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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> Cardiac Autonomic Responses and Adaptation to Repeated Bouts of Eccentric Exercise

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Cardiac Autonomic Responses and Adaptation to Repeated Bouts of Eccentric Exercise

Choun-sub Kim , Min-ghyu Sun , Maeng-kyu Kim
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 29권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 11월
  • : 359-367(9pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: The current study was performed to examine the effects of acute eccentric resistance exercise (ERE) on heart rate variability (HRV) and to determine whether cardiac autonomic regulation adapts to the repeated bout effect.
METHODS: Isokinetic eccentric exercise consisted of five sets of six maximal contractions of the knee extensor with an angular velocity of 90°/second. College-aged men (n=11) underwent two sessions of ERE with a 3-week interval. Muscle damage indicators such as the range of motion (ROM) and muscle echo intensity (EI) were measured. The post-exercise cardiac autonomic response was assessed by spectral analysis of HRV. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, the normalized unit (nu) for each band power, and the LF-to-HF (LF/HF) ratio were determined. All variables were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise as well as before and immediately after ERE.
RESULTS: The EI and ROM of the rectus femoris changed significantly after the maximal ERE. There was a significant interaction effect between the time and bout for EI. Significant changes in LF and HF nu were observed at 72 (1st ERE) and 96 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. The LF/HF ratio was also significantly increased at 24 (1st ERE) and 72 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. However, no interaction effects on changes in the HRV indices were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that acute ERE leads to cardiac autonomic imbalance for a sustained period and that repeated bouts of ERE cannot alleviate cardiac autonomic responses to exercise.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-600-001224768

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1087


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1휴먼헬스디지털테크놀로지 시대에서 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-3 (3 pages)

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2운동과학에서 Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate 보충의 효과와 적용

저자 : 최은주 ( Eun-ju Choi )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 4-10 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The effect of hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on leucine is a major area of interest in exercise science. The present review aimed to investigate the various effects of HMB supplementation and provide guidelines for its practical use.
METHODS: This review collected and analyzed previous studies on HMB supplementation from online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Wiley Online Library.
RESULTS: Although studies suggest different results, this review found that HMB supplementation before or after exercise could have positive effects on body composition (muscle mass), exercise performance (strength and power, endurance), and recovery after muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase). In particular, HMB supplementation had a significant effect on resistance exercise, and in general, a daily dose of 3 g is recommended. However, the effects of combined HMB and creatine supplementation remain unclear.
CONCLUSIONS: HMB can be a useful and effective supplement for athletes with various purposes and for ordinary people who regularly exercise. Further research should investigate several limitations of HMB supplementation, as suggested in previous studies.

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3Does Taekwondo Poomsae Training Impact on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Composition in Children and Adolescents? A Systematic Review

저자 : Ye Lei , Hyung-pil Jun

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 11-25 (15 pages)

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PURPOSE: Numerous studies claim that Taekwondo can effectively help obese children improve their physical fitness. In addition, Taekwondo might help prevent lifestyle diseases and metabolic syndrome caused by obesity. However, studies and reviews on the effectiveness of Taekwondo Poomsae are very few compared to those on Taekwondo Kyorugi. Based on previous reviews, this study aims to clarify the effect of Taekwondo Poomsae training on improving body composition, physical fitness, and blood composition of children and adolescents of different groups. Furthermore, the applicability of Taekwondo Poomsae training is to be determined.
METHODS: Two-hundred and two studies were searched via Korea electronic databases RISS, KISS, and DBPIA from March 1 to 3, 2021, and 22 of these were included in this review.
RESULTS: Our review confirms that Taekwondo Poomsae is effective in improving the physical condition of developing children and adolescents. However, we cannot assert that this sport is also an effective exercise therapy for special youth groups, such as those who are overweight, obese, or have a metabolic growth or development syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sports implementers, Taekwando experts, coaches, and other sport professionals provide more Taekwondo Poomsae training programs suitable for physical and physiotherapeutic exercises for different ages and groups.

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4Effects of Resistance Training and/or Protein Supplementation on Usual Gait Speed in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Jae Ho Park , Junghwan Oh , Sok Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 26-41 (16 pages)

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PURPOSE: The present review aimed to verify the meta-effects of resistance training (RT) or protein supplementation (PS) on usual gait speed (UGS) in postmenopausal women and the additive effect of RT and PS on UGS.
METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Web of Science (core collection) was performed from inception to December 31, 2021. Electronic search methods were used to identify 18 relevant randomized controlled trials. Meta-analyses of standardized mean difference (SMD) calculated using Hedges' g between RT and/or PS groups versus control groups were conducted using a random-effects model. The meta-effects are presented in a forest plot with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that RT significantly improved UGS (SMD, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.12-0.68; p=.006), while PS did not improve UGS (SMD, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.80 to 0.46; p=.601). A subgroup analysis indicated that there were significant increases in UGS after both 'RT-only intervention (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.59; p=.046)' and 'RT combined with balance training (BT) (SMD, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.17-1.13; p=.008)', while there was no significant increase in UGS after 'RT combined with power training (PT) (SMD, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.62 to 0.45; p=.765)'. There was no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS (SMD, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.24; p=.699).
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that RT significantly improved UGS in postmenopausal women, and adding BT to RT further improved UGS. In addition, there was no significant improvement in UGS after PS in postmenopausal women, and no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS.

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5유방암 환자의 범이론적 모델 단계에 따른 신체활동량과 운동 제약

저자 : 박하늬 ( Ha Nui Park ) , 연수진 ( Su Jin Yeon ) , 민지희 ( Ji Hee Min ) , 이정민 ( Jeong Min Lee ) , 정안숙 ( Ansuk Jeong ) , 김지예 ( Jee Ye Kim ) , 박형석 ( Hyung Seok Park ) , 김승일 ( Seung Il Kim ) , 전용관 ( Justin Y. Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 42-52 (11 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical activity (PA) and exercise barriers of stages 0-3 breast cancer survivors according to the Transtheoretical Model (TTM).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study that included data from a total of 295 breast cancer survivors (Age: 52.2±8.2 years, BMI: 23.5±3.3 kg/㎡), at Shinchon Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The levels of PA and exercise barriers according to TTM were investigated using questionnaires.
RESULTS: PA participation increased in the TTM stage. The proportion of participants categorized according to TTM stage differed according to the time since cancer diagnosis: a higher proportion of participants were in pre-contemplation/contemplation within one year after diagnosis, while a higher proportion of participants were in maintenance after three three years since diagnosis. The five most prevalent exercise barriers were fatigue, low level of physical fitness, poor health, lack of interest, and tendency to be physically inactive. Fatigue is the most prevalent exercise barrier regardless of TTM stage, while most exercise barriers tend to reduce as participants are in the preparation/action and maintenance stages.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed that the participants in the maintenance stage were the most active, while the proportion of participants in the TTM stage varied according to time since diagnosis. Since PA and exercise barriers vary according to the TTM stage, the TTM stage may increase PA participation in breast cancer patients.

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6양측 및 편측 신장성 운동이 근손상 및 근생리학적 지표에 미치는 영향

저자 : 박종연 ( Jong-yeon Park ) , 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 53-61 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effects of bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises on muscle damage and muscular physiological indices in healthy men.
METHODS: Using a randomized crossover design, nine adult males without musculoskeletal disorders were divided into a bilateral eccentric exercise group (BEG, n=9) and a unilateral eccentric exercise group (UEG, n=9). Bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises involved five sets of six repetitions of the rhythm metronome speed eccentric contraction 3 seconds at 110% one repetition maximum (1RM) using bilateral of BEG and the dominant and non-dominant of UEG separated by four weeks, respectively. Muscle damage (flexed and extended ROM, CIR, and VAS) and muscular physiological indices (muscle activity, muscle fatigue, and muscle tone) were measured before, immediately after (0 hour), 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.
RESULTS: The flexed ROM, CIR, VAS, muscle activity, and muscle tone were significantly increased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). Extended ROM and muscle activity significantly decreased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). However, there was no significant interaction between side (S) and time and side (T×S).
CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that there was no difference in muscle damage and physiological indices after measuring and setting the 1RM muscle strength separated by bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.

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7위드 코로나 시대 8주간의 온라인 고강도 인터벌 트레이닝이 과체중 남성의 신체조성, 혈중지질, 사이토카인 및 삶의 질에 미치는 영향

저자 : 최동훈 ( Dong-hun Choi ) , 현아현 ( Ah-hyun Hyun )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 62-71 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), using real-time video application programs, on the body composition, blood lipids, cytokines, and quality of life (QOL) of over-weight men.
METHODS: The participants of this study were overweight men, aged < 45 years, who voluntarily applied to the online notices for this study. The men had a body mass index (BMI) >28. Twenty people participated in this experiment and were divided into two groups: a HIIT group (n=10) and a control group (n=10). Both groups were pre-examined to determine body composition, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and QOL indices and also underwent blood tests. The HIIT group underwent high-intensity interval training for 8 weeks (twice a week and 35 minutes per day) using real-time video programs. The main exercise program for HIIT was 20 seconds high-intensity (85-90% HRmax) exercise followed by 30 seconds exercise at a 60% HRmax.
RESULTS: Comparison and analysis of the effects observed before and after the exercise revealed that the real-time online HIIT group showed reduced body fat (F=5.690, p=.028). Results of the blood tests showed that the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL; F=24.584, p=.001) was increased, while the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL; F=24.963, p=.001), triglycerides (TG; F=7.295, p=.015;), and total cholesterol (TC; F=14.934, p=.001) levels were decreased. No significant effects were observed on the insulin and c-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Finally, the QOL test results showed that the total score of the HIIT group had increased (F=190.815, p=.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Online HIIT is a useful method that aids in reducing fat levels in obese men and improving their blood lipid profile and QOL during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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8Changes in Heart Rate, Muscle Temperature, Blood Lactate Concentration, Blood Pressure, and Fatigue Perception Following Jogging and Running: An Observational Study

저자 : Junhyeong Lim , Hyeongjun Park , Seunghee Lee , Jihong Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 72-79 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: To report the magnitude of changes in heart rate, muscle temperature, blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception after treadmill jogging and running.
METHODS: Eleven healthy male adults (174±7 cm, 72±10 kg) visited the laboratory twice. After a 10-minute rest each visit, subjects performed a treadmill jog (maintaining a speed of 9 km/h at a 1% incline) or a treadmill run (initially 5 km/h at a 1% incline, belt speed, and incline increased by 1 km/h and 0.5% every minute; average speed of 9 km/h). Heart rate and muscle (gastrocnemius) temperature were recorded before, during, and after the treadmill jog/run. Blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception were assessed before and after. The effect of the condition over time was analysed using parametric or nonparametric tests (p≤.05) with Cohen's d effect sizes.
RESULTS: There was a condition effect over time in heart rate (F1,30=22.16, p<.0001), blood lactate concentration (χ2=34.88, df=3, p<.0001), systolic blood pressure (F1,30=4.18, p=.05), and fatigue perception (F1,30=10.24, p=.003). Specifically, subjects who ran showed a higher heart rate (187 vs. 158 bpm, p<.0001, d=2.11), blood lactate concentration (11.4 vs. 3.8 mmol/L, p<.0001, d=3.39), systolic blood pressure (164 vs. 147 mmHg, p=.006, d=1.34), and fatigue perception (2.7 vs. 5.0 cm, p=.0005, d=1.46) than those who jogged. There was a time effect (F1,30=94.84, p<.0001) on muscle temperature, with a 1.5°C increase in muscle temperature after jogging/running (p<.0001, d=1.88).
CONCLUSIONS: While treadmill jogging and running induced a similar temperature increase in the gastrocnemius, running resulted in higher heart rate, blood lactate concentration, systolic blood pressure, and fatigue perception. These results can be used as a basis for planning warm-up protocols.

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9여성 노인의 낙상과 비낙상의 보행변인 비교 및 평지와 장애물 보행 중 보행속도에 따른 낙상여부의 비교위험도

저자 : 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang ) , 이병근 ( Byung-kun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 80-87 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the gait variables and the relative risk of falling between elderly Korean women that fall and do not fall based on the walking speed during flat walking and in the presence of obstacles.
METHODS: The study included 148 women, aged 65 years or older (22 fallers, aged 75.05±5.38 years; 126 non-fallers, aged 71.80±5.14 years). The gait variables were measured in a space of 9 m×1 m, and obstacle walking was measured while crossing obstacles measuring, 5 cm and 30 cm. A t-test, correlation analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the gait variables to determine if there was a fall and to analyze the relationship and the risk ratio of a fall at a walking speed.
RESULTS: Out of 148 participants, 22 participants (14.9%), fell while walking. During flat ground walking, right step length (p<.01) left step length (p<.05), and stride lengths (p<.01) were smaller in the faller group, while the stance phase (p<.01) and double-support time ratio (p<.05) were smaller in the non-faller group. In obstacle walking, slower walking speeds were observed for the 5-cm obstacles (p<.01) and 30-cm obstacles (p<.05) in the faller group. For the low-speed and medium-high speed groups, the odds ratio of the fall experience was 2.844 (1.125-7.191) (p<.05) for flat gait, 3.585 (1.354-9.491) (p<.05) for the 5 cm obstacle, and 4.877 (1.731- 13.742) (p<.01) for the 30 cm obstacle. As the height of the obstacle increased, the fall odds ratio increased.
CONCLUSIONS: In the faller group, the step and stride lengths were smaller during flat walking, and the walking speed of the obstacles was low. The low-speed group had a high falling experience odds ratio, and as the height of the obstacle increased, the falling experience odds ratio increased.

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10웨이트 트레이닝 전 자가근막이완 기법이 기능적 움직임과 지연성 근육통에 미치는 효과

저자 : 이미래 ( Mi-rae Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 88-97 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of the self-myofascial release technique conducted before weight training on functional movement and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
METHODS: The study subjects were divided into three groups: a control group (CON, n=8), an active stretching group (DS, n=8), and a self-myofascial release group (SMR, n=8). All three groups performed the same leg press exercise program for 30 minutes, twice a week for eight weeks. Active stretching and self-myofascial release techniques were conducted before exercise for 30 minutes. Body composition, 1RM, and functional movement screen (FMS) were tested before the 1st-week exercise and after the 4th- and 8th-week exercise training. The DOMS levels were assessed immediately after exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise using the visual analog scale (VAS).
RESULTS: Body weight and body fat percentage showed a significant decrease (p<0.01), and muscle mass and 1RM increased with the exercise period (p<0.01). The FMS score differed between the groups (p<0.05), periods (p<0.01), and groups×periods (p<0.01). The FMS score was significantly higher in the SMR than in the CON group at the 4th- and 8th-week exercise. The exercise-induced VAS level peaked at 48 hours post-exercise in all groups and significantly decreased at 72 hours post-exercise in the SMR group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that self-myofascial release positively affects functional movements and effectively alleviates exercise-induced pain levels. Therefore, self-myofascial release techniques could be used as an effective warm-up strategy to improve physical function and relieve exercise-induced injury and muscle pain.

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1근거기반 운동의학 시대의 도래

저자 : 이해동 ( Hae-dong Lee ) , 전용관 ( Justin Y. Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 325-328 (4 pages)

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2폼롤러를 이용한 자가근막이완이 인체근막시스템과 심혈관계기능에 미치는 영향에 대한 고찰

저자 : 이천옥 ( Cheonok Lee ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 329-338 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller is a popular intervention used to improve flexibility and restore skeletal muscles, fascia, tendons, ligaments and soft-tissue extensibility. However, the mechanism about the effects of SMR on flexibility, delayed onset of muscle soreness and arterial stiffness has not been elucidated. The purpose of this review is to provide basic knowledge for the mechanism about the effects of SMR from a functional and anatomical perspective.
METHODS: In this review, we summarized previous studies investigating the effects of SMR which were associated with the human fascial system on flexibility, delayed onset of muscle soreness, arterial stiffness and autonomic nervous system (ANS).
RESULTS: SMR with a foam roller can improve flexibility by increasing blood flow and circulation to the soft tissues. Foam rolling-related mechanisms to increase range of motion or reduce pain include the activation of cutaneous and fascial mechanoreceptors and interstitial afferent nerves that modulate sympathetic/parasympathetic activation as well as the activation of global pain modulatory systems and reflex-induced reductions in muscle and myofascial tone. In addition, SMR with a foam roller may improve arterial stiffness, which was associated with increased circulating level of nitric oxide induced by elevated shear stress on the walls of the blood vessel.
CONCLUSIONS: SMR using a foam roller improves flexibility by relaxing tension in skeletal muscles or fascia and may help to improve arterial stiffness and the function of the ANS. We suggest that SMR using a foam roller may help to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease as a new alternative method.

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3COVID-19 팬데믹과 운동중재에 관한 분석

저자 : 지진구 ( Jin-gu Ji ) , 김귀백 ( Kwi Baek Kim ) , 곽이섭 ( Yi Sub Kwak )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 339-346 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) was first reported in China at the end of 2019. COVID-19 infected people increased and spreads COVID-19 rapidly across the globe. Finally, this outbreak turn into a pandemic and yields national crisis and finally to endemic. Most individual are exposed to stressful situation because of unknown duration of COVID-19. Most of all, smoking, obesity, metabolic syndromes, lowered immunity such as decreased natural killer (NK) cell, T cell activity were significantly correlated with the COVID- 19 incidence. However, all this variables were concerned with exercise habit and exercise-intervention, therefore, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between COVID-19 incidence and physical activity status.
METHODS: PubMed database was searched from December 2019 to August 2020 using predefined search terms “COVID-19”, “exercise”, and “immunity”.Based on reference search, more than 65 articles were identified whereas 50 papers (36 references) met the inclusion criteria and were well connected with COVID-19 and physical exercise with immunity.We analyzed the connections between exercise and COVID-19 with many variables, and dealtabout COVID-19 prevention and exercise-intervention programs in the main text.
RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, obesity, metabolic syndromes, reduced respiratory muscle mass, lowered immunity such as decreased natural killer cell and T cell activity were significantly correlated with the COVID-19 infection.However, all this variables were also concerned with exercise habit and exercise-intervention.Regular physical activity have shown to be an effective prescription for obesity, many metabolic syndromes and good immunity. However, physical inactivity and chronic metabolic syndromes were associated with reduced immunity such as reduced NK cell activity, uncontrolled T cell immunity, decreased respiratory immunity and even URTIs (upper respiratory track infection) for elite athletes. Multicomponent exercise program is considered especially for the elderly people, 5 days per week, 40-60% HRR (heart rate reserve) intensity, and 150-300 minutes aerobic and resistance training (200-400 minutes/week under the quarantine period) were recommended. Moreover, all form of psychological support also to increase immunity against COVID-19.More mechanism studies are urgently needed to determine which mode and which duration exercises are best most suited, and effective for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

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4PCSK9과 LDL-C: 운동의 역할

저자 : 진재호 ( Jaeho Jin ) , 조우연 ( Wooyeon Jo ) , 노지헌 ( Ji Heon Noh ) , 이상기 ( Sang Ki Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 347-351 (5 pages)

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PURPOSE: Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a pivotal regulator of low lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL receptor (LDLR) metabolism, and the interest in PCSK9 has increased in cardiovascular diseases. Exercise reduces blood LDL-C via PCSK9-LDLR pathway in the liver and the vasculature. However, the mechanism of exercise-induced inhibition of PCSK is unclear. The aim of this review is to describe the role of exercise on PCSK9-LDLR axis in cardiovascular diseases.
METHODS: This study review 34 previous studies focusing on the effect of exercise on PCSK9 in the human and animal.
RESULTS: The effects of exercise and lifestyle intervention on hepatic and circulating PCSK9 are controversial. However, exercise consistently increases hepatic LDLR, and inhibits atherosclerosis via suppression of PCSK9 and LOX-1 in atherosclerotic region.
CONCLUSIONS: Even though experimental data are still very limited, exercise training can improves blood LDL-C via inhibition of PCSK9 and enhancement of LDLR in liver and vasculature. The study of exercise on PCSK9 are urgently needed.

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5과거의 근력훈련 경험이 장기간 훈련중단 후 재훈련시 흰쥐 가자미근의 횡단면적과 단백질 함량에 미치는 영향

저자 : 홍광석 ( Kwang-seok Hong ) , 김지석 ( Ji-seok Kim ) , 이석호 ( Sukho Lee ) , 김기정 ( Kijeong Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 352-358 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that previous strength training episodes favorably contribute to muscular hypertrophic adaptations in rat soleus muscle after long-term detraining and retraining in rats.
METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), strength training (ST), and retraining (RT). The strength training was a regular bout of ladder climbing exercise that consisted of three sets of five repetitions and three days per week for eight weeks. A cylinder containing weights was loaded to the bottom of each rat's tail. The weights carried during each training session were initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. Rats in the DT underwent twenty weeks of detraining periods immediately after eight weeks of strength training. Rats in the ST were aged matched to the RT group and underwent eight weeks of strength training at the same duration with the RT group. Rats in the RT were conducted to the resistance training for eight weeks following the detraining period. Soleus muscles were collected at the end of the training episodes to examine alterations in cross-sectional area and protein contents.
RESULTS: ST showed a significant increase in cross-sectional area of the rat soleus muscle, compared with CON. It was interestingly demonstrated that RT markedly elicited hypertrophy of soleus muscle, compared with all other groups. It was supported that RT-induced hypertrophy was related to increased myofibrillar protein contents of the soleus muscle.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although prolonged training cessation occurs previous strength training episodes have a positive impact on restoring muscular contractile properties and hypertrophy after retraining.

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6Cardiac Autonomic Responses and Adaptation to Repeated Bouts of Eccentric Exercise

저자 : Choun-sub Kim , Min-ghyu Sun , Maeng-kyu Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 359-367 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The current study was performed to examine the effects of acute eccentric resistance exercise (ERE) on heart rate variability (HRV) and to determine whether cardiac autonomic regulation adapts to the repeated bout effect.
METHODS: Isokinetic eccentric exercise consisted of five sets of six maximal contractions of the knee extensor with an angular velocity of 90°/second. College-aged men (n=11) underwent two sessions of ERE with a 3-week interval. Muscle damage indicators such as the range of motion (ROM) and muscle echo intensity (EI) were measured. The post-exercise cardiac autonomic response was assessed by spectral analysis of HRV. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, the normalized unit (nu) for each band power, and the LF-to-HF (LF/HF) ratio were determined. All variables were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise as well as before and immediately after ERE.
RESULTS: The EI and ROM of the rectus femoris changed significantly after the maximal ERE. There was a significant interaction effect between the time and bout for EI. Significant changes in LF and HF nu were observed at 72 (1st ERE) and 96 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. The LF/HF ratio was also significantly increased at 24 (1st ERE) and 72 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. However, no interaction effects on changes in the HRV indices were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that acute ERE leads to cardiac autonomic imbalance for a sustained period and that repeated bouts of ERE cannot alleviate cardiac autonomic responses to exercise.

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7Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness and Strength According to the Frailty Level of Female Elderly with Hypertension

저자 : Kyung-wan Baek , Min Chul Lee , Tae-bong Jeon , Jun-il Yoo , Jin Sung Park , Hyo Youl Moon , Ji-seok Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 368-376 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise on physical fitness and strength according to their frailty level of the hypertensive female elderly aged over 65.
METHODS: Female elderly subjects (>65 year) with hypertension (n=90) were classified according to their level of frailty (Fr_), and were divided into control group (Ctrl) and exercise group (Ex). Hypertensive female elderly in exercise groups were subjected to 8-week combined exercise of aerobic (stretching and walking) and resistance (elastic band and weight training) exercise twice per week (50 minutes×2 times×8 weeks). Body composition, functional fitness and skeletal muscle strength were evaluated as main variables (Ctrl, n=27; Ex, n=23; Fr_Ctrl, n=17; Fr_Ex, n=23).
RESULTS: Body composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose level (include hemoglobin A1c) and blood lipid profile did not interact with the exercise intervention and frailty level. Records of 30-second chair stretch test, two-minute walk test and arm curl increased after exercise intervention regardless of frailty level. The strength of quadriceps femoris increased after exercise intervention regardless of the level of frailty. However, the strength of biceps femoris (p<.001), biceps brachii (p<.05) and triceps brachii (p<.001) was significantly increased in the Fr_Ex compared to pre-intervention of exercise.
CONCLUSIONS: The classification according to the level of frailty in hypertensive female elderly can have a significant effect on the degree of muscle strength improvement by exercise intervention. In addition, this study newly discovered that the improvement of 30-s chair stretch test record in the hypertensive elderly women appeared faster than the improvement of the rapid-gait test record independently of the level of frailty.

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8한국 성인에서 상대악력과 제2형 당뇨병 발생률과의 연관성: 한국인 유전체 역학 조사사업 자료를 기반으로

저자 : 윤은선 ( Eun Sun Yoon ) , 박수현 ( Soo Hyun Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 377-384 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: We investigated whether relative handgrip strength (RHS) and change in handgrip strength predicted Type 2 DM incidence in middle-aged and older adults.
METHODS: Total of 29,098 participants (8,609 men and 20,489 women) aged 40-69 who were free of diabetes at the baseline examination drawn from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Urban Health Examinees cohort (KoGES-HEXA), a large prospective population-based study. RHS was assessed with a dynamometer and divided by body mass index. Diabetes was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, use of anti-diabetic medications or measured fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl, or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥6.5%. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of Diabetes incidences according to baseline RHS levels and RHS changes.
RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 4 years (49.8±13.3 month), 1,167 (4.0%) participants developed diabetes. Compared with the high RHS group, higher risk of diabetes incidence was observed in low RHS group (men HR=1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.55, women HR=1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.54) after adjusted for age, triglyceride, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, income, education hypertension, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, regular exercise. In addition, compared with the sustained high RHS group, sustained low RHS group showed an increased risk of diabetes incidence (men HR=1.60, 95% CI 1.28-2.00, women HR=1.85, 95% CI 1.52-2.24) after adjustment. However, the risk was not statistically significant in increased RHS group (men HR=0.98, 95% CI 0.73-1.31, women HR=1.11, 95% CI 0.85-1.43).
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that RHS is independently associated with the risk of incident diabetes in middle and older adults. RHS measurement may be useful to identify individuals at increased risk for diabetes incidence. Maintaining a high level of RHS is important strategies for diabetes prevention among adults.

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9History-Dependence of Muscle Excitation and Oxygenation During Isometric Knee Extension Force Production

저자 : Junkyung Song , Kitae Kim , Sungjun Lee , Jiseop Lee , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 385-393 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study examined the issue of history-dependence on muscle excitation and oxygenation by using surface electromyography (EMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
METHODS: Eight male participants performed isometric knee extension force production tasks that started at four levels of initial force production (30, 40, 60, 70% of maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and commonly converged to the production of 50% of MVC by increasing or decreasing knee extension forces. We quantified the integrated electromyogram (iEMG), total hemoglobin (tHb), and the desaturation rate of muscle tissue (TSISLOPE) of the vastus lateralis and compared the differences in the quantified variables between the experimental conditions.
RESULTS: For the four levels of initial forces production, all the variables showed significant linear relationships with outcome forces. However, the magnitudes of the variables were varied depending on the contraction history at the terminal phase where the identical level of force production (50% of MVC) was required. At the terminal phase, the iEMG was affected by the time history of both mode (e.g., increment or decrement) and magnitude (e.g., 10% or 20% change of MVC), while the tHb and TSISLOPE showed significant differences between the time history of mode only.
CONCLUSIONS: The main result of the current study demonstrates the history-dependence of the changes in physiological demands in muscle activation. In particular, the indices of muscle excitation and oxygenation at the same level of force were varied depending on the time history of contraction, which implies the indices of muscle excitation and oxygenation may not be invariant component to specify the levels of outcome forces.

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10초등학생의 스마트폰 사용습관과 척추 만곡 및 목·어깨 통증과의 연관성

저자 : 송문구 ( Mun-ku Song ) , 박지현 ( Ji-hyun Park ) , 공지영 ( Ji-young Kong ) , 강현식 ( Hyun-sik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 394-401 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationships of smartphone usage with spinal curvature and neck or shoulder pain in a sample of school children.
METHODS: Participants were elementary school children (152 boys, 156 girls). Spinal parameters such as trunk inclination (TI), kyphotic angle (KA), and fleche cervical (FC) were measured with a spine and posture analyzer (DIERS Formetric 4D). In addition, smartphone addiction score (SAS), experience of neck or shoulder pain, postural habits, and lifestyle risk factors were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Children were classified as good- and poor-posture group according to cervical postures while using a smartphone and as low, medium, and high-risk group according to the SAS levels. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of pain experience.
RESULTS: With respect to postures, children with poor posture had significantly higher values of TI, FC, and pain experience than children with good posture children. Children with poor posture had a significantly higher risk of neck or shoulder pain (OR=6.51, 95% CI=3.63-11.67, p<.001) compared with children with good posture (OR=1). With respect to the severity of smartphone addiction, there were significant incremental trends in KA, FC, and pain experience according to the SAS-based subgroups (from low to high-risk group). The medium- and high-risk groups had significantly higher risks of neck or shoulder pain (OR=4.77, 95% CI=1.93-11.78, p<.001 and OR=16.51, 95% CI=6.40-42.54, respectively) compared with the low-risk group (OR=1).
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that smartphone addiction and poor posture are two modifiable risk factors in determining the severity of spinal curvature and risk of neck and shoulder pain in school children.

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