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한국체육학회> International Journal of Human Movement Science> Masculine or Metrosexual? The Critical Perspectives on the Media Display of Male Athletes

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Masculine or Metrosexual? The Critical Perspectives on the Media Display of Male Athletes

Kayoung Kim
  • : 한국체육학회
  • : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 12월
  • : 87-107(21pages)

DOI

10.23949/ijhms.2020.12.14.2.6


목차

Introduction
Critical Feminist Theory
Male Athletes in Men’s Lifestyle Magazines
Metrosexual Masculinity
Method
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

The critical feminist perspective provides understanding of the female-centered viewpoint to explore the media display of male athletes. By understanding the different gender perspectives on the media display, this study explores how female athletes interpret the media images of male sports celebrities in the mainstream magazines. This study further investigates the gendered sexualization in the media representation of athletes. A photo interviewing with sixteen female athletes conducted to explore the male athletes’ media display in the men’s lifestyle magazines. Findings suggest that three different men’s lifestyle magazines represent different forms of masculinities depend on the purpose and target audiences, although hegemonic masculinity is woven throughout all magazines. Female athletes immediately recognized the differences in the sexualization of male bodies by comparing with female athletes in a similar type of magazines such as Fitness and ESPN The magazine’s body issue. This study provided rich insights into how female athletes think about different types of masculinities and the gendered sexualization in a similar type of media outlet.

UCI(KEPA)

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1The Impact of Sports Development for Social Employability

저자 : Rouxu Li , Sangyoo Kim

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-15 (15 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

In recent years, more and more countries use sports as a means of social change. Sports have played an active role in promoting youth education, social health, and national economic development. Therefore, the impact of sports development on society is a popular field for sports management scholars to study. However, although the development of sports has brought positive effects on society, some scholars believe that the development of sports has an adverse impact on society. For example, for developing countries, sports are usually controlled by the government, have the political purpose, and the holding of sports events will cause debt problems. In this article, the author focuses on the socio-economic impact of the development of sports, and in particular on the improvement of social employment. The author used a questionnaire survey to investigate a university sports major named Huanghuai University in China. The result is that the development of sports has promoted the growth of the employment rate and that sports education has enabled students to obtain a good educational background and skills, which are favored by employers. In addition, sports education leads to better social needs and support.

2Exploring the Issue of Having a Female Coach for a Male Team: The Perspective of U.S. High School Male Athletic Directors

저자 : J. C. Kim , Patricia Seitz , Li-shiue Gau , Kyoung Tae Kim , Eunkyun Park

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 17-35 (19 pages)

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초록보기

This qualitative study is to explore the meaning of having a female coach for a male team. Along with various secondary data, first-hand experiences of hiring managers who have previously hired female coaches for male teams were used. Four male athletic directors from high schools located in the U.S. Northeast region were interviewed, and a cross-case analysis method was adopted for tagging data and determining themes. Four primary themes emerged: 1) Prior experiences with a female coach when being an athlete or a coach influence the perceived meaning of seeing a female coach for a male team; 2) It was emphasized to hire the most qualified candidate for the job, with gender not being a crucial criteria in the hiring process; 3) Organizational work environment existed hidden obstacles that a female coach for a male team would face; and 4) Nevertheless, females were encouraged to apply for coaching positions on male teams if they met the qualifications. Regardless of gender, the most desirable candidates possessing professional qualifications and knowledge should be hired. This study concluded that the trend for a low percentage of female applicants for male teams needs to be improved and thus to enhance gender diversity.

3The Influence of Brutal Violence and its Impact on Fan Motivation in Mixed Martial Arts

저자 : Jerry Hewitt , Minkil Kim , Kwangho Park , Inhae Park

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 37-52 (16 pages)

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초록보기

This study is to examine the different fan motivation factors existed depending on the level of fan identification. Specifically, this study is to determine if the exposure to brutal violence in MMA as a fan motivation factor had a greater effect on the consumption for low identified fans vs. consumption for high identified MMA fans. The research was looking to test whether exposure to brutal violence was more of a common motivation factor in low identified fans than in high identified fans; where high identified fans had other motivation factors (skill of the fighters and overall interest in the sport). The target population of this study was participants 18 years and over with fan interest in MMA.. The findings of the study only revealed a slight negative correlation between the exposure to brutal violence and low level of fan identification. Results of the study also showed a strong positive correlation between high fan involvement and the motivation factors of skill of the fighters involved and overall interest in the sport.

4Personal and Collective Processes of Spectator Emotion: Effects on Happiness and Behavioral Intention

저자 : Hyun-woo Lee , Woong Kwon

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 53-72 (20 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for spectator emotion research and examine the role of customers' emotions, during the consumption experience, in creating sport fans' psychological well-being and on fan behavior. We establish the framework of emotional experience based on spectator experience and well-being literature. Empirical evidence of the effect of positive emotions on subjective happiness and behavioral intentions are provided. Extraversion and team identification were identified as personal and collective antecedents of spectator's readiness for embodied emotions. Extraversion and team identification were the exogenous variables, emotion was the mediator, and happiness and spectator intentions were the dependent endogenous variables. Extraversion and team identification had a significant positive impact on spectator emotion. Spectator emotion had a significant positive effect on subjective happiness and spectator intentions. Indirect effects indicated mediation effects except for paths from extraversion to subjective happiness. The significant role of emotion and the mediation effects of the framework highlight the importance of hedonic and affective experience in sports.

5Mega Sport Event and Korea Sport Culture

저자 : Bae Jae Yoon , Jo Sung Won

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 73-86 (14 pages)

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초록보기

The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of sports culture in Korea, which hosted the Mega sport event. In Korean society, sports were used by the state as a means of effectively reinforcing social cohesion. It is possible to find “Nationalism” and “Statism” in the sport segment of Korean society, where the state has played a main role in its social development. As a background of sport culture in Korean society, nationalism and statism have contributed to develop the Korean sport culture, which is mainly produced by the state, and its citizens consume these formulated sporting events. By holding the Winter and Summer Olympics and the World Cup, the characteristics of Korean sport culture have become clearer. However, the state-centered plan of sport culture in Korean society resulted in alienating the citizens who identified as cultural producers.

6Masculine or Metrosexual? The Critical Perspectives on the Media Display of Male Athletes

저자 : Kayoung Kim

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 87-107 (21 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

The critical feminist perspective provides understanding of the female-centered viewpoint to explore the media display of male athletes. By understanding the different gender perspectives on the media display, this study explores how female athletes interpret the media images of male sports celebrities in the mainstream magazines. This study further investigates the gendered sexualization in the media representation of athletes. A photo interviewing with sixteen female athletes conducted to explore the male athletes' media display in the men's lifestyle magazines. Findings suggest that three different men's lifestyle magazines represent different forms of masculinities depend on the purpose and target audiences, although hegemonic masculinity is woven throughout all magazines. Female athletes immediately recognized the differences in the sexualization of male bodies by comparing with female athletes in a similar type of magazines such as Fitness and ESPN The magazine's body issue. This study provided rich insights into how female athletes think about different types of masculinities and the gendered sexualization in a similar type of media outlet.

7Structural Relationship between Brand Personality of Winter Olympics and Host Nation, Image Fit, and Loyalty

저자 : Daehwan Kim , Hany Kim , Yihan Huang , Jin Jae Kim

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 109-122 (14 pages)

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The current study assumes that positive brand personality of host nations would be transferred to the brand personality of mega sport events, and thereby affecting consumer behaviors. Additionally, such transferred effects would be amplified depending on the perceived image fit between host nations and mega sport events based on the principle of cognitive congruence effects. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of the brand personality of host nations on consumer loyalty through the brand personality of mega sport events depending on the perceived image fit between host nations and mega sport events. The results showed that brand personality of host nation did not only positively influenced brand personality of mega sport event, but it also indirectly affected consumer loyalty. Additionally, the image fit between host nations and mega sport events was found to moderate the effect of brand personality of host nations on brand personality of mega sport events. Accordingly, we suggest that practitioners should develop positive brand personality of host nations and mega sport events while considering their image fit.

8Branding a Nation with Sport: The Importance of Collaborative Strategies

저자 : Jeeyoon Kim

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 123-135 (13 pages)

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Sport (e.g., mega event, athlete, traditional sport, facility) can be an effective tool for nation branding. Nation branding with sport is a complex process with multiple organizations involved (e.g., National Olympic Committee, Organizing Committee, Ministry of Sport). With focus on collaborative relations and the case of Korea, this study explores the branding strategies of key organizations involved in promoting a nation's brand through sport and investigates the current and ideal collaborative relations among the organizations with document analysis, interviews, and a simplified MACTOR analysis. Based on the findings, suggestions are made for better utilization of sport in nation branding and for developing collaborative strategies.

9Effects of Celebrity Athlete Authenticity on Brand Authenticity and Sports Consumer Behaviors

저자 : Myungwoo Lee

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 137-148 (12 pages)

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Consumer interest and attention are drawn to the brand through advertisements that feature the celebrity endorser, resulting in heightened brand awareness, increased sales, more favorable brand attachment, and increased consumer intention to purchase the endorsed brand. The effectiveness of a celebrity endorsement depends on the endorser's inherent meaning, including the authentic lifestyle, personality, and social status that a particular celebrity brings to the brands they endorse. Authenticity provides a brand with a unique identity and a strong association for consumers. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between consumer perceptions of athlete authenticity, endorsed brand authenticity, brand attachment and purchase intention. Data were collected from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and a total of 372 were deemed usable data. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to examine the hypotheses. This study reveals that consumers' perceptions of the athlete endorser's authenticity positively influenced their perceptions of brand authenticity, which then led to attachment to the brand and a favorable intention to purchase it. Athlete endorser authenticity, however, does not have an influence on brand attachment but rather first needs to be inserted into the brand authenticity. The current study expands on the knowledge of brand attachment literature to show that authentic brands elicit strong attachments in consumers.

10The Endogenous Logic and Predictive Model of Converging Development between Sports Industry and Elderly Care Service Industry in China

저자 : Youn Seonghyun , Han Song

발행기관 : 한국체육학회 간행물 : International Journal of Human Movement Science 14권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 149-164 (16 pages)

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Using the methods of literature review, expert interviews and data analysis, based on the conception of converging development between sports industry and elderly care service industry in China, this article focused on the endogenous logic and predictive model involving converging development between two industries. The study indicates that converging development between sports industry and elderly care service industry in China, which is being participated by different business owners, is an innovative business process aimed to build an affordable, a pluralistic and a standard sports-for-seniors market. The partial least square regression was performed to identify the coupling market relation between two industries, which would be enforced through the interaction of sports business layout and the elderly user's viscosity. During the cultivation period of an innovative sports-for-seniors market, the new business pattern would be composed of the demand-directed convergence, the recombinant service convergence, the resource-sharing convergence, the targeting market convergence, the value chain-extended convergence and the technology-triggered convergence. As the supportive policy, 'to create a concrete and flexible segmented sports-for-seniors market, to improve the system of multi-pillar endowment insurance and to promote the national education of responding proactively to population aging' were suggested.

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