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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 과거의 근력훈련 경험이 장기간 훈련중단 후 재훈련시 흰쥐 가자미근의 횡단면적과 단백질 함량에 미치는 영향

KCI등재SCOUPUS

과거의 근력훈련 경험이 장기간 훈련중단 후 재훈련시 흰쥐 가자미근의 횡단면적과 단백질 함량에 미치는 영향

Effect of Previous Strength Training Episodes and Retraining on Cross-Sectional Area and Protein Contents of Rat Soleus Muscle

홍광석 ( Kwang-seok Hong ) , 김지석 ( Ji-seok Kim ) , 이석호 ( Sukho Lee ) , 김기정 ( Kijeong Kim )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 29권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 11월
  • : 352-358(7pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

서 론
연구 방법
연구 결과
논 의
결 론
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that previous strength training episodes favorably contribute to muscular hypertrophic adaptations in rat soleus muscle after long-term detraining and retraining in rats.
METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), strength training (ST), and retraining (RT). The strength training was a regular bout of ladder climbing exercise that consisted of three sets of five repetitions and three days per week for eight weeks. A cylinder containing weights was loaded to the bottom of each rat’s tail. The weights carried during each training session were initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. Rats in the DT underwent twenty weeks of detraining periods immediately after eight weeks of strength training. Rats in the ST were aged matched to the RT group and underwent eight weeks of strength training at the same duration with the RT group. Rats in the RT were conducted to the resistance training for eight weeks following the detraining period. Soleus muscles were collected at the end of the training episodes to examine alterations in cross-sectional area and protein contents.
RESULTS: ST showed a significant increase in cross-sectional area of the rat soleus muscle, compared with CON. It was interestingly demonstrated that RT markedly elicited hypertrophy of soleus muscle, compared with all other groups. It was supported that RT-induced hypertrophy was related to increased myofibrillar protein contents of the soleus muscle.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although prolonged training cessation occurs previous strength training episodes have a positive impact on restoring muscular contractile properties and hypertrophy after retraining.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-600-001224753

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1103


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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1Letter to the Editor at Exercise Science

저자 : Song-young Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 157-158 (2 pages)

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2The Association between Maternal Folate Status and Childhood Obesity-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Junechul Kim , Bo-eun Yoon , Jinho Park , Eun Hye Kwon , Kyungun Kim , Sukho Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 159-167 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes. Folate is an essential methyl donor in the epigenetic programming of offspring. This review and meta-analysis was conducted to compile the evidence reported thus far to identify associations between maternal folate status and childhood obesity.
METHODS: A keyword/reference search was performed in EBSCOhost and Web of Science databases. A CMA program was used for a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect of maternal folate status on childhood obesity in offspring and to examine the influence of moderating variables on the overall effect.
RESULTS: Better maternal folate intake was associated with a lower risk of childhood obesity: the overall effect size (ES; Hedges' g) was 0.168 (95% CI=0.075 to 0.260, p<.001; small effects; cf., Cohen's criteria). Moderator analysis revealed that the ≥Q statistic for the age group was statistically significant (Qb=4.730, df=1. p=.030; heterogeneity of ES). In offspring < 7 years and >7 years, the ES was 0.277 (95% CI=0.151, 0.404) and 0.089 (95% CI=-0.025, 0.202), respectively. The study design was a statistically significant variable (Qb=4.310, df=1. p=.038; heterogeneity of ES). In cohort studies, ES was 0.251 (95% CI=0.135, 0.367), whereas in randomized controlled trial group, ES was 0.062 (95% CI=-0.073, 0.197).
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal folate intake significantly affects childhood obesity, and the effect of maternal folate status is stronger in children younger than 7 years.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzymes Response to Lactate Tolerance Exercise Test

저자 : Karamatollah Rahmanian , Farhang Hooshmand , Masihollah Shakeri , Vahid Rahmanian , Fatemeh Sotoodeh Jahromi , Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 168-172 (5 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess alterations in serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels after performing a lactate tolerance exercise test (LTET) in elite male swimmers.
METHODS: Fourteen male adolescent swimmers participated in this study. All subjects performed LTET (8×100-meter swimming) with a 1-minute recovery interval between eight trainings. Plasma CK and LDH (markers of muscle damage) levels were measured 30 minute before and 24 hours after the test. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of data.
RESULTS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased immediately after LTET as compared to the values 30 minutes prior to exercise (188.91±34.04 vs. 148.83±29.63 mg/dL, p=.029; 318.17±53.89 vs. 272.08±52.93 mg/dL, p=.010, respectively). Both CK and LDH levels displayed a decreasing trend 24 hours post-LTET; however, there was no significant difference immediately after the test.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased following LTET, which is representative of muscle damage.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4영양 건강 위험과 신체활동이 우울 증상에 미치는 영향

저자 : 권지혜 ( Jihye Gwon ) , 신지호 ( Jiho Shin ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-180 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the combined effects of nutritional health risk and physical activity on depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults aged 65 years and older (4,116 men and 5,154 women) from the 2020 Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging.
METHODS: Nutritional health risk was categorized as good, moderate, and high according to the Nutrition Screening Initiative. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Short Form of Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS).
RESULTS: There were significant age differences (p<.001), education level (p<.001), marital status (p<.001), and SDGS (p<.001) according to nutritional health risk or physical activity status. In particular, a general linear model (GLM) showed a significant interaction (R2=.239, F(2,9849)=5.582, p<.004) between nutritional health risk and physical activity on SGDS-based depressive symptoms. The antidepressant effect of regular physical activity was observed in individuals with good or moderate nutritional health risks. However, such beneficial effects of physical activity were not observed in individuals with high nutritional health risks.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of this study suggest that both good nutrition and physical activity for mental health should be emphasized in older adults, with a greater focus on nutrition for those with a high nutritional health risk.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiration and Balance in Patients with Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

저자 : Kwang-bin An , Hye-joo Jeon , Woo-nam Chang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 181-187 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Respiratory function can be adversely affected after a cerebrovascular accident. This study aimed to determine whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) changes the respiration and balance abilities of patients with stroke.
METHODS: Twelve patients with stroke were randomly assigned to the study (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. The study and control groups received IMT and general physical therapy, respectively for 6 weeks, five times a week for 30 min/day. Inspiratory and expiratory functions and balance were measured pre- and post-evaluation.
RESULTS: After IMT intervention, the weight distribution ratio (WDR) for balance ability measurement was significantly decreased (p<.05), and the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum inspiratory flow rate (MIFR), maximum inspiratory capacity (MIC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and limits of stability (LOS) were significantly increased in the study group (p<.05). A comparison of the study and control groups revealed statistically significant differences in MIP (p<0.01), MIFR (p<.01), MIC (p<.05), PEF (p<.05), FEV1 (p<.05), WDR (p<.01), and LOS (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that IMT is a useful and effective exercise intervention for patients with stroke.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6Effects of 4 Weeks of Beta-Alanine Intake on Inflammatory Cytokines after 10 km Long Distance Running Exercise

저자 : Su-yeon Jin , Hwang-woon Moon , Jun-su Kim , Ha-young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 188-196 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the immunological effects of β-alanine intake for 4 weeks on immune function changes after long-distance exercise and the possibility of β-alanine intake as an effective exercise supplement to improve exercise performance and maintain immune function.
METHODS: Eighteen male college students were randomly assigned to two groups, one with two capsules of 250 mg β-alanine and the other with placebo without a nutritional effect. The participants took one capsule each in the morning and evening after the meals. This study was conducted in a double-blinded manner. To analyze the inflammatory cytokines expressed during exercise, a 10 km long-running exercise was performed, and blood was collected from the forearm vein a total of 4 times (at rest, immediately after exercise, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes in recovery).
RESULTS: As a result of analyzing the level of inflammatory cytokine IL-6, compared to the placebo group, the β-alanine intake group decreased significantly to 60 minutes after recovery from long-distance aerobic exercise, and both groups showed a significant difference between both periods (p<.001). However, there was no significant difference between the groups based on the measurement period before and after intake. As a result of analyzing the level of TNF-β, the expression of TNF-β in the placebo group was significantly decreased from immediately after long-distance aerobic exercise to 60 minutes after recovery, but in the β-alanine group, TNF-β expression did not occur immediately after exercise, and there was no significant difference until the recovery period; thus, there was no statistically significant difference between the two periods. In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the measurement period before and after intake.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above results, β-alanine intake for 4 weeks is thought to be effective in maintaining temporarily reduced immune function after long-distance exercise by reducing the level of inflammatory cytokines in the study participants.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7The Effects of External Vibration on Coordination Strategies of Multi-Muscles during Voluntary Isometric Torque Production

저자 : Jiseop Lee , Junkyung Song , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 197-206 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of muscle vibration on performance accuracy and multi-muscle coordination pattern during voluntary isometric knee extension torque production.
METHODS: The subjects were tested under two conditions of external vibration frequencies (90 Hz vibration (VIB)&no-vibration (NVIB)) with three levels of torque magnitudes of 20% (MVT20), 40% (MVT40), and 60% of maximal voluntary torque (MVT60). The subjects were instructed to perform a submaximal isometric ramp task and matched the produced torque with the torque template shown in the screen as accurately as possible. External vibration was applied to the rectus femoris (RF).
RESULTS: The performance error (RMSENORM) was reduced in 60% of MVT (MVT60) in both ramp and SS phases, and the iEMGAGO was significantly reduced by vibration under the same torque conditions in the SS phase. In addition, the muscle-mode (M-mode) composition was found to be different in the VIB and NVIB in the SS phase. We found that the VIB condition showed co-contraction M-modes and mixed M-modes. However, there was no significant difference in the ramp phase under all conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: The neurophysiological changes due to muscle vibration may positively affect the task characteristics and steps that require accurate torque generation and provide information for the quantitative understanding of multi-muscle coordination of vibration.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8신장과 체중을 이용한 상대체중지수의 타당성 고찰

저자 : 박지용 ( Ji-yong Park ) , 권태원 ( Tae-won Gwon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-214 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to consider the validity of relative weight indices, which are used to compare people of different heights.
METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using the 2017-2021 “National Fitness Award” in South Korea. Males (n=77,705) aged 18-65 years and females (n=84,641) were included. Three indices [I1=kg/m, I2=kg/㎡, and I3=kg/㎥] and I4 [I4=kg/㎡], which simply reduce the standard error of I1, were analyzed. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to determine an index that was highly correlated with weight and was independent of height. Furthermore, an index that was highly correlated with the body fat percentage was considered. The linear relationship between height and the indices was confirmed using regression analysis. The n value of the index (kg/mn), which provides the same value for all height ranges, was derived by regression analysis between weight and height.
RESULTS: The correlation analysis between height and the indices described I2 (r=-.009, p<.05) as the most suitable for males. The I1 and I4 (r=-.049, p<.01) were appropriate for females. Weight showed a significant correlation with all indices. The association between body fat percentage and I3 showed a high correlation in both males (r=.722, p<.01) and females (r=.734, p<.01). Regression analyses represented I2 (B=-.005, p<.05) suitability for males. For females, I4 (B=.022, p<.01) was replaceable.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that I2 (kg/㎡) is appropriate for males. The I4 (kg/㎡) was applicable to females. The I3 (kg/㎥) showed the strongest correlation with body fat percentage in both males and females.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

9서킷 형태의 근신경 운동이 MZ세대의 근력, 순발력, 기능적 수행력에 미치는 영향

저자 : 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 215-221 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit-type neuromuscular training (CTNT) on strength, power, and functional performance among the MZ generation.
METHODS: Twenty-eight participants were assigned to either the circuit-type neuromuscular training group (CTNTG, n=14) or the control group (CG, n=14). CTNT was performed for 50 minutes a day, 2-3 times a week, for 6 weeks. The CG only performed activities of daily living during the study period. Baseline and post measures included isometric muscular strength (knee flexion, knee extension, back flexion, back extension), vertical jump, 30 m sprint, T-agility, and Y-balance tests.
RESULTS: The results showed that the CTNT had a positive effect on the improvement of knee flexion (p=.015), knee extension (p=.047), back extension (p=.003), vertical jump (p=.025), T-agility (p=.046), posteromedial (p=.031), posterolateral (p=.022), and composite score (p=.032).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings can be a factor that the strength, power, and functional performance of MZ generation can be sufficiently improved through the CTNT program. This suggests that CTNT is the most appropriate exercise intervention method to improve the strength, power, and functional performance of the MZ generation.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

10자가근막이완을 포함한 동적 준비운동 프로그램이 연부조직의 강직도 및 운동수행능력에 미치는 영향

저자 : 선세영 ( Se-young Seon ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An ) , 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 222-229 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of dynamic warm-up (DW), including DW and self-myofascial release (SMFR), on soft tissue stiffness and exercise performance.
METHODS: Eight adult men participated in this study. The procedure was conducted twice every 2 weeks. Soft tissue stiffness measurements and exercise performance were performed as a pre-post-test. DW only and DW with SMFR were performed as an exercise intervention for the two groups, respectively.
RESULTS: In the group conducted solely by DW, the stiffness of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris muscles increased (p<.05), and in the DW group including SMFR, the stiffness of the rectus femoris muscle (p<.01) and biceps femoris muscle increased (p<.05). The Achilles and patellar tendon showed no significant changes in either group. A significant increase was observed in both the DW group and the DW group containing SMFR in the 30 m sprint (p<.01). The vertical jump (VJ) showed no significant change in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, DW, including DW with SMFR, increased muscle stiffness, specifically through a 30-m sprint. In a follow-up study, it is considered necessary to investigate the effect of the VJ through the development of a DW program that changes the stiffness of tendons.

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1근거기반 운동의학 시대의 도래

저자 : 이해동 ( Hae-dong Lee ) , 전용관 ( Justin Y. Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 325-328 (4 pages)

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2폼롤러를 이용한 자가근막이완이 인체근막시스템과 심혈관계기능에 미치는 영향에 대한 고찰

저자 : 이천옥 ( Cheonok Lee ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 329-338 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller is a popular intervention used to improve flexibility and restore skeletal muscles, fascia, tendons, ligaments and soft-tissue extensibility. However, the mechanism about the effects of SMR on flexibility, delayed onset of muscle soreness and arterial stiffness has not been elucidated. The purpose of this review is to provide basic knowledge for the mechanism about the effects of SMR from a functional and anatomical perspective.
METHODS: In this review, we summarized previous studies investigating the effects of SMR which were associated with the human fascial system on flexibility, delayed onset of muscle soreness, arterial stiffness and autonomic nervous system (ANS).
RESULTS: SMR with a foam roller can improve flexibility by increasing blood flow and circulation to the soft tissues. Foam rolling-related mechanisms to increase range of motion or reduce pain include the activation of cutaneous and fascial mechanoreceptors and interstitial afferent nerves that modulate sympathetic/parasympathetic activation as well as the activation of global pain modulatory systems and reflex-induced reductions in muscle and myofascial tone. In addition, SMR with a foam roller may improve arterial stiffness, which was associated with increased circulating level of nitric oxide induced by elevated shear stress on the walls of the blood vessel.
CONCLUSIONS: SMR using a foam roller improves flexibility by relaxing tension in skeletal muscles or fascia and may help to improve arterial stiffness and the function of the ANS. We suggest that SMR using a foam roller may help to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease as a new alternative method.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

3COVID-19 팬데믹과 운동중재에 관한 분석

저자 : 지진구 ( Jin-gu Ji ) , 김귀백 ( Kwi Baek Kim ) , 곽이섭 ( Yi Sub Kwak )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 339-346 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) was first reported in China at the end of 2019. COVID-19 infected people increased and spreads COVID-19 rapidly across the globe. Finally, this outbreak turn into a pandemic and yields national crisis and finally to endemic. Most individual are exposed to stressful situation because of unknown duration of COVID-19. Most of all, smoking, obesity, metabolic syndromes, lowered immunity such as decreased natural killer (NK) cell, T cell activity were significantly correlated with the COVID- 19 incidence. However, all this variables were concerned with exercise habit and exercise-intervention, therefore, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between COVID-19 incidence and physical activity status.
METHODS: PubMed database was searched from December 2019 to August 2020 using predefined search terms “COVID-19”, “exercise”, and “immunity”.Based on reference search, more than 65 articles were identified whereas 50 papers (36 references) met the inclusion criteria and were well connected with COVID-19 and physical exercise with immunity.We analyzed the connections between exercise and COVID-19 with many variables, and dealtabout COVID-19 prevention and exercise-intervention programs in the main text.
RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, obesity, metabolic syndromes, reduced respiratory muscle mass, lowered immunity such as decreased natural killer cell and T cell activity were significantly correlated with the COVID-19 infection.However, all this variables were also concerned with exercise habit and exercise-intervention.Regular physical activity have shown to be an effective prescription for obesity, many metabolic syndromes and good immunity. However, physical inactivity and chronic metabolic syndromes were associated with reduced immunity such as reduced NK cell activity, uncontrolled T cell immunity, decreased respiratory immunity and even URTIs (upper respiratory track infection) for elite athletes. Multicomponent exercise program is considered especially for the elderly people, 5 days per week, 40-60% HRR (heart rate reserve) intensity, and 150-300 minutes aerobic and resistance training (200-400 minutes/week under the quarantine period) were recommended. Moreover, all form of psychological support also to increase immunity against COVID-19.More mechanism studies are urgently needed to determine which mode and which duration exercises are best most suited, and effective for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

4PCSK9과 LDL-C: 운동의 역할

저자 : 진재호 ( Jaeho Jin ) , 조우연 ( Wooyeon Jo ) , 노지헌 ( Ji Heon Noh ) , 이상기 ( Sang Ki Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 347-351 (5 pages)

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PURPOSE: Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a pivotal regulator of low lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL receptor (LDLR) metabolism, and the interest in PCSK9 has increased in cardiovascular diseases. Exercise reduces blood LDL-C via PCSK9-LDLR pathway in the liver and the vasculature. However, the mechanism of exercise-induced inhibition of PCSK is unclear. The aim of this review is to describe the role of exercise on PCSK9-LDLR axis in cardiovascular diseases.
METHODS: This study review 34 previous studies focusing on the effect of exercise on PCSK9 in the human and animal.
RESULTS: The effects of exercise and lifestyle intervention on hepatic and circulating PCSK9 are controversial. However, exercise consistently increases hepatic LDLR, and inhibits atherosclerosis via suppression of PCSK9 and LOX-1 in atherosclerotic region.
CONCLUSIONS: Even though experimental data are still very limited, exercise training can improves blood LDL-C via inhibition of PCSK9 and enhancement of LDLR in liver and vasculature. The study of exercise on PCSK9 are urgently needed.

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5과거의 근력훈련 경험이 장기간 훈련중단 후 재훈련시 흰쥐 가자미근의 횡단면적과 단백질 함량에 미치는 영향

저자 : 홍광석 ( Kwang-seok Hong ) , 김지석 ( Ji-seok Kim ) , 이석호 ( Sukho Lee ) , 김기정 ( Kijeong Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 352-358 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that previous strength training episodes favorably contribute to muscular hypertrophic adaptations in rat soleus muscle after long-term detraining and retraining in rats.
METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), strength training (ST), and retraining (RT). The strength training was a regular bout of ladder climbing exercise that consisted of three sets of five repetitions and three days per week for eight weeks. A cylinder containing weights was loaded to the bottom of each rat's tail. The weights carried during each training session were initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. Rats in the DT underwent twenty weeks of detraining periods immediately after eight weeks of strength training. Rats in the ST were aged matched to the RT group and underwent eight weeks of strength training at the same duration with the RT group. Rats in the RT were conducted to the resistance training for eight weeks following the detraining period. Soleus muscles were collected at the end of the training episodes to examine alterations in cross-sectional area and protein contents.
RESULTS: ST showed a significant increase in cross-sectional area of the rat soleus muscle, compared with CON. It was interestingly demonstrated that RT markedly elicited hypertrophy of soleus muscle, compared with all other groups. It was supported that RT-induced hypertrophy was related to increased myofibrillar protein contents of the soleus muscle.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although prolonged training cessation occurs previous strength training episodes have a positive impact on restoring muscular contractile properties and hypertrophy after retraining.

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6Cardiac Autonomic Responses and Adaptation to Repeated Bouts of Eccentric Exercise

저자 : Choun-sub Kim , Min-ghyu Sun , Maeng-kyu Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 359-367 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The current study was performed to examine the effects of acute eccentric resistance exercise (ERE) on heart rate variability (HRV) and to determine whether cardiac autonomic regulation adapts to the repeated bout effect.
METHODS: Isokinetic eccentric exercise consisted of five sets of six maximal contractions of the knee extensor with an angular velocity of 90°/second. College-aged men (n=11) underwent two sessions of ERE with a 3-week interval. Muscle damage indicators such as the range of motion (ROM) and muscle echo intensity (EI) were measured. The post-exercise cardiac autonomic response was assessed by spectral analysis of HRV. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, the normalized unit (nu) for each band power, and the LF-to-HF (LF/HF) ratio were determined. All variables were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise as well as before and immediately after ERE.
RESULTS: The EI and ROM of the rectus femoris changed significantly after the maximal ERE. There was a significant interaction effect between the time and bout for EI. Significant changes in LF and HF nu were observed at 72 (1st ERE) and 96 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. The LF/HF ratio was also significantly increased at 24 (1st ERE) and 72 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. However, no interaction effects on changes in the HRV indices were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that acute ERE leads to cardiac autonomic imbalance for a sustained period and that repeated bouts of ERE cannot alleviate cardiac autonomic responses to exercise.

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7Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness and Strength According to the Frailty Level of Female Elderly with Hypertension

저자 : Kyung-wan Baek , Min Chul Lee , Tae-bong Jeon , Jun-il Yoo , Jin Sung Park , Hyo Youl Moon , Ji-seok Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 368-376 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise on physical fitness and strength according to their frailty level of the hypertensive female elderly aged over 65.
METHODS: Female elderly subjects (>65 year) with hypertension (n=90) were classified according to their level of frailty (Fr_), and were divided into control group (Ctrl) and exercise group (Ex). Hypertensive female elderly in exercise groups were subjected to 8-week combined exercise of aerobic (stretching and walking) and resistance (elastic band and weight training) exercise twice per week (50 minutes×2 times×8 weeks). Body composition, functional fitness and skeletal muscle strength were evaluated as main variables (Ctrl, n=27; Ex, n=23; Fr_Ctrl, n=17; Fr_Ex, n=23).
RESULTS: Body composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose level (include hemoglobin A1c) and blood lipid profile did not interact with the exercise intervention and frailty level. Records of 30-second chair stretch test, two-minute walk test and arm curl increased after exercise intervention regardless of frailty level. The strength of quadriceps femoris increased after exercise intervention regardless of the level of frailty. However, the strength of biceps femoris (p<.001), biceps brachii (p<.05) and triceps brachii (p<.001) was significantly increased in the Fr_Ex compared to pre-intervention of exercise.
CONCLUSIONS: The classification according to the level of frailty in hypertensive female elderly can have a significant effect on the degree of muscle strength improvement by exercise intervention. In addition, this study newly discovered that the improvement of 30-s chair stretch test record in the hypertensive elderly women appeared faster than the improvement of the rapid-gait test record independently of the level of frailty.

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8한국 성인에서 상대악력과 제2형 당뇨병 발생률과의 연관성: 한국인 유전체 역학 조사사업 자료를 기반으로

저자 : 윤은선 ( Eun Sun Yoon ) , 박수현 ( Soo Hyun Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 377-384 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: We investigated whether relative handgrip strength (RHS) and change in handgrip strength predicted Type 2 DM incidence in middle-aged and older adults.
METHODS: Total of 29,098 participants (8,609 men and 20,489 women) aged 40-69 who were free of diabetes at the baseline examination drawn from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Urban Health Examinees cohort (KoGES-HEXA), a large prospective population-based study. RHS was assessed with a dynamometer and divided by body mass index. Diabetes was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, use of anti-diabetic medications or measured fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl, or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥6.5%. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of Diabetes incidences according to baseline RHS levels and RHS changes.
RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 4 years (49.8±13.3 month), 1,167 (4.0%) participants developed diabetes. Compared with the high RHS group, higher risk of diabetes incidence was observed in low RHS group (men HR=1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.55, women HR=1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.54) after adjusted for age, triglyceride, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, income, education hypertension, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, regular exercise. In addition, compared with the sustained high RHS group, sustained low RHS group showed an increased risk of diabetes incidence (men HR=1.60, 95% CI 1.28-2.00, women HR=1.85, 95% CI 1.52-2.24) after adjustment. However, the risk was not statistically significant in increased RHS group (men HR=0.98, 95% CI 0.73-1.31, women HR=1.11, 95% CI 0.85-1.43).
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that RHS is independently associated with the risk of incident diabetes in middle and older adults. RHS measurement may be useful to identify individuals at increased risk for diabetes incidence. Maintaining a high level of RHS is important strategies for diabetes prevention among adults.

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9History-Dependence of Muscle Excitation and Oxygenation During Isometric Knee Extension Force Production

저자 : Junkyung Song , Kitae Kim , Sungjun Lee , Jiseop Lee , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 385-393 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study examined the issue of history-dependence on muscle excitation and oxygenation by using surface electromyography (EMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
METHODS: Eight male participants performed isometric knee extension force production tasks that started at four levels of initial force production (30, 40, 60, 70% of maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and commonly converged to the production of 50% of MVC by increasing or decreasing knee extension forces. We quantified the integrated electromyogram (iEMG), total hemoglobin (tHb), and the desaturation rate of muscle tissue (TSISLOPE) of the vastus lateralis and compared the differences in the quantified variables between the experimental conditions.
RESULTS: For the four levels of initial forces production, all the variables showed significant linear relationships with outcome forces. However, the magnitudes of the variables were varied depending on the contraction history at the terminal phase where the identical level of force production (50% of MVC) was required. At the terminal phase, the iEMG was affected by the time history of both mode (e.g., increment or decrement) and magnitude (e.g., 10% or 20% change of MVC), while the tHb and TSISLOPE showed significant differences between the time history of mode only.
CONCLUSIONS: The main result of the current study demonstrates the history-dependence of the changes in physiological demands in muscle activation. In particular, the indices of muscle excitation and oxygenation at the same level of force were varied depending on the time history of contraction, which implies the indices of muscle excitation and oxygenation may not be invariant component to specify the levels of outcome forces.

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10초등학생의 스마트폰 사용습관과 척추 만곡 및 목·어깨 통증과의 연관성

저자 : 송문구 ( Mun-ku Song ) , 박지현 ( Ji-hyun Park ) , 공지영 ( Ji-young Kong ) , 강현식 ( Hyun-sik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 394-401 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationships of smartphone usage with spinal curvature and neck or shoulder pain in a sample of school children.
METHODS: Participants were elementary school children (152 boys, 156 girls). Spinal parameters such as trunk inclination (TI), kyphotic angle (KA), and fleche cervical (FC) were measured with a spine and posture analyzer (DIERS Formetric 4D). In addition, smartphone addiction score (SAS), experience of neck or shoulder pain, postural habits, and lifestyle risk factors were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Children were classified as good- and poor-posture group according to cervical postures while using a smartphone and as low, medium, and high-risk group according to the SAS levels. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of pain experience.
RESULTS: With respect to postures, children with poor posture had significantly higher values of TI, FC, and pain experience than children with good posture children. Children with poor posture had a significantly higher risk of neck or shoulder pain (OR=6.51, 95% CI=3.63-11.67, p<.001) compared with children with good posture (OR=1). With respect to the severity of smartphone addiction, there were significant incremental trends in KA, FC, and pain experience according to the SAS-based subgroups (from low to high-risk group). The medium- and high-risk groups had significantly higher risks of neck or shoulder pain (OR=4.77, 95% CI=1.93-11.78, p<.001 and OR=16.51, 95% CI=6.40-42.54, respectively) compared with the low-risk group (OR=1).
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that smartphone addiction and poor posture are two modifiable risk factors in determining the severity of spinal curvature and risk of neck and shoulder pain in school children.

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