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대한언어학회> 언어학> Is c-command Machine-learnable?

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Is c-command Machine-learnable?

Unsub Shin , Myung-kwan Park , Sanghoun Song
  • : 대한언어학회
  • : 언어학 29권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 03월
  • : 183-204(22pages)
언어학

DOI


목차

1. Introduction
2. Background
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
6. Conclusion
References
Appendix A. Example items

키워드 보기


초록 보기

Many psycholinguistic studies have tested whether pronouns and polarity items elicit additional processing cost when they are not c-commanded. The previous studies claim that the c-command constraint regulates the distribution of relevant syntactic objects. As such, the syntactic effects of the c-command relation are greatly affected by the types of licensing (e.g. quantificational binding) and reading comprehension patterns of subjects (e.g. linguistic illusion). The present study investigates the reading behavior of the language model BERT when the syntactic processing of relational information (i.e. X c-commands Y) is required. Specifically, our two experiments contrasted the BERT comprehension of a c-commanding licensor versus a non-c-commanding licensor with reflexive anaphora and negative polarity items. The analysis based on the information-theoretic measure of surprisal suggests that violations of the c-command constraint are unexpected for BERT representations. We conclude that deep learning models like BERT can learn the syntactic c-command restriction at least with respect to reflexive anaphors and negative polarity items. At the same time, BERT appeared to have some limitations in its flexibility to apply compensatory pragmatic reasoning when a non-c-commanding licensor intruded in the dependency structure.

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This study makes an attempt to identify how and when native (L1) and nonnative (L2) speakers of English make use of syntactic knowledge and nonsyntactic contextual information to resolve wh/quantifier scope ambiguity during online sentence processing. The question addressed in this research is investigated in the context of weak crossover phenomena (Chiercia, 1993). 19 native speakers of English and 32 Korean speakers of English participated in a self-paced reading experiment; the Korean speakers are further divided into advanced and intermediate group. The results show that L1 and L2 speakers are able to integrate the syntactic information with the contextual information in resolving wh/quantifier scope ambiguity online, suggesting that the ambiguity is influenced by the contextual information (Villalta, 2003). The findings also show that L2 proficiency is not a predictor of L2 speakers' use of the target syntactic knowledge online. More importantly, the results indicate that L1 and L2 speakers employ similar strategies in resolving wh/quantifier scope ambiguity online, supporting the view that L2 processing is not fundamentally different from L1 processing (An 2019; Dekydtspotter et al., 2006).

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This study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' writing anxiety, and analyzes its correlation with their writing strategies and writing achievements. Two questionnaires, designed by referring to and re-editing Petric and Czarl's (2003) Writing Strategies Questionnaire and Cheng's (2004) Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory, were completed by 90 Chinese senior high school students in Yanji, China. SPSS 24.0 was used to analyze the data and produce descriptive statistics, paired sample T-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis. The result shows that students have a moderate degree of anxiety. High anxiety students experience the highest cognitive anxiety, and low anxiety students experience the highest physical anxiety. English learners' writing anxiety shows a significant negative correlation with writing strategies. High anxiety students seldom use English writing strategies, while low anxiety students use them very often in the process of completing a writing task. English learners' writing anxiety shows a significant negative correlation with writing achievements as well. The higher English learners' writing anxiety is, the lower their writing achievements will be. Thus, English learners should be encouraged and trained to use English writing strategies well to reduce English writing anxiety and improve the level of writing achievements.

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This study aims (1) to provide the frequency of occurrence of be like as quantitatively measured; (2) to discover a systematic sociolinguistic distribution of be like by specifically comparing use by gender, age, education, and employment; and (3) to shed light on the classification of speech introduced by be like under discourse accounts. Accordingly, we identified a total of 485 tokens from the Ohio Buckeye Corpus of spontaneous speech. As for the distribution, the results show first and foremost that speakers prefer tense agreement between be like and its quote, favouring the present tense to trigger dramatic effect in narratives. Be like leads to expansion into the third person, second person, and first person. In Ohio English, no gender bias is identified in the use of be like. Also, younger speakers use be like more frequently. Speakers' education and employment status are not in relationship to the occurrence of be like. In what follows, the speech be like introduces is classified into four types: internal speech, direct speech, external speech, and hypothetical speech. The most frequently occurring internal speech is again subcategorized into internal judgement, internal surprise, internal volition, and internal situation; speakers' own evaluation, surprise, volition, or objective description of the preceding context is verbally unuttered. Hypothetical speech is of special interest in that speakers deliver the quote of be like under assumption, in keeping with the given context. Last, expletive it described here must include the consideration of the preceding context in order to classify the quotes of be like properly.

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9Is c-command Machine-learnable?

저자 : Unsub Shin , Myung-kwan Park , Sanghoun Song

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 29권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 183-204 (22 pages)

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Many psycholinguistic studies have tested whether pronouns and polarity items elicit additional processing cost when they are not c-commanded. The previous studies claim that the c-command constraint regulates the distribution of relevant syntactic objects. As such, the syntactic effects of the c-command relation are greatly affected by the types of licensing (e.g. quantificational binding) and reading comprehension patterns of subjects (e.g. linguistic illusion). The present study investigates the reading behavior of the language model BERT when the syntactic processing of relational information (i.e. X c-commands Y) is required. Specifically, our two experiments contrasted the BERT comprehension of a c-commanding licensor versus a non-c-commanding licensor with reflexive anaphora and negative polarity items. The analysis based on the information-theoretic measure of surprisal suggests that violations of the c-command constraint are unexpected for BERT representations. We conclude that deep learning models like BERT can learn the syntactic c-command restriction at least with respect to reflexive anaphors and negative polarity items. At the same time, BERT appeared to have some limitations in its flexibility to apply compensatory pragmatic reasoning when a non-c-commanding licensor intruded in the dependency structure.

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