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한국임상영양학회> Clinical Nutrition Research> Association of Nutrient Patterns and Their Relation with Obesity in Iranian Adults: a Population Based Study

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Association of Nutrient Patterns and Their Relation with Obesity in Iranian Adults: a Population Based Study

Mohammad Reza Amini , Farhang Djafari , Fatemeh Sheikhhossein , Habib Yarizadeh , Sina Naghshi , Mahshid Shahavandi , Nastaran Payandeh , Zahra Akbarzade , Kurosh Djafarian , Sakineh Shab-bidar
  • : 한국임상영양학회
  • : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 01월
  • : 59-71(13pages)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

In the present research, we have evaluated the association between patterns of nutrient intake and obesity. The present cross-sectional study recruited 850 adults aged between 20-59 years old. Dietary intakes were assessed with three 24-hour recalls. As well, data on anthropometric measures were collected. General obesity was specified as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Factor analysis was conducted, and followed by a varimax rotation, was performed to extract major nutrient patterns. Our analysis identified three major nutrient patterns: The first nutrient pattern was characterized by the high consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), protein, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B5, B3, B12, Zinc, and iron. The second nutrient pattern was rich in total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFAs, oleic acid, linolenic acid, zinc, vitamin E, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene. The third one was greatly loaded with protein, carbohydrate, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, vitamin C, and folate. Women in the third quintile of the first pattern were less likely to be generally obese in the fully adjusted model (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.75). None of the other nutrient patterns had a significant association with obesity, even after adjusting for confounders. Adherence to a nutrient pattern rich in water-soluble vitamins was significantly associated with a greater chance of general obesity among women. Further studies in other populations, along with future prospective studies, are required to confirm these findings.

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  • : 2012-2021
  • : 263


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1Effect of the Timing of Nutritional Support Team Intervention on Nutritional Status on Patients Receiving Enteral Nutrition

저자 : Su Hyun Kim , So Young Bu

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-13 (13 pages)

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Many hospitalized patients usually have a high risk of malnutrition, which delays the therapy process and can lead to severe complications. Despite of the potential benefits, the effects of timely intervention by nutrition support team (NST) on the nutritional status of admitted patients are not well established. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status between patients with early and delayed NST supports and to assess the effect of the timing of NST support initiation on the nutritional status of enteral nutrition patients. In a simple comparison between the two groups, the early NST intervention group had shorter hospital stays and fewer tube feeding periods than the delayed NST intervention group. The increase in the amount of energy intake from first to last NST intervention was 182.3 kcal in patients in the early NST intervention group, higher than that in patients in the delayed intervention group (p = 0.042). The extent of reduction in serum albumin and hemoglobin levels between the initial and last NST intervention tended to be lower in the early NST intervention group than in the delayed NST intervention group. The mean odds ratio for the patients who were severely malnourished in the early NST intervention group was 0.142 (95% confidence interval, 0.045-0.450) after adjusting for hospital stay and age. The results of this study indicate that early NST intervention can improve patients' overall nutritional status.

2Adherence to Dietary Guidelines among Diabetes Patients: Comparison between Elderly and Non-Elderly Groups

저자 : Haeun Jang , Jihyun Im , Kyong Park

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 14-23 (10 pages)

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This study aimed to compare adherence to dietary guidelines between elderly and non-elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea. Data of 4,577 participants with T2DM were collected from the 1998-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The participants were classified into two groups based on age: non-elderly T2DM group comprising participants aged 30-64 years and elderly T2DM group comprising participants aged ≥ 65 years. Adherence to dietary guidelines was assessed using the Korean Diabetes Association-Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare (KDA-KMHW) index, comprising six components of dietary guidelines for T2DM patients. Multivariable generalized linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the KDA-KMHW index scores. The adherence levels to the individual components of the KDA-KMHW index were mostly lower in non-elderly group (p < 0.001) than elderly group, except for moderate carbohydrate consumption. The total KDA-KMHW index score was significantly lower in non-elderly T2DM group than in the elderly T2DM group (p < 0.001). The study results suggest the need for developing patient-specific education programs that focus on adherence to dietary guidelines, particularly for non-elderly patients, to adequately intervene with the difficulties experienced in T2DM dietary management.

3Evaluation of Oral Nutritional Supplementation in the Management of Frailty among the Elderly at Facilities of Community Care for the Elderly

저자 : Woori Na , Jiyu Kim , Hyeji Kim , Yeji Lee , Bonghee Jeong , Sung Pyo Lee , Cheongmin Sohn

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 24-35 (12 pages)

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Adequate nutritional intake in elderly individuals improves frailty. Elderly individuals may exhibit improvements in frailty with the use of community care facilities. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of nutritional intervention in elderly subjects at community care facilities receiving oral nutritional supplements (ONSs) and determined their nutritional status. Sixty-two elderly individuals using community care facilities were divided into the experimental group (EG) (before [n = 31]/after [n = 28]) and control group (CG) (before [n = 31]/after [n = 25]). Subjects in both groups were treated with ONSs (200 mL/200 kcal) for 90 days. However, those in the EG received the product with increased protein; vitamins A, C, D, and E; phosphorus; calcium; and zinc. The data collected included anthropometric data, dietary assessment findings, frailty status (Korean version of the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, and Loss of weight questionnaire), and nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA). The changes in the two groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Nutritional intervention increased the weight, body mass index, and lean body mass in the EG (p < 0.05). Protein, calcium, and iron levels increased only in the EG (p < 0.05). The MNA score increased and sum of frailty indicators improved in the EG, and the increase in the MNA score in the EG was greater than that in the CG. This study verified the improved anthropometric data and dietary intake in the EG. Thus, the higher number of pre-frailty elderly individuals at facilities of community care indicates the need for adequate nutritional supplementation for frailty management.

4Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Vitamin D Can Improve Glycemic Status in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

저자 : Mojgan Morvaridzadeh , Seyed Mostafa Nachvak , Reza Mohammadi , Shima Moradi , Roghayeh Mostafai , Ana Beatriz Pizarro , Hadi Abdollahzad

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 36-47 (12 pages)

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant public health problem globally and the most notable chronic liver disease in Asian countries. Various dietary supplements have been assessed as potential methods to alleviate the metabolic damages related to NAFLD, but the results of these works have been equivocal. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic yogurt fortified with vitamin D (Pro-YFD) on glycemic and anthropometric indices in patients with NAFLD. One hundred and four NAFLD patients of both sexes were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group A (Pro-YFD) and group B (unfortified yogurt). The intervention period was 3 months. Fasting blood samples were obtained for measuring fasting blood sugar (FBS) and insulin level. Food intake was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was estimated by bio-impedance. Eighty-eight patients completed the study. The mean serum level of 25(OH)D3 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001), while insulin level decreased significantly (p < 0.003) in group A at the end of the study. FBS levels showed no significant differences between the groups at the end of the trial. Also, there were no significant changes in diet caloric intake, physical activity, or anthropometric indices in the 2 groups during the interventions. Pro-YFD in the diets of patients with NAFLD may attenuate insulin resistance and improve serum level of 25(OH)D3.

5Variants in Circadian Rhythm Gene Cry1 Interacts with Healthy Dietary Pattern for Serum Leptin Levels: a Cross-sectional Study

저자 : Hadith Tangestani , Hadi Emamat , Mir Saeed Yekaninejad , Seyed Ali Keshavarz , Khadijeh Mirzaei

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 48-58 (11 pages)

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Circadian disruption causes obesity and other metabolic disorders. There is no research considering the role of Cryptochromes (Cry) 1 body clock gene and major dietary patterns on serum leptin level and obesity. We aimed to investigate the interaction between Cry1 circadian gene polymorphisms and major dietary patterns on leptin and obesity related measurements. This study was performed on 377 overweight and obese women. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) of study subjects were 36.64 ± 9.02 years and 30.81 ± 3.8 kg/m2, respectively. Dietary assessment was done using a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire. Cry1 rs2287161 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Generalized linear models were used for interaction analysis. Healthy and unhealthy dietary pattern (HDP and UDP, respectively) were extracted using factor analysis (principal component analysis). Our study revealed a significant higher weight (p = 0.003) and BMI (p = 0.042) in women carrying CC homozygote compared with G allele carriers. Moreover, our findings showed a significant gene-diet interaction between HDP and Cry1 rs2287161 on BMI (p = 0.034) and serum leptin level (p = 0.056) in which, BMI and serum leptin level were lower in subjects with CC genotype than in those with GG genotype while following HDP. This study suggests a significant interaction between Cry1 rs2287161 polymorphisms and HDP on BMI and serum leptin and the lowering effects were apparent among C allele carriers compared to G allele ones. This data highlights the role of dietary pattern in relation of gene and obesity.

6Association of Nutrient Patterns and Their Relation with Obesity in Iranian Adults: a Population Based Study

저자 : Mohammad Reza Amini , Farhang Djafari , Fatemeh Sheikhhossein , Habib Yarizadeh , Sina Naghshi , Mahshid Shahavandi , Nastaran Payandeh , Zahra Akbarzade , Kurosh Djafarian , Sakineh Shab-bidar

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 59-71 (13 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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In the present research, we have evaluated the association between patterns of nutrient intake and obesity. The present cross-sectional study recruited 850 adults aged between 20-59 years old. Dietary intakes were assessed with three 24-hour recalls. As well, data on anthropometric measures were collected. General obesity was specified as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Factor analysis was conducted, and followed by a varimax rotation, was performed to extract major nutrient patterns. Our analysis identified three major nutrient patterns: The first nutrient pattern was characterized by the high consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), protein, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B5, B3, B12, Zinc, and iron. The second nutrient pattern was rich in total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFAs, oleic acid, linolenic acid, zinc, vitamin E, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene. The third one was greatly loaded with protein, carbohydrate, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, vitamin C, and folate. Women in the third quintile of the first pattern were less likely to be generally obese in the fully adjusted model (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.75). None of the other nutrient patterns had a significant association with obesity, even after adjusting for confounders. Adherence to a nutrient pattern rich in water-soluble vitamins was significantly associated with a greater chance of general obesity among women. Further studies in other populations, along with future prospective studies, are required to confirm these findings.

7The Effects of Nigella sativa Supplementation on Liver Enzymes Levels: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

저자 : Neda Azizi , Mohammad Reza Amini , Kurosh Djafarian , Sakineh Shab-bidar

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 72-82 (11 pages)

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The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) supplementation on liver enzymes levels including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Relevant studies, published from inception up to January 2020, were searched through PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar conducted on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of N. sativa on serum AST and ALT levels. Meta-analysis was applied using a random-effects model. Eight studies met inclusion criteria (n=281 in the N. sativa and n = 279 in placebo group). This meta-analysis showed that N. sativa supplementation significantly reduced AST level (weighted mean difference [WMD], -8.11 IU/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.6, -2.53; p = 0.004) with significant heterogeneity (I-squared, 95.9%; p < 0.001) while the decrease in ALT level was not statistically significant (WMD, -7.26 IU/L; 95% CI, -15.4, 0.04; p = 0.051) with significant heterogeneity (I-squared, 97.8%; p < 0.001). This meta-analysis suggests that N. sativa supplementation may improve AST levels and ALT levels, however more RCTs with larger sample size are needed to found effects of N. sativa on liver enzymes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

8Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on Liver Function Biomarkers: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Samira Yarmohammadi , Reza Hosseini-ghatar , Sahar Foshati , Mojgan Moradi , Niloofar Hemati , Sajjad Moradi , Mohammad Ali Hojjati Kermani , Mohammad Hosein Farzaei , Haroon Khan

발행기관 : 한국임상영양학회 간행물 : Clinical Nutrition Research 10권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 83-94 (12 pages)

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This study presents a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) supplementation and liver function biomarkers. Pertinent studies were identified using Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane library databases up to August 2020. Mean differences were pooled using a random-effects model. Pooling 7 RCTs together showed that C. vulgaris supplementation led to a significant reduction of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (weighted mean difference [WMD], -9.15 U/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -16.09, -2.21), but not alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels compared to the placebo consumption. Subgroup-analysis indicated that C. vulgaris supplementation had more effect on AST decreasing among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients (WMD, -16.42 U/L; 95% CI, -29.75, -3.09) than others. Furthermore, subgroup analysis based on kind of supplementation showed that C. vulgaris supplementation significantly decreased ALT levels (WMD, -4.65 U/L; 95% CI, -8.88, -0.42) compared with the placebo, but not metformin consumption. It seems that C. vulgaris supplementation mainly affects AST levels rather than ALT and ALP levels, however, as mentioned the effect of C. vulgaris on those enzymes might be context-dependent. Therefore, further investigations with a large number of patients as well as on different disorders are necessary and can provide more definitive evidence.

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