radiographs. Image data were obtained from patients at the Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)/CT data of patients with multiple facial radiopacities on plain images (panoramic and periapical images; 16 FRR and 224 MMO) were collected and matched with the corresponding conventional images. In the CBCT/CT images, the FRRs were mainly observed in the cheek (87.5%) and retromaxillary space (68.8%) whereas the MMOs were mostly located in the superficial areas of the cheek (81.3%) and chin (36.2%). The statistical differences were only in the retromaxillary space (p<0.05). The FRRs were mostly ring-shaped (68.8%) or nodular in appearance (56.3%), whereas the MMOs presented as calcific foci (96.4%). The results of the chi-square test revealed statistically significant differences in the detection of FRRs and MMOs in the panoramic images (p<0.05), but not the periapical images. The FRRs were located in the deeper layers of the skin and were more diverse in appearance than the MMOs. Moreover, FRRs were better identified than MMO in the panoramic images. Dentists should have knowledges about image findings of FRRs and be able to differentiate them from MMOs based on the radiographic images.

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6Awareness of national health insurance-covered dental care of adults in Jeju province

저자 : Soobin Lee , Sung-joon Kim , Chan-woo Jo , Jaeman Woo

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 135-142 (8 pages)

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Advancements in medical care resulted in increase of average longevity. In turn, people have become more concerned about health, oral health, and quality of life. Such change has led to need for systematic and prevention-oriented healthcare service. This study aimed to provide preliminary information on the level of familiarity with national health insurance (NHI) benefits by the general public in order to help make decisions regarding education and advertisement policies. 337 adults who visited Korea Association of Health Promotion health examination center in Jeju were given self-administered surveys regarding personal oral health status, familiarity with NHI-covered procedures, and personal interest in oral health, and the results were analyzed statistically. 83.4% answered 'Yes,' to awareness of NHI coverage of dental scaling. Most people answered 'Yes' to awareness of the fact that NHI-covered dental scaling begins at 19 years of age, while relatively few people were familiar with NHI-covered denture and dental implant procedures. According to this study, many respondents were still not familiar with the expanded NHI coverage. Especially the younger population lacked information on NHI-covered denture and dental implant, indicating need for public education and advertisements. In order to efficiently advertise and educate, joint effort by the government and medical facilities is recommended. Utilization of social media in addition to the more traditional mass media should be effective in conveying information to the younger population. Age-appropriate education for policy change and coverage expansion regarding NHI-covered denture and dental implant is also advised.

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7Correction of facial asymmetry using a patient-specific three-dimensional printed polycarprolactone/beta tricalcium phosphate scaffold: a case report

저자 : Min-keun Kim , Jin-woo Han , Kwang-jun Kwon , Young-wook Park , Jin-hyung Shim

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 143-149 (7 pages)

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Facial asymmetry is difficult to correct mainly because of the large volume of implant required for reconstruction, which is hard to estimate. Computer-aided surgical planning using three-dimensional (3D)-printed implants is developing rapidly, with promising clinical results being reported in reconstructive, orthognathic, and other surgical fields. A 54-year-old male patient presented with facial asymmetry caused by fibular free flap displacement. This was surgically corrected using a customized, 3D-printed polycarprolactone/beta tricalcium phosphate scaffold. The implant fit well and was easily fixed to the right mandibular angle area, resulting in an improvement in the facial contour of the patient. Throughout the follow-up period, the PCL/β-TCP implant was detected using an ultrasonic device and remained without volumetric change. There was also no wound dehiscence or implant displacement. Thus, a patient-specific 3D-printed biodegradable scaffold can effectively facilitate surgical correction of facial asymmetry. However, facial contour sequelae, stability, and resorption must be assessed over a long-term follow-up period.

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8Clinical, histological, and deep learning-based assessments and treatment of oral verruciform xanthoma: a case report

저자 : Jae-hong Lee , Seong-nyum Jeong

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 150-155 (6 pages)

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Verruciform xanthoma is a benign growth found on the oral mucosa. Clinically, verruciform xanthoma is an asymptomatic lesion, and depending on the amount of keratin present on the surface of the oral mucosa, it can appear as a reddish-gray papillary, flat lesion or a slightly raised, rough lesion. The verrucous structure and exophytic properties of these lesions are similar to those of malignant tumors; therefore, histopathological assessment is required for an accurate and definitive diagnosis. The purpose of this case report is to present the clinical, histological, and deep learning-based assessments and treatment of verruciform xanthoma of the maxillary palatal gingiva.

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9Posterior dental implant prosthesis fabrication using double scanning technique: a case report

저자 : Jung Woo , Hyun-jun Park , Hee-jung Kim , Joo-hun Song

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 156-163 (8 pages)

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The disadvantages of the traditional approach for fabricating dental implant prostheses have been addressed via oral scanning and the use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems. The use of an intraoral scanner can eliminate the need for impression materials and impression trays, which are inconvenient for patients, particularly those with limited mouth opening or an overly sensitive gag reflex. Moreover, it can reduce the additional costs of fabricating, storing, and handling the patients' models. This case report describes the fabrication of a posterior implant prosthesis using double scanning technique, which produced satisfactory results both esthetically and functionally. The double scanning technique produces a more accurate image of the target region by overlapping data from both intraoral and extraoral scans. Therefore, it can address the disadvantages of both traditional and digital impressions, reduce patient discomfort, and decrease the incidence of remakes, which can arise due to potential errors during the fabrication process.

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1Effect of erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of resorbable blast media titanium

저자 : So-won Uhm , In-seok Lee , Bo-hyun Kim , Young-joon Kim

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 49-58 (10 pages)

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Er:YAG laser irradiation can modify the surface characteristics of titanium surface. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser irradiation on mechanical, chemical, and biological characteristics of resorbable blast media (RBM) titanium surfaces. RBM disks were divided into 4 groups. Control groups were nonirradiated RBM disks. Laser irradiated groups were divided into the RBM-50, RBM-100, and RBM-250 group which irradiated Er:YAG laser at energy level 50, 100, and 250 mJ/pulse, respectively. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, whereas the RBM-50 group showed slightly melted surface area, RBM-100 and RBM- 250 groups showed broken areas caused by Er:YAG laser. Laser irradiated groups had significantly higher roughness than the control group. The roughness of the RBM-50 group was comparable with the RBM-100 group and significantly lower than the RBM-250 group (p<0.05). In X-ray diffractometer analysis of the laser irradiated group, Ti (002) (rutile) proportion to Ti (101) (anatase) was decreased according to energy level. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, RBM-50 and RBM-100 groups show the crystal change from acidic Ti-OH to basic Ti-OH. MC3T3-E1 cells of all groups adhered and proliferated well on the surfaces and their morphology was not different between groups in SEM images. The alkaline phosphatase activity levels of RBM-50 and RBM-100 groups showed higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, within the limitations of this study, Er:YAG laser irradiation at low energy levels can modify mechanical and chemical characteristics of the RBM surface, leading to improve the biological responses of osteoblastic cells on the surface.

KCI등재

2Students' perceptions of the impact of video lectures with embedded quiz questions on e-learning in dentistry

저자 : Won-pyo Lee , Joo-hun Song

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 59-65 (7 pages)

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During the COVID-19 pandemic, e-learning has become more prevalent in dental education. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of video lectures with embedded quiz questions. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the preferences of each educational method for dental students (n=70) who took all three lecture types (offline lecture, Group 1; video lecture without embedded quiz, Group 2; and video lecture with embedded quiz, Group 3). In terms of other behaviors that imply the nonacademicrelated activities, Group 2 was significantly the highest, whereas in terms of lecture flow, it was the lowest. In terms of learning motivation and learning confidence, Group 3 lecture type was significantly preferred. In terms of communication with professor and communication with students, Group 1 was the most preferred, but there was no significant difference compared with Group 3. In terms of overall lecture satisfaction, Group 3 lecture type was significantly the highest. The e-learning method using video lectures with embedded quiz questions could be an effective alternative to traditional offline lectures in dental education.

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3Characterization of the hemin-binding property of Porphyromonas endodontalis

저자 : Eun Jeong Kim , Si Young Lee

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 66-74 (9 pages)

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Porphyromonas endodontalis, found in the root canal of teeth, requires iron for growth. However, the mechanism of iron uptake in P. endodontalis remains unclear. The ability of bacteria to utilize heme compounds to acquire iron for growth has been reported in some pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we analyzed the ability of P. endodontalis to obtain iron from heme compounds. Further, we investigated the hemin-binding characteristics of P. endodontalis and the relationship between hemin binding and Congo red binding. To confirm the bacterial growth in hemin-supplemented medium, iron was removed from the medium with an ironchelator, and hemin was supplemented to an iron-free medium. The hemin-binding characteristics of P. endodontalis were analyzed by incubating bacteria with hemin and measuring the optical density of the supernatant obtained via centrifugation, using hemin concentration standard curve. Although growth of P. endodontalis was not observed in the iron-depleted medium, it was observed in a hemin-supplemented medium. Further, hemin binding was dependent on the concentrations of hemin and bacteria. Hemin binding proceeded quickly in P. endodontalis, and the incubation temperature had no effect on this binding. Similar to hemin binding, Congo red binding of P. endodontalis was dependent on Congo red and bacterial concentrations. In addition, Congo red binding of P. endodontalis was inhibited by hemin prebinding. Hemin-agarose beads and SDS-PAGE were used to identify a 40-kDa protein that could be involved in hemin binding. The results showed that P. endodontalis could bind to and use hemin to obtain the iron required for growth.

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4Genetic diversity of the tet(M) gene in tetracycline-resistant oral streptococci

저자 : Dasul Jeong , Si Young Lee

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 75-81 (7 pages)

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Tetracycline resistance occurs at a high frequency among clinical isolates of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism and genetics of tetracycline resistance have not been extensively studied in streptococci, although the overwhelming majority of clinical isolates are tetracycline resistant. tet (M) is the most common tetracycline-resistance gene in streptococci. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of tet (M) genes in tetracycline-resistant oral streptococci from dental plaque. Streptococci were isolated from supragingival plaque samples of healthy persons. The isolates were then identified at the species level, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline was determined. Genomic DNA was extracted from tetracyclineresistant isolates and tet (M) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction with tet (M)-specific primers. The polymerase chain reaction products were cloned, DNA sequencing was performed, and the sequences were compared using an alignment program. The estimated nucleotide divergence between different tet (M) alleles ranged from 0.00% to 6.07% among oral streptococci. The tet(M) genes from oral streptococci consisted of regions similar in sequence, interspersed with regions that differed at some nucleotide sites, revealing a mosaic structure. The percent nucleotide divergence of tet(M) was unrelated to the MIC values of tetracycline for oral streptococci, and bacterial strains in the same streptococcal species showed different heterogeneity in tet(M). The divergences of tet(M) nucleotide sequences among oral streptococci were comparable with those of other bacterial genera. Our findings may provide basic information about the transposition processes associated with tet(M) in oral streptococci.

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5Identification and characterization of a hemagglutinin gene from Prevotella intermedia

저자 : Seok-woo Lee , Masaaki Okamoto , Kai P. Leung

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 82-89 (8 pages)

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In this study, we describe the cloning of a gene encoding hemagglutinin from Prevotella intermedia to characterize hemagglutinin function and elucidate its possible role in the infectious process mediated by the organism. We screened genomic libraries created in Escherichia coli JM109, using antibodies against P . intermedia , and the positive clones were subsequently tested for their hemagglutinating activity, using rabbit red blood cells. We isolated a clone of strain 0543 in which, a 3.6-kb P. intermedia chromosomal DNA fragment was inserted into the pUC18 plasmid. Our deletion analysis-based subcloning procedures identified a hemagglutinin gene―designated phg. The open-reading frame of phg encoded a 35-kDa protein, and the expression of a recombinant protein of the predicted size was observed in a fusion protein expression system. While the DNA analysis of phg revealed no homology to known DNA sequences, the putative promoter, ribosome binding, and transcriptional termination sequence were found in the flanking DNA regions. In the N-terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence, we found a consensus leader peptide sequence for secretory proteins. These findings indicate that hemagglutinin might be expressed on the surface of P. intermedia to mediate its function.

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6Controlled releasing properties of gelatin nanofabric device containing chlorhexidine

저자 : Dae-ung Park , Heung-sik Um , Beom-seok Chang , Si-young Lee , Ki-yeon Yoo , Won-youl Choi , Jae-kwan Lee

발행기관 : 조선대학교 치의학연구원 간행물 : Oral Biology Research (OBR) 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 90-98 (9 pages)

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We aimed to evaluate the degradation and antimicrobial activity of novel chlorhexidine-containing gelatin nanofabric devices and their cytotoxicity in animals. The electro-spun device with a size of 3.4.0.4 mm3 was prepared by entrapping chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) in a gelatin matrix. The devices were divided into three groups based on the CHX percentage (G1: 46%, G2: 50%, and G3: 54%), and the commercial product, PerioChip (CP), was used for the control group. We used an in vitro test for the degradation and antibacterial activity and investigated cytotoxicity using an in vivo test. Artificial saliva was used for the degradation test of chips and blood agar plates seeded with the oral bacteria Streptococcus sanguinis to address antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the devices were inserted between the skin and muscle of rat abdomens to evaluate infection and inflammatory reactions. We detected no obvious differences in the antibacterial or degradation test results between the test and control groups. In the histological analysis, the scaffold without CHX showed no signs of infection or inflammatory reaction. Both CHX-containing groups exhibited inflammation and necrosis in the muscle and skin, although the reaction in the test group was milder. In the degradation tests, antibacterial tests, and cytotoxic reactions in animal experiments, the electro-spun gelatin-based device showed similar results to those of the commercial device in the control group. Further studies on the quantitative analysis and clinical outcome evaluation of the electro-spun gelatin-based device in humans are necessary.

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