이 논문은 1931년 우한 지역 홍수에 대해 난징국민정부가 어떤 인식을 바탕으로 구제정책을 펼쳤는지 살펴보고, 국민정부의 대응을 어떻게 평가해야 할지를 살펴보는 연구이다. 근대국가의 역할은 국민의 안전과 생명을 보호하는 것이다. 장제스를 비롯한 난징국민정부 지도자들은 국가의 가장 기본적인 책임이 국민의 생존과 안전을 지키는 것이라는 사실을 제대로 인식하지 못했다. 난징국민정부는 이론적, 제도적으로 근대국가의 역할을 규정했지만, 실제 상황에서 이러한 역할은 일부에 한정되었다.
The subject of this paper was to study how the Nanjing government perceived disaster relief policy after the 1931 Wuhan Flood. We also studied how to evaluate the government's aid policy.
Massive flooding in 1931 resulted in massive deaths, causing enormous damage to urban and rural areas around the Yangtze River. After the flood, agriculture in China fell, and the economic crisis led to a decline in agricultural prices. In addition to this, Japan invaded Manchuria, and the 1931 flood developed into a 'complex disaster' for China.
The mission of the modern nation is to protect the safety and life of the people. The Nanjing government was also aware of this mission. However, theoretically and institutionally, the mission of the modern state was defined, but in actual circumstances, this mission was partially fulfilled, revealing distinct limitations.
The Nanjing government leaders recognized the suppression of communist and political and social stability as the most important issues, and flood relief was a secondary issue. With this recognition, humanistic relief policies could not be expected. This perception of government leaders was revealed in the aid policy.
The Nanjing government's flood relief has widened the gap between urban and rural, poor and rich. The post-flood rural crisis destroyed the foundations of the urban economy and affected other economic sectors, continuing to put China's economy in crisis. The construction of the embankment, which was successfully carried out through labor relief, revealed a loophole when the embankment collapsed again in a 1935 flood.
The Nanjing Government boasted efficient and productive relief against flooding, but it was difficult to find humanistic measures to ensure refugee safety and life stability. During the 1931 Wuhan Flood, the Nanjing government's control of refugees aroused distrust in the refugee state and even eliminated the impact of humanitarian aid attempted by the Nanjing government. The leaders of Nanjing government, including Chiang Kai-shek, were not fully aware that the country's most basic mission was to protect the survival and safety of its people.
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