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영미문학연구회> 안과밖> 보이지 않는 하얀 손에 대항하여 : 연극 「김씨네 편의점」의 한흑관계 다시 쓰기

KCI등재

보이지 않는 하얀 손에 대항하여 : 연극 「김씨네 편의점」의 한흑관계 다시 쓰기

Against the Invisible White Hand: Rethinking Afro-Korean Relationship in Kim’s Convenience

나은하 ( Na Eunha )
  • : 영미문학연구회
  • : 안과밖 50권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 05월
  • : 101-124(24pages)
안과밖

DOI

10.46645/inoutsesk.50.3


목차

1. 들어가며
2. 20세기 미국 인종의 삼각관계와 한흑 갈등
3. 연극 「김씨네 편의점」에 나타나는 한흑관계 다시쓰기
4. 나가며

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In light of the latest Black Lives Matter movement, this essay revisits the convoluted Afro-Korean history in the U.S. that culminated in the 1992 Los Angeles riots to rethink the meaning of solidarity in the context of racial capitalism. The unprecedented global movement towards transnational and cross-racial alliances has evoked the history of racial triangulation and mutual struggle under white supremacy, as the two racial minorities have vied for political and cultural citizenship. Korean-Canadian writer Ins Choi’s 2011 stage play Kim’s Convenience offers a contemporary Korean American perspective on the changing contours of the Afro-Korean relationship at a time when previous forms of race-based community disintegrate following the logic of individual success and upward mobility. Set in a small corner store owned by a first-generation Korean immigrant located in a rapidly gentrifying neighborhood in Toronto, mundane interactions between the Kims and black customers remind the audience of particular racial perceptions and relationships that operate in this historically charged space within the American cultural imagination. As the play progresses, the Korean-owned convenience store becomes a performative site of transformation where racial histories are evoked and can be reimagined. Kim’s Convenience asks that we move beyond the racial past and envision a collective future against structural racism that persists in the form of transnational corporate capitalism.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-800-000525560

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1226-3761
  • : 2765-5695
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 935


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This paper examines Louisa May Alcott's alternative care community envisioned in her 1872 novel Work: A Story of Experience. Critics have interpreted Work mostly as a story navigating possibilities of female self-fulfillment and financial independence through paid work in 19th century America. In addition, they have construed the progress of the heroine Christie from a job market to a domestic realm in the latter half of the novel as a kind of regression from a feminist point of view. This article challenges the prevailing tendency in the current literature, reevaluating the notion of “work” as caring labor; moreover, it looks afresh at Christie's quest as an attempt to re-situate caring labor within the framework of anti-market and anti-patriarchal relations. Alcott's major works published in the 1860s and 1870s highlight the value of care and envision various forms of care-providing communities beyond the domain of Victorian home sustained by unpaid female care service. In Work Alcott criticizes the reality of care in 19th century American society not only in terms of gender division but also in terms of market economy transforming care into alienated and low-paid wage labor. Far from being a regression from a search for an independence to a normative domesticity, the female commune that Christie creates at the end of Work embodies Alcott's ideal of an alternative, non-exploitive care community. Some feminist scholars have been wary of discourses of care due to their association with the motherhood as the ultimate source of care labor. Nevertheless, Work and Alcott's other stories delving into the question of care demonstrate the radical potentials of care discourses as the catalyst for reconfiguration of socioeconomic structure and gender hierarchy.

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This essay reads Doris Lessing's maternal narrative in The Fifth Child as a critique of the myth of the autonomous individual and family, claiming that the novel's depictions of motherhood as institution and as experience invite us to rethink the main premises of the neoliberal gender regime. In the first section, I examine how the novel reveals the fundamental vulnerability of life facing the ills of society outside the Lovatt family circle. It turns out that what eventually supports their happy life is nothing but sheer luck, while it constantly demands maternal sacrifice and loss of agency. Recuperation of maternal agency, however, is not what this novel's critical stance aims at. Rather, as I argue in the second section, ethical dimensions of mothering emerge at the pivotal point of the narrative when Harriet takes the responsibility of caring for Ben and becomes his mother despite the impossibility of motherly love. Unlike her husband, Harriet cannot deny the claims of trans-individual connection with Ben. While this may be taken as yet another instance of self-sacrifice and subjection, Harrient's acceptance of Ben indicates the potential of maternal subjectivity that debunks the myths of the autonomous individual and moves towards communal notions of self and society.

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The presidency of Donald Trump, pandemics, and wars have triggered a widespread discussion of care theory. In the era when care has reentered “the zeitgeist,” radical care, “a set of vital but underappreciated strategies for enduring precarious worlds” has focused on constituting a feeling with, rather than a feeling for, others. This article, rereading the poems of Gwendolyn Brooks and Audre Lorde, explores the poetic praxis of these two poets as the form of radical care embodying othermothering in the community. In poems about Till and Glover, both Brooks and Lorde reflect the brutal realities of black people, which are narrated by mothering figures. Their mother-centered voices, whether they were of the actual mothers of victims or not, demonstrate how the poets confronted the violence of black community and how they sifted the importance of their collective identity-based care mostly fulfilled by women. This article goes on proposing that their poems show the responsibilities and potentialities of poetic practices that remind readers of the importance of radical care in contradiction to the self-care, or self-management, of neoliberal society. Revisiting the underexamined poetic praxis of these two African American poets, this article lastly aims at expanding the discourse of care as the driving force of new collective movements in today's world, especially along with the ongoing Black Lives Matter movement as well as the StopAsianHate movement.

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The anti-Asian racism that has manifested during the coronavirus pandemic recalls the long history of Asian racialization. It recalls the ways in which Asians have been imagined as a doubled figure to bear both racial otherness and historical transformation. The anti-Asian racism also hearkens back to the liminal space inhabited by the Asian body, a precarious position between human and inhuman. The Asian body exists as a sign, not an entity, on which a series of epidermal racial markers appear and onto which all the anxieties around the virus are projected in the displaced form of hate. As an anthropomorphized form for this pandemic's complex relation to human life, the Asiatic figure becomes a synecdoche for the unprecedented crisis in its retention of these old racial markers. Chang-rae Lee's On Such a Full Sea (2014) stages this blurred line in the category of race between discrimination (difference) and indiscrimination (identity) through the adventure of a “tiny” Asian girl, Fan. Analyzing the way in which Lee delves into Fan's unique animacy, this paper argues that On Such a Full Sea stylizes the figure of Asia in two ways. First, the writer coordinates, both in the text's form and content, the unique feature of Asian racialization in which the Asiatic figure is imagined as an emblem of crisis. Second, through Fan's movement and its impact upon other characters, Lee also renders the style as a mode of response to affective disturbances of the present and thereby shapes Fan as an embodiment of the crisis style.

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This paper explores the current crisis of local universities, and demonstrates the urgency of taking corrective actions to halt the decline of the non-metropolitan areas. The decrease in the school-age population as well as the students' preference for the universities in the metropolitan area makes the ongoing crisis for local universities. In addition, a lack of decent jobs often leads undergraduates to the metropolitan area. Consequently, non-metropolitan areas, suffering from the continuous outflow of young people to the metropolitan area, are faced up with the serious possibility of extinction, and local universities, impossible to be separated from local communities, will not be exceptions. The Ministry of Education launched a new project to support universities, but it will not be as successful as is expected: it does not make a good solution for the students' preference for the universities in the metropolitan area, and it does not present a long-term plan to fund departments of high technology. The solutions for the crisis of local universities begin with the clear recognition of the interconnectivity between non-metropolitan areas and their universities. A comprehensive plan should be devised to support local universities and prompt their functional specialization in regions, and fundamental studies, which might be weakened by the restructuring of departments, should be protected by a newly established public agency. More importantly, this crisis, if understood as the effects of the natural demographic change, and thus left unattended, will end up with the catastrophic contrast between the extinction of the non-metropolitan areas and the overconcentration of metropolitan area, and thus more efforts should be exerted to alleviate and finally solve the ongoing crisis of local universities.

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This paper examines the representation of the garret in Harriet Jacobs's slave narrative Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861). Applying Arnold van Gennep and Victor Turner's framework with specific focus on the liminal or marginal period in rites of passage, I argue that Incidents is an autobiographical slave narrative that highlights the danger of being a fugitive and thus the difficulty of becoming a freeman. As the narrative centers on Jacobs' almost seven years of experience in the garret, the ambiguous and unstable status of a fugitive slave in “betwixt and between” is clearly underlined. By turning her garret into a political space to manipulate the master, and breaking the taboos on a Christian woman, Jacobs attempts to protest and subvert the white male society and contests the boundaries of race, gender, and class. The garret thus functions as a haven and the site of retreat and resistance for Jacobs, however, it does not guarantee her to further step into the postliminal period for incorporation and becoming a freeman. Difficulty of being aggregated into a white society and abnormal extension of the liminal period reflect the suffering of colored people not only in Jacobs' America but also in today's when we still shout out “Black Lives Matter!”

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7보이지 않는 하얀 손에 대항하여 : 연극 「김씨네 편의점」의 한흑관계 다시 쓰기

저자 : 나은하 ( Na Eunha )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 50권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 101-124 (24 pages)

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In light of the latest Black Lives Matter movement, this essay revisits the convoluted Afro-Korean history in the U.S. that culminated in the 1992 Los Angeles riots to rethink the meaning of solidarity in the context of racial capitalism. The unprecedented global movement towards transnational and cross-racial alliances has evoked the history of racial triangulation and mutual struggle under white supremacy, as the two racial minorities have vied for political and cultural citizenship. Korean-Canadian writer Ins Choi's 2011 stage play Kim's Convenience offers a contemporary Korean American perspective on the changing contours of the Afro-Korean relationship at a time when previous forms of race-based community disintegrate following the logic of individual success and upward mobility. Set in a small corner store owned by a first-generation Korean immigrant located in a rapidly gentrifying neighborhood in Toronto, mundane interactions between the Kims and black customers remind the audience of particular racial perceptions and relationships that operate in this historically charged space within the American cultural imagination. As the play progresses, the Korean-owned convenience store becomes a performative site of transformation where racial histories are evoked and can be reimagined. Kim's Convenience asks that we move beyond the racial past and envision a collective future against structural racism that persists in the form of transnational corporate capitalism.

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8『길 위 1번지』, AI 제임스의 소설 : 「소설의 기술」과 인공신경망 알고리즘의 글쓰기

저자 : 윤미선 ( Yun Misun )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 50권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 124-154 (31 pages)

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This article explores the implications of 1 the Road (2018), a fiction produced by an artificial neural network, for the debate on machine creativity. Unlike most of the recent deeplearning writing programs, its creator Ross Goodwin traveled with this neural network machine from New York to New Orleans in a Cadillac equipped with a surveillance camera, a voice recognizer, and GPS. The AI thus had continuous feeds of fresh images and sounds, not unlike a novelist who hits the road searching for an experience. I argue that we can better understand this attempt of 1 the Road when discussed alongside Henry James's realist notion of fiction in his essay “The Art of Fiction” (1884). Even though James is often considered an arch-humanist in his belief that fiction is an expression of the unique personality of a novelist, his idea of experience offers a way of understanding Goodwin's machine as a creative writer. Its algorithmic operation―processing the new sense data via the CNN algorithm and producing the result as writing via the RNN algorithm―is strikingly similar to the workings of the novelist's mind in James's view. I do not argue that those sense data are unmediated, and this fact is reflected in the CNN's algorithm that imitates the human mind. In fact, James asserts that sensory data are the result of mediated selection, which can only be seen through the final result, the writing itself. What I propose is that regardless of whether the machine has a so-called “consciousness,” its writing can affect the reader in similar ways as does a text written by a human being. As long as it works as a linguistic medium to relate the “experience,” which is the algorithmic process of selection and transcription, it is a creative writer.

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9근대 초기 영국 희곡의 국외 연구동향 : 여성과 극장을 중심으로

저자 : 정유미 ( Jung Youmi )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 50권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 153-177 (25 pages)

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This paper surveys recent studies in early modern English drama with a focus on women's active involvement in the seventeenth-century dramatic production and theater culture. Questioning the powerful cultural paradigm of “the English all-male stage,” critics of the late 1990s called for a need to revise the literary and theater history that had largely excluded women. While feminist critics have brought to our attention how early modern women's literary activities were neglected in the literary criticism, their revisionist projects of discovering women writers comparable to Shakespeare or Jonson fail to account for the women's more extensive contribution to early modern drama and theater culture. In the recent scholarship, the notions of women's dramatic production and theatricality have been considerably expanded to include non-commercial dramatic genres and women's diverse roles and their work in and out of the theater. Pointing out how women thrived in some dramatic genres such as translation, closet drama, and household drama, critics have emphasized the interconnectedness between women's “private” drama and a variety of theatrical traditions and dramatic forms in commercial, public theater. Early modern women's theatricality has also been broadly expanded to reexamine the significance of women's court and street performances, French and Italian actresses in London streets, and women's off-stage or on-page contributions to early modern dramatic literature and performance. Such interdisciplinary efforts have uncovered a diverse range of female theatrical activities beyond the single-sex playhouse stages, which has changed our understanding of early modern drama including the plays of Shakespeare and other canonical authors.

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10제국의 시민권 : 2020년과 19세기 영국문학 연구

저자 : 설연지 ( Sol Yon Ji )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 50권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 176-200 (25 pages)

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This essay examines recent scholarship on imperialism and citizenship in nineteenth-century British literature. Against the backdrop of the coronavirus pandemic and the Black Lives Matter Movement of 2020, events that prompted worldwide discussions on citizenship rights and racial (in)justice, this essay interrogates the relative scarcity of scholarship on citizenship in the subfield of nineteenth-century British literature. Drawing on the postcolonial insight of the North American journal Victorian Studies's widely-discussed special issue for Spring 2020 titled “Undisciplining Victorian Studies,” this essay argues that studies on nineteenth-century citizenship requires an interdisciplinary approach connecting the achievements of diverse disciplines encompassing history, political science, sociology, and more. In the nineteenth century, the British people understood themselves as “British subjects” rather than citizens, which was not yet a concept fully legally embraced though the definition of citizenship was being actively developed in other contexts. Historically, discussions of British national citizenship focused on suffrage, which inevitably emphasized class as the central question. This essay proposes that gender and race deserve more scholarly attention, especially through an expanded understanding of a British imperial citizenship that can encompass more kinds of social belonging beyond the right to vote. The essay concludes by raising the the question of academic citizenship in order to highlight the importance of the inclusion and participation of scholars from both formerly colonized parts of the world and outside the British Empire.

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