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고려대학교 중국학연구소> 중국학논총> 새로운 문명의 장력을 향하는 개체적 의지 ― 루쉰(魯迅) 초기 잡문을 중심으로

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새로운 문명의 장력을 향하는 개체적 의지 ― 루쉰(魯迅) 초기 잡문을 중심으로

A Study on the New Will of Individual in Luxun’s Early Essay

신민준 ( Shin Minjoon )
  • : 고려대학교 중국학연구소
  • : 중국학논총 71권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 03월
  • : 115-140(26pages)

DOI


목차

1. 들어가며
2. 문명에 지배당하는 인간의 삶
3. 개체의 가치 찾기
4. 문명과 개체의 공존을 위하여
5. 나오며

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초록 보기

This paper has several purposes. First, it examines the concepts of civilization in Luxun’s early essay. Luxun illustrated his perspective that the civilization is not only the process and result of human progress but also drives people into Self-subordination. Second, it seeks the way to find the new will of individual in Luxun’s early essay. I argue that Luxun believed that people have the ethical power to escape from subordination in society and the creative ability to make a harmonious society. Finally, it seeks to find the means that makes human and civilization coexist together.
For the purposes of this paper, I challenge a comparison between Luxun’s perspective and Critical Theory that has been made and developed by Frankfurt School which includes Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, Erich Fromm, Walter Benjamin, etc. I argue that they have similarities in the perspective on ‘negative thinking’. For them, ‘negative’ is essential factor to find the new will of individual within civilization. They believed that ‘negative’ attitude could lead people out of Self-subordination. Thus, I seek the way to find the new will of individual and coexistance between human and civilization through a comparison between Luxun’s perspective and Critical Theory.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 동양사
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1229-3806
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2021
  • : 853


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1중국에서 개인적 영성추구 활동의 등장원인과 의미 ― '상하이 리푸 심령센터(上海丽夫心灵中心)'의 활동을 중심으로

저자 : 김송희 ( Kim Songhee )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-31 (31 pages)

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The purpose of this thesis is to examine the reason and meaning of emergence of personal spiritual activities in China. To this end, the analysis targets the spiritual activities conducted at the “Shanghai Lifu Psychic Center”. China's personal spiritual activities have a view of the universe and a world view, which are the basis of their ideology, and are experiencing spiritual awareness. In other words, they are engaged in a religious activity that pursues their own ultimate enlightenment and truth. From this perspective, personal spiritual activity can be seen as a new form of religious activity emerging in China. The reason for the emergence of personal spiritual activities in China is that the Chinese people's interest in self has increased and a social environment has been created for this. In the void of the value system created by the dissolution of the 'unit' and 'commune' after the reform and opening up, Chinese think that they are the only ones who can protect themselves. As the self becomes the criterion for value judgment, Chinese are more focused on how they can discover and realize their true nature or their potential nature. And the Chinese people chose the alternative form of pursuit of personal spirituality because of its skepticism and unfamiliarity with the institutional religion itself. Due to the traditional religious customs of the Chinese people and the characteristics of the socialist state system, Chinese are not trained in religious practices within institutionalized religious organizations and religious systems. And recently, the formation of a market for religious and cultural contents such as yoga, meditation has become a social platform to further revitalize spiritual activities.

2A Chinese Manual에 관한 소고 ― 19세기 말 20세기 초 서양 중국학자의 문법서에 관한 소고

저자 : 조경환 ( Cho Kyunghwan )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 33-55 (23 pages)

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In this paper, we looked at the A Chinese Manual(1904), which occupies an important position among Chinese-related grammar books published during this period.
A Chinese Manual can be said to be a transitional grammar book in that it attempted to escape the existing framework while reflecting some of the research results of Western missionaries' grammar books in the modern period. The basic formation of this book is also different from the existing Western missionaries' grammar books in that it has both a grammar textbook and a conversation textbook.
The part-of-speech system or case system of the A Chinese Manual was analyzed with a little more emphasis on Chinese, not the Latin system, and various types of Causative constructions, Passive constructions, and Ba construction were suggested. The nature of these constructions and the characteristics of the grammar form could be figured out.
Regarding the time system of Chinese, the A Chinese Manual adopted the three tense theory instead of the five tense theory based on the Latin system. From this, we can see that these le·zhe·guo are grammaticalized in the order of 'verb - phase complement - aspect marker', which is not much different from today's perspective.
In short, if the modern times was a period when missionaries were the main axis and completed the Chinese grammar system, the early 20th century was a period of research and explanation in more diverse ways, focusing on the Chinese language itself and it was reflected in the A Chinese Manual.

3淺析淩叔華筆下女性世界及其文化意蘊 ― 以五四變革時期作品為主

저자 : 洪成花 ( Hong Chenghua )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 57-74 (18 pages)

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Ling Shuhua, a female writer who came to China's literary world in the 1920s, uses her family background as the creative material to describe a group of women in the feudal “gaomen giant family” in the period of historical transformation with Meticulous Brushwork and plain tone. She opened the door of boudoir with unique conditions, and wrote down the anxiety, trouble and unspeakable depression of the noble family, showing the world the confusion, contradiction and confusion of Chinese women in the era of change. Ling Shuhua explained for us “from the perspective of women's self-examination”, one aspect that few people have revealed so far: the decline of a certain social class and cultural fault in modern Chinese society. After the May 4th movement, the actual situation of Chinese women was very complicated, not just “resistance”, “awakening” and “leaving”, The description of women's low status and the consideration of women's tragic fate reveal the survival dilemma of old women and provide a basis for people's judgment, which will have a profound impact on women's liberation movement.

4우허(舞鶴)미학의 가능성과 한계 ― ≪여생(餘生)≫을 중심으로

저자 : 고운선 ( Koh Woonsun )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 75-113 (39 pages)

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Wu He's The Remains of Life has a meta-fictional elements that focuses on the Wushe Incident was happened in 1930, which reflects on the conditions and structures of discourse, such as the problem that arises when a person or event is textualized, that is, the writer's point of view and attitude, and the way he faces otherness. In this paper, I had looked at these points in two things.
Taiwan indigenous people were Taiwanese natives who have lived on Taiwan Island since the Stone Age, but they were always treated as objects of observation and analysis by Japanese and Chinese who migrated from time to time. For successful colonization, Japanese colonial rulers not only forced indigenous people to migrate, but also tried to destroy traditional culture and modernize them as Japanese subjects. The Guomindang government, which took over from Japan after 1945, reorganized the history of indigenous people from the perspective of Chinese-centered Chinese nationalism and forced them to learn “Standard Chinese”. When martial law was lifted in the 1980s, a movement to restore the rights of indigenous people proceeded, but the indigenous people were given the legal term “indigenous people” and instead became the targets of “visual welfare”. So even after the 1990s, the active political and social participation of indigenous people was excluded, economically subordinated to welfare policy. In Taiwan society, it can be said that indigenous people at any time have been sacrificed to the logic of “the self-satisfying of the desire of the self”.
The “Wushe Incident”, which occurred on October 27, 1930, is regarded as a case in Taiwan's history that resisted the deception and oppression of Japanese imperialism for 30 years. However, tribes who did not participate in the October Incident can be stigmatized as “traitors” even if the evaluation that it was a resistance for “tribal dignity” and “human dignity” was not intended. In addition, this view can not explain why the young people who experienced Incident of October, have served the Emperor of Japan volunteered to enlist in the Japanese army after 10 years.
On the other hand, let us pay attention to the position of the indigenous who celebrate Wushe Incident as “Anti-Japanese Struggle”. Mona Rudo, who led a tribal coalition in 1930 and resisted the Japanese police with force, has a history of headhunting the Atayal tribes in response to the Japanese police agitation 10 years ago. To the indigenous, Mona Rudo was just the head of the village of Mahepo. Therefore, the “Wushe Incident” in October is also just a “headhunting” caused by a tribe in Mahepo village.
Furthermore, the writer Wu He argues that it is worth paying attention to the Second Wushe Incident, which is not mentioned by indigenous people and historians. Japanese police agitated the tribesmen who did not participate in the first incident and ordered headhunting of 101 survivors in indigenous shelters. Commemorative photographs of human heads hunted by police and indigenous as loot still remain today. Based on this, Wu He draws the following conclusions regarding “the legitimacy and appropriateness of the Wuhe Incident”. This incident was not a “anti-Japanese struggle” to acquire “human dignity,” but rather a “headhunting” incident based on the “warrior ideology” of the tribal society. And “warrior ideology” is “violent” because mankind has been concealing the other side of war, such as cruelty, madness, and death, by interacting with virtues such as courage, honor, and protecting the community for a long time.
In this point, the writer Wu He differs from other Chinese writers who have romantically portrayed heterogeneous indigenous cultures. However, “individual independence” and “individual subjectivity”, which Wu He tried to emphasize while denying “warrior ideology,” are expressed through female sexuality. Therefore, Wu He also has limitations that cannot be free from charges of treating primitiveness as an exotic gaze in another way. Despite these limitations, his work The Remains of Life can be evaluated as a work that stands out from Wu He's original perspective. This is because “the existence itself is more justified than dignity” for humans, based on “ the life in Chuanzhongdao after the incident(The Remains of Life).”

5새로운 문명의 장력을 향하는 개체적 의지 ― 루쉰(魯迅) 초기 잡문을 중심으로

저자 : 신민준 ( Shin Minjoon )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 115-140 (26 pages)

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This paper has several purposes. First, it examines the concepts of civilization in Luxun's early essay. Luxun illustrated his perspective that the civilization is not only the process and result of human progress but also drives people into Self-subordination. Second, it seeks the way to find the new will of individual in Luxun's early essay. I argue that Luxun believed that people have the ethical power to escape from subordination in society and the creative ability to make a harmonious society. Finally, it seeks to find the means that makes human and civilization coexist together.
For the purposes of this paper, I challenge a comparison between Luxun's perspective and Critical Theory that has been made and developed by Frankfurt School which includes Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, Erich Fromm, Walter Benjamin, etc. I argue that they have similarities in the perspective on 'negative thinking'. For them, 'negative' is essential factor to find the new will of individual within civilization. They believed that 'negative' attitude could lead people out of Self-subordination. Thus, I seek the way to find the new will of individual and coexistance between human and civilization through a comparison between Luxun's perspective and Critical Theory.

6丰子恺与蒋彝的人际关系网络

저자 : 张颖 ( Zhang Ying )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 141-158 (18 pages)

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The writer Xia Mianzun(夏丏尊), the western aesthetic theorist Zhu Guangqian(朱光潜), the essayist Zhu Ziqing(朱自清), and the educator Ye Shengtao(叶圣陶) are well known in the Chinese literary world, but their group of writers at Baima Lake(白马湖作家群) is little known and has been lost in literary history. When Chiang Yee(蒋彝) first arrived in England, he had to find his spiritual support in painting and writing. Thanks to the help of Chinese and British cultural celebrities, especially publishers, Chiang Yee embarked on a literary path. However, these two interesting and meaningful interactions have received little attention from researchers. The author analyzes the interactions between Feng Zikai(丰子恺) and the Group of Baima Lake Writers and between Chiang Yee and the cultural celebrities of China and Britain.
The interactions between Feng Zikai and the Group of Baima Lake Writers is a network of relationships. Raising up people, educating people with literature, and the love of literature and art the connecting points of this social network. Founding schools, writing, opening bookstores and publishing books are the games in this social network. The actors in the field are in different positions and adopt different strategies depending on their capital. Through the relationship with the Group of Baima Lake Writers, Feng Zikai successfully opened the way to fame in the literary world.
In the 1930s, Chiang Yee traveled to England and began his literary journey in a foreign country. The interactions between Chiang Yee and Chinese and British cultural luminaries formed a social network. Traditional Chinese culture is the connecting point. Opening painting exhibitions, giving lectures, spreading traditional Chinese culture, and publishing books are the games. Through the relationship with Chinese and British cultural luminaries, Chiang Yee has successfully ascended to the literary world of foreign countries.

7≪설문해자(說文解字)≫ '여(女)' 부수자에 투사된 고대 중국인의 여성관

저자 : 이인경 ( Lee Inkyung )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 159-209 (51 pages)

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This article divides the secondary letters of “女” in “Shuo wen Jie zi(說文解字)” into matrilineal and patrilineal and selects Chinese characters at the issue of social and cultural characteristics. Through these Chinese characters, we can understand ancient Chinese customs and women's views in that times.
In the period of matrilineal society, women played an absolute role in the relationship between blood and the gens, and thus were both objects of worship and symbols of clan authority. Such as a view of the woman at that time is projected on including “姓” and old surname(古姓), letters of “女” related to the female heroes representing the family.
The development of monogamous marriage(一夫一妻) shows that the inheritance of descent has been transformed into a male-centered relationship, which is related to the increase of male power. The traces of predatory marriage are projected on “婚” and “娶”, from which we can infer the changes in women's status at that time. In “嫁”, the trace of buying a marriage are retained, so it can be said that the perception of women of that time also since then influenced “嫁” and “姻” naming marriage. “媒” and “妁” reflect the characteristics of monogamous marriages in ancient Chinese society. Because monogamous marriages was established by the decision of the parents and the words of the matchmaker rather than the two parties.
In the patriarchy-centered society , men are considered to have a higher status than women. For this reason, a typical female image was created that matched Confucian ideals and justified the obedience and subordination of women. The letters accompanying “女” parts are related to the appearance, form and behavior of women, reflecting the ideal image of a woman pursued by patriarchy-centered society. The “女” parts that represent bad tempers or immoral behaviors such as greed, luxury, jealousy, or adultery have in common that even if these sexual orientations and behaviors are not related to gender, they all subordinate to “女” part. Therefore, these letters can be regarded as a concrete expressing the feudal society's disregard and disrespect for women.

8도교적 상상력과 스토리텔링에 대한 고찰 ― <나타지마동강세(哪吒之魔童降世)>를 중심으로

저자 : 김지선 ( Kim Jiseon )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 211-237 (27 pages)

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“Nezha: Birth of the Demon Child”, which was produced as a 3D animation in 2019, is an adaptation of the story of Nezha and ranked second in the history of Chinese film box office record. There may be various reasons for this popularity, but above all, the factors of success can be found in the reinterpretation of the classics according to modern sentiment while storytelling through Taoist imagination.
In the classics such as Xi You Ji and Fengshen Yanyi, Nezha was portrayed as a rebel, but in post-modern cultural content, he was described as a boy hero who punished evil forces. Nezha's character has changed with the trend of the times, and in “Nezha: Birth of the Demon Child”, he is depicted as a hero who overcomes his destiny and pioneers his life, unlike the existing character. This new type of hero has gained great popularity from the audience.
In addition, “Nezha: Birth of the Demon Child” gained a lot of response from the audience because it reinterpreted the contents of the classics while storytelling using various Taoist imaginations such as Yin Yang, Alchemy, and Paradise.

9고장극(古裝劇)<청평악(淸平樂)>의 고전 인용 고찰

저자 : 안예선 ( An Yeasun )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 239-267 (29 pages)

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Serenade of Peaceful Joy is a costume drama broadcast in 2020, with the background of the Northern Song Dynasty Renzong(仁宗) era. Emperor Renzong reigned for 42 years, and during this period, the Northern Song Dynasty reached a stable and prosperous era in economics, politics, diplomacy, and culture.
The play was originated from Milan lady's novel , which unravels the love story between the princess and the eunuch. However,  adapted the main character as Emperor Renzong and Empress Cao(曹皇后), telling the affairs of the court in the entire Renzong era, while making the story of princess and eunuch a part of it.
This drama was well-known for its high quality, especially by catching the eyes of the audience, via using the 'Classical Chinese' style and quoting from classic work in its lines. This thesis explored a classic quote of Serenade of Peaceful Joy in four different types. First of all, it has used the original Northern Song Dynasty's poetry and prose in the lines. Secondly, the characters have quoted classical phrase in their lines to express the emotion. Thirdly, they are using the original text of Song Dynasty's Bi-ji in their lines. Lastly, they have used the original texted documents of the official documents, such as imperial edict and memorial to the throne.
The lines in Serenade of Peaceful Joy reflected the increasing importance of classical Chinese and classic works in the aspect of linguistic practice, culture, and refinement in China. Accordingly, people involved in Chinese history studies and Chinese education studies in Korea are necessary to pay attention to this as well.

102021학년도 대학수학능력시험 중국어Ⅰ 타당도 분석 ― 2015 개정교육과정과의 상관관계를 중심으로

저자 : 정지수 ( Jeong Jiesu ) , 김영민 ( Kim Youngmin )

발행기관 : 고려대학교 중국학연구소 간행물 : 중국학논총 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 269-298 (30 pages)

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In this paper, we analyzed the validity of the evaluation by reviewing whether the Chinese I (hereinafter referred to as CSAT Chinese) evaluation questions in the second foreign language/Chinese characters area of the 2021 College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT) meet the 2015 revised curriculum and CSAT test guidelines. We investigated whether the CSAT Chinese questions meet the level of the Chinese Ⅰ curriculum and the test guide, focusing on vocabulary and grammar among the five major evaluation elements of the test guide released by the Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation (KICE). We found that Chinese I and Chinese II share the same syllabus of the vocabulary and grammar in the curriculum, so the range of the CSAT of ChineseⅠwas expanded to Chinese Ⅱ in terms of vocabulary and grammar. The level of difficulty in basic vocabulary and grammar items are not limited in the curriculum. As a result, the vocabulary or grammar items used in Chinese Ⅰ of the CSAT may be equivalent to or higher than the level of Chinese II. We analyzed the grounds for making exam questions that presented by KICE, and found that almost questions met not only the achievement standard of Chinese Ⅰ, but also Chinese Ⅱ. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the difficulty to balance with other subjects in the same area in order to ensure fairness under the absolute evaluation system in the future.

12
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