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한일경상학회> 한일경상논집> 우리나라 제약산업의 대미 비교우위 변화 분석

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우리나라 제약산업의 대미 비교우위 변화 분석

A Study on the Change of Comparative Advantage of Korean Pharmaceutical Industry in U.S. Market

김성철 ( Sung-chul Kim )
  • : 한일경상학회
  • : 한일경상논집 88권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 08월
  • : 47-66(20pages)
한일경상논집

DOI

10.46396/kjem.88.3


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 선행연구 검토 및 이론적 근거
Ⅲ. 제약산업의 특성 및 수출 현황
Ⅳ. 실증분석
Ⅴ. 결론 및 정책적 제언

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초록 보기

본 연구의 목적은 미국시장을 대상으로 우리나라 제약산업의 비교우위 변화를 분석하여 정책적인 시사점을 도출하는 데 있다. 실증분석에서는 비교우위지수(RCA, ARCA, NRCA, MCA) 및 EBI·TBI 등을 사용하였으며, 다중회귀분석도 병행하였다. 분석결과 RCA지수(대세계)는 모든 품목이 1보다 작게 나타나 비교열위, NRCA 분석에서는 모든 품목이 (-)로 나타나 비교열위 상태임을 보여주었다. MCA 및 ARCA지수(이하 대미)에서도 모든 품목이 1보다 작게 나타나 비교열위 상태임을 보여주었다. 또한 TBI 분석에서는 HS 2941 및 HS 3003(2012년∼2015년)을 제외하고 모두 수입특화·비교열위 상태를 보여주었다. EBI 분석에서는 HS 3005 및 HS 2936이 1보다 컸으나, 여타품목들은 모두 1보다 작아 시장집중도가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. TBI와 RSCA의 결합관계를 보면 비교열위·수출특화 그룹에 HS 3002와 HS 2941(2017년과 2018년)이 포함되었으나, 대부분 비교열위·수입특화 그룹에 포함되었다. 다중회귀분석에서는 RCA에 대해 연구개발집약도(RDS)와 신약허가비율(RND)이 유의성이 높은 정의 영향을 나타내었다. ARCA에 대해서는 연구개발집약도(RDS)와 미국의 1인당 국민소득(USGDP)이 유의성이 높은 정의 영향을 나타내었다. 앞으로 미국시장에서 제약산업의 비교열위를 개선하려면 R&D 투자확대, 신약개발 촉진, 원료의약품의 신기술 접목 및 비용절감, 의약품의 대외적인 신뢰도 향상, 해외사업 개발 및 사업제휴, 소비자 접근성 강화, 해외 허가절차의 지속적인 모니터링, 오픈이노베이션 효과의 극대화 등에 주력해야 할 것이다.
The purpose of this study is to derive policy implications by analyzing change of comparative advantage of Korean pharmaceutical industry in the U.S. market. Empirical analysis tools are RCA index, ARCA index, NRCA index, and TBI etc. As a result of the empirical analysis, the values of all items are less than 1 in the RCA for the global market, and the values of all items are negative in the NRCA analysis, indicating that they are inferior or under-specialized. ARCA analysis of the US market showed that the values of all items were smaller than 1. The TBI analysis indicated that all items were disadvantage except for HS 2941 and HS 3003 (2012∼2015). In the EBI analysis, HS 3005 and HS 2936 were larger than 1, but the values of rest items were lower than 1, indicating low market concentration. Although the comparative disadvantage and net exporter group included HS 3002 and HS 2941(2017 and 2018), most items were found to belong to the comparative disadvantage and net importer group. In the multiple regression analysis, RDS and RND showed a significant positive correlation for RCA, RDS and USGDP a significant positive correlation for ARCA. Based on these results, in order to improve the export competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry in the U.S. market, it is necessary to focus on promoting new drug development and clinical trial management, combining new technology of raw material drugs and reducing costs, improving external reliability, developing overseas business alliance, strengthening consumer accessibility, monitoring overseas licensing procedures, and maximizing the effect of open innovation.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-300-001014521

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 경영학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 계간
  • : 1226-3877
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2021
  • : 753


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92권0호(2021년 08월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1일본의 신자유주의 개혁과 양적완화

저자 : 국민호 ( Min-ho Kuk )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-16 (16 pages)

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Purpose: This article examines how the Japanese government's neoliberal reforms have changed before and after the 2008 U.S.-originated financial crisis. It compares the results of the Koizmi's neoliberal reform and quantitative easing of Abenomics.
Research design, data, and methodology: It compares the achievements of the two Japanese government's neoliberal reforms in the 21st century, especially the Koizumi's neoliberal reform before the 2008 financial crisis and Abenomics, which promoted a stronger market-friendly policy through quantitative easing after the 2008 financial crisis. To prove the results, I used data and informations from published books, articles, and internet.
Results: The analysis shows that there is no significant difference between Koizumi's neoliberal policies through balanced budgets and Abe's neoliberal policies that have been quantitatively perfected. Japan's economic growth was more influenced by external economic conditions such as the U.S.-led financial crisis or China's economic growth than by the reforms of Koizumi and Abe. The more important factors that sustain Japan's economic recession are the internal factors such as depopulation due to the low production & aging and the ever-increasing national debt.
Implications: The more important factor to escape from the long-standing economic recession in Japan is not the neoliberal economic policies but to stopping the tendency to depopulation. Also another important factor for the recovery of the Japanese economy is to lowering the huge national debt. Population losses and a large national debt are two main factors of Japan's economic woes.

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2한일제약기업 연구개발비가 미래 이익에 미치는 영향

저자 : 오석진 ( Seok-Jin Oh ) , 이창민 ( Chang-Min Lee )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 17-32 (16 pages)

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Purpose: In contrast to Korea, which introduced IFRS entirely in 2011, Japan has its own accounting standards, and in the case of IFRS, companies can arbitrarily decide to introduce IFRS from 2010. According to IFRS, R&D expenditures that satisfy the capitalization criteria are recognized as assets, but under the Japanese accounting standards, they must be treated as expenses. This paper focuses on the accounting standards for R&D expenditures, and analyzes how R&D expenditures affect future earnings.
Research design, data, and methodology: The analysis subjects were selected as pharmaceutical companies with significant R&D expenditures. Accounting information of pharmaceutical companies in Korea and Japan was collected through the KIS-VALUE database and each company's financial statements. For the analysis method, a fixed-effect model was used.
Results: As a result of the analysis, different results were found in Korean companies depending on the listed market. in the case of KOSPI listed companies, capitalized R&D expenditures had a positive effect on future earnings, but in the case of non-KOSPI listed companies, it had a negative effect. Also, in a study on Japanese companies, it was confirmed that expensed R&D expenditures had a positive effect on future earnings under the Japanese accounting standards but had a negative effect when IFRS was introduced.
Implications: If capitalized R&D expenditures have a positive effect on future earnings, it can consider that R&D expenditures are recognized as assets under the capitalization criteria required by IFRS. In other words, it can be said that Korean KOSPI companies met the capitalization criteria, but in the case of Non-KOSPI companies, capitalized R&D expenditures did not meet the criteria. In Japanese companies, it can be inferred that expensed R&D expenditures did not positively affect future earnings because the companies that adopted IFRS turned R&D expenditures into assets.

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3재일동포기업 롯데의 글로벌 경영전략과 기업가정신

저자 : 임영언 ( Young-eon Yim ) , 박석강 ( Seok-gang Park ) , 김일태 ( Il-tae Kim )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 33-42 (10 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Japanese-Korean entrepreneur Lotte's management strategy and entrepreneurship. This paper derives the management strategy and entrepreneurship of Lotte, 'Shin, Kyuk-Ho' who contributed to the development of the Japanese economy and the homeland economy after Korean-Japanese companies have successfully developed dynamic business as a minority company overcoming the adversity of discrimination and exclusion in Japanese society.
Research design, data, and methodology: This paper assumes that social factors, economic factors, and political factors in the home country will influence the management strategy of the entrepreneur on the management activities and entrepreneurship of Korean-Japanese companies, and the relationship with the home country, which is a political factor, as a management strategy of Lotte. The analysis was focused on entrepreneurship, which is the personal characteristic of entrepreneurs.
Results: The results of this analysis are as follows. First, from a social point of view, Japanese-Koreans chose the path of starting a business in a 'niche market' because the way to enter the mainstream Japanese society was limited and there were no opportunities for self-realization other than economic activities. Second, from a socio-cultural point of view, Lotte succeeded in starting a business by predicting the future scalability of its business, despite the Japanese cultural structure in which chewing gum itself is regarded as an immoral act. Third, from the economic management strategic point of view, Lotte implemented an aggressive management strategy of “Attack is the greatest defense” against discrimination in the Japanese industry and used a strategy to strengthen sales power in preparation for competition with other companies. Fourth, from a political point of view, Lotte started investing in the home country during the 'Syng-Man Rhee' regime in 1958, and with the birth of the 'Park, Chung-Hee' regime in 1961, established Korea Lotte and succeeded as a Lotte food products.
Implications: In conclusion, Lotte Chairman 'Shin, Kyuk-Ho' is an entrepreneur who has practiced a visionary ability to see the trends of the times, an aggressive management style based on trust, a global management strategy that considers the Korean and Japanese societies, and the entrepreneurship that has led Investment and contribution to the home country. This implies the result of a complex action of the personal experiences, socio-cultural factors, and political factors of Japanese-Korean entrepreneurs.

KCI등재

4한국 채용 시장에서 4년제 대학졸업자의 취업 결정 요인: 입사지원자의 실천지능 관점에서

저자 : 원형식 ( Hyeong-sik Won ) , 장주혁 ( Ju-hyeok Jang ) , 이새롬 ( Saerom Lee ) , 이환우 ( Hwan-woo Lee )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 43-56 (14 pages)

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Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effects of work experience during college on successful job seeking in 4-year college graduates by dividing work experience into direct work experience and indirect job traning. With the emergence of new hiring techniques, such as blind selection in hiring, the significant prdictive measures of hiring have been changed. Thus, this study attempts to examine whether work experience, which has been an important factor when filling non-entry level positions, also significantly influences the hiring of new graduates, such as 4-year college graduates.
Research design, data, and methodology: In particular, this study is differentiated from previous studies in that it classifies part-time work experience and internship experiences as direct work experiences and traning to improve job performance after hiring as indirect job traning and examines whether these two factors affect actual hiring. We analyzed the data (2016GOMS) collected from 18,199 college graduates (graduated in August 2015 or February 2016) in September 2017 using binomial logistic regression.
Results: Indirect job traning had a positive effect on 4-year college graduates' employment, while the hypothesis that direct work experience will have a positive effect on 4-year college graduates' employment was rejected.
Implications: This suggests that our intuitive belief that direct work experience will be more valuable than indirect job training in terms of future job performance does not apply to the hiring of entry-level recruits, such as 4-year college.

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51980年代以降の日中経済関係に対する再考察: 経済安全保障の視点から

저자 : 兪敏浩 ( Min-hao Yu ) , 金旭 ( Xu Jin )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 57-70 (14 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to re-examine the Japan-China economic relationship from the perspective of economic security, which has recently come into the spotlight. It will clarify how China and Japan's governments and business communities perceived economic security issues, what measures they have taken, and how these measures have affected the economic relationship between them.
Research design, data, and methodology: This study first defines economic security and then discusses Japan-China economic relations from the 1980s to the present in chronological order. In doing so, I use a qualitative case study approach, focusing on representative examples from each period. Statistical data from China and Japan's official sources and the latest reports published by Japan's major economic institutes were widely used in this study.
Results: Although the term “economic security” was not used until recently, Japan-China economic relations since the 1980s have not been free from economic security. In the mid-1980s, China perceived its large trade deficit with Japan as a serious problem for its economic security. In the 2000s, the “China threat theory” emerged in Japan, and in the 2010s, the “China plus one” strategy was proposed to mitigate the vulnerability of supply chains dependent on China. In recent years, with the rapid rise of China in high technology and the increasing confrontation between the U.S. and China, there has been a growing interest in economic security in Japan's political and business circles.
Implications: Japan is currently developing an infrastructure of laws and organizations related to economic security with China in mind, but the importance of Chinese business to Japan has not fundamentally changed. How to maintain Japan's economic security while maintaining a trade regime that is inclusive of China will be a long-term issue that the Japanese government and business community will have to face.

KCI등재

6국제기업가정신이 지적자본 및 국제화 성과에 미치는 영향

저자 : 손방화 ( Fang-hua Sun ) , 이경구 ( Kyung-gu Rhee )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 71-86 (16 pages)

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Purpose: The competitive global economy and ever-changing technological advances have witnessed the trend that firms leverage their resources and skills to expand and develop into foreign markets. However, opportunities and risks coexist, and the opportunities of globalization are tempered by the constraints of competitive forces that exist in international circumstances. To succeed in global business operations requires entrepreneurship and resourcefulness. This paper aims to explore the relationship between international entrepreneurship, intellectual capital, and firm's international performance.
Research design, data, and methodology: In order to verify the hypotheses, this study carried out a survey on global firms from South Korea and China, which was conducted from April 26, 2019 to November 26, 2019. Totally 565 questionnaires were collected, among them 92 invalid questionnaires were excluded. Finally 473 valid questionnaires, the effective rate was 83.72%. As for the further analysis, SPSS 23.0 statistical package and AMOS 23.0 software were used for hypotheses testing.
Results: The main results are showed as follows. First, the test of hypotheses that international entrepreneurship would affect intellectual capital shows that proactiveness and risk-taking have statistically significant effects on human capital, while innovativeness does not have a significant impact on human capital. Additionally, innovativeness and proactiveness have been shown to positively affect the structural capital, risk-taking does not have a significant impact on structural capital. Second, intellectual capital turns out to affect the firm's international performance significantly, it shows that both human capital and structural capital have positive impacts on international performance. Third, the test of hypothesis that human capital would affect structural capital shows that human capital has a statistically significant impact on structural capital.
Implications: When conducting businesses in international markets, the global firms should focus on fostering and enhancing international entrepreneurship. They should pay attention to innovation and support the introduction of new products, services or new marketing channels to the international markets. The accumulation and management of these innovative resources should be enhanced to expand the firm's intellectual capital. Human capital is the basis and source of intellectual capital. Attracting talented people and training employees to improve their professional knowledge, skills, experience, creativity and teamwork skills for overseas businesses are crucial. Meanwhile, structural capital would provide guarantees and platforms to create value for human capital. It is of great significance for enterprises to establish sound information systems, efficient export decision-making mechanisms, excellent culture and cooperation mechanisms. The findings reveal a more comprehensive picture about the effects of international entrepreneurship and intellectual capital on firm's international performance, providing insightful instructions for firms and government.

KCI등재

7OTTサービスプラットフォームの特性がリレーショナルメリットと消費者の満足度に及ぼす影響

저자 : 이승현 ( Sung-hyun Rhee ) , 신종국 ( Jong-kuk Shin ) , 김재훈 ( Jea-hun Kim )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 87-103 (17 pages)

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Purpose: This study was recently conducted to demonstrate the impact of consumer-favorite platform characteristics on consumer satisfaction in response to rapid changes in OTT service platforms. In this study, considering the time when the media market is changing around the OTT platform, it is judged that the advantage of the relationship with the characteristics of the platform is a very important factor in determining consumer satisfaction. Then, the hypothesis was derived.
Research design, data, and methodology: To carry out this study, Judgment Sampling Method from April 16th to May 5th, 2021 for those who are using the OTT service mainly in the Busan area of South Korea The questionnaire was conducted by the questionnaire method. We distributed 200 copies and removed the collected questionnaires and dishonest questionnaires, limited to 162 copies, and tried to use them as empirical data for this study. After that, through the process of data coding, the SPSS18 program and the AMOS21 analysis program were used to demonstrate the researched and designed structural equation model.
Results: As a result of the study, the characteristics of the OTT service platform, which are Independent variables, were set as system quality, convenience, recommendation service, and economic feasibility. Relational benefits as a parameter was set as psychological benefit and economic benefit. Finally, the endogenous variable was customer satisfaction. As a result of the study, all factors of system quality, convenience, recommended service, and economic feasibility were adopted as psychological benefits. On the other hand, for economic benefits, only three factors were adopted: system quality, recommended service, and economic feasibility. Psychological benefits had a significant effect on consumer satisfaction, but economic benefits were rejected.
Implications: According to the results, consumers who use OTT services value price and convenience. Therefore, reasonable cost should be presented and convenience should be emphasized by using online features that are not possible offline. The psychological benefits of the relational benefits was significant in satisfaction, but the economic benefits did not obtain a significant result. Therefore, rather than marketing that provides discounts or coupons for consumers, it is important to do marketing that can be psychologically reassuring by improving quality.

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8중국 IT산업의 일본과의 무역경쟁력 연구

저자 : 張天笑 ( Tian-xiao Zhang )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 105-122 (18 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to estimate the qualitative trade competitiveness of China with Japan relative to the information technology (IT) industry covering the period from 2007 to 2017.
Research design, data, and methodology: Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), and Market Comparative Advantage (MCA) are used. Further, an Intra-industry Trade (IIT) index is used to analyze qualitative changes in horizontal intra-industry trade and intraindustry trade of high- and low-quality goods.
Results: According to a general comparative advantage analysis, the IT industry has remained relatively inferior in trade with Japan. and mainly exports goods of inferior quality and imports goods of superior quality. Broadcasting equipment and information equipment mainly export inferior quality items and export superior quality items. In the case of electronic and semiconductor parts and equipment, inferior quality items are mainly exported, but the quality of export items has improved. As a result, it cannot be overlooked that the proportion of exports of superior quality items has increased. Also, in the case of communication equipment, it was found that items of inferior quality were mainly exported, but the proportion of exports of superior quality increased significantly, which indicates that the quality of export items has improved.
Implications: In the trade with Japan, China's IT industry's exports and imports have increased. Although the deficit has decreased, it is still at a relatively disadvantage, especially for semiconductors, broadcasting equipment, and flat-panel display manufacturing equipment. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to increase the production of high value-added products and further improve the technological level. In this regard, the Chinese government should actively formulate development plans and increase policy and capital investment.

KCI등재

9자율 주행 기술이 일본 자동차 보험 시장에 미치는 영향

저자 : 星野明雄 ( Akio Hoshino )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 123-141 (19 pages)

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Purpose: This study attempts to predict the scale of the Japanese automobile insurance market. The forecast is based on the understanding of safety technologies and historic market trends.
Research design, data, and methodology: Automobile insurance, together with compulsory automobile liability insurance (CALI), holds more than 50% of the total premium in the Japanese non-life insurance industry. If automated driving prevails, automobile accidents would likely decrease rapidly. Even if fully automated driving does not occur in the near future, some of its elemental technologies, especially collision damage mitigation braking, will significantly reduce the incidence of automobile accidents, and thus the market for automobile insurance. Moreover, as the country's population decreases, the number of automobiles owned and licenses issued will reduce. We made 20-year predictions of the automobile insurance market in Japan. The calculation is based on demographic data, penetration of safety devices, and their accident prevention effects on bodily injury and property damage. Data are gathered from Japanese governmental statistics, insurance statistics, and research institutes.
Results: Our prediction indicates that in the medium-term, the Japanese automobile insurance market will remain stable, and the reduction in the frequency of accidents may proceed slowly and will be mostly offset by the increasing amount of claims per accident. Although we do not have a quantitative estimation for the long term, it may fall drastically after the onset of fully automated driving.
Implications: The challenge for insurers in the medium term will be to adapt to the transitional period of declining automobile accidents. In the long term, the weight of lines will shift from automobile insurance to new types of insurance, and insurers will need to implement various structural changes to adapt to this change.

KCI등재

10일본 벤처생태계 정부 정책 및 대기업 전략에 관한 연구: 아베노믹스 성장전략 기간을 중심으로

저자 : 이형오 ( Hyung-oh Lee )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 92권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 143-160 (18 pages)

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Purpose: The purposes of this research are to review the startup support policy of the Japanese government and the startup utilization strategy of Japanese large firms during the period of Abenomics Growth Strategy and to search for some implications for Korean government and firms.
Research design, data, and methodology: An analytical framework for a startup ecosystem was developed for this study, and this study focused on government policies and the role of large firms in the Japanese startup ecosystem. As to the government policies, it reviewed the economic background for the emergence of Abenomics and the evolution process of startup support policies from 2013 to 2021. It also dealt with a road map of Japanese government's policies related to startup support and a recent policy to promote the establishment of regional startup ecosystems around Japanese major cities. At to the startup utilization strategy of Japanese large firms, it discussed the managerial background for the necessity of open innovation in Japanese large firms and introduced several cases of strategic alliance between Japanese large firms and startups. In addition, the performance of the Japanese startup ecosystem under Abenomics was discussed in terms of university-based startups, venture capital investment, and IPOs.
Results: It was found that the startup support policies of the Japanese government evolved from facilitating the creation of individual startups to creating effective startup ecosystems particularly emphasizing the linkage between large firms and startups. It was also found that Japanese large firms began to realize the limitation of doing all the things inside their own firm and to implement open innovation with domestic and overseas startups. In addition, it was found that Abenomics Growth Strategy had somewhat contributed to the improvement of the Japanese startup ecosystem although more time and endeavors are required to see the satisfactory results of the policy.
Implications: This study tried to draw some implications for the Korean government and firms through reviewing Japanese experiences. Several implications were suggested for the Korean government: establishing a government control tower dealing with the whole national policies related to startup support, empowering university-based startups, building cluster-type startup ecosystems around Korean major cities, and enhancing the win-win collaboration between large firms and startups. As to an implication toward Korean firms, a more active utilization of open innovation with startups particularly in the area of modular architecture products was suggested.

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KCI등재

1창업혁신과 글로벌 기업가정신에 관한 연구: 재일동포기업가 김희수(金熙秀)를 중심으로

저자 : 임영언 ( Young-eon Yim ) , 박석강 ( Seok-gang Park ) , 김일태 ( Il-tae Kim )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 88권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 3-24 (22 pages)

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본 논문은 재일동포기업가 김희수 회장의 창업사례를 통해 그의 창업혁신과 글로벌 기업가정신을 규명하는데 있다. 특히 논문은 창업과정에서 발생하는 혁신의 발전단계를 조합(융합)-분리의 연결-파괴적 기술-연결의 파괴(디커플링)로 연결하여 김희수 회장의 창업혁신의 기업가 정신을 도출한다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다.
첫째, 김희수 회장의 기업성공은 일본 내 주류기업보다는 마이너리티 기업가의 유연성과 탁월성을 바탕으로 새로운 결합과 파괴적 혁신을 통해 고객중심의 혁신적인 제품과 고객서비스를 제공한 가나이 양품점과 부동산임대업 등 시대적 흐름과 자금의 흐름을 간파하여 창업한 사업 분야에서 성공한 것으로 나타났다.
둘째, 김희수회장의 기업성공은 일본 내 혹은 한국사회와의 단절된 사회적 관계(네트워크)를 연결하는 탁월한 기업가적 역량을 통해 가능했다. 셋째, 김희수 회장은 한일양국에서 혁신적인 제품과 고객서비스 제공, 한일 사회적 관계(네트워크)를 통한 교육사업과 사회적 공헌사업에 성공했지만, 이후 연결의 파괴(디커플링)를 통한 신사업의 구축은 지속
적으로 이루어지지 못했다.
결론적으로 김희수 회장은 일본사회에서 재일동포에 대한 차별과 배제가 심했던 당시 사회적 약자로서 창업혁신을 바탕으로 기업에 성공하여 한일양국에서 교육 사업으로 인재양성과 사회적 공헌을 달성하기 위해 일생을 바친 글로벌 기업가정신의 소유자라고 할 수 있을 것이다. 추후 연구는 이번에 다루지 못한 김희수 회장의 사업 성패요인을 분석하는 것이다.

KCI등재

2한ㆍ일의 혁신관련 규제개혁 비교: 규제 샌드박스를 중심으로

저자 : 김윤경 ( Yun-kyung Kim )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 88권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 25-45 (21 pages)

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본 연구는 4차 산업혁명 시대에 대응한 규제개혁으로서 한국과 일본의 규제 샌드박스를 검토하였다. 규제 샌드박스는 제한된 환경에서 자유로운 혁신활동을 허용하는 제도이다. 한국과 일본은 규제 패러다임을 선 허용 후 규제 방식으로 전환하여 기존 규제로 불가능한 혁신활동을 가능하게 하였다. 합리적 규제의 추구와 수요자 친화적 제도로서 의의가 존재한다. 금융산업의 혁신에만 적용한 다른 국가와 달리 전 산업 및 지역혁신으로 확장하여 규제 샌드박스의 의미를 확대한 공통점을 가진다. 동일한 문제의식을 공유한 양국 규제 샌드박스의 비교는 한국 규제개혁의 발전방향에 대한 시사점을 제시한다. 먼저 산업 대상 규제 샌드박스는 일본에서 하나의 법률로 규율하나 한국은 세 개의 법률로 존재해 각기 다른 부처에서 담당하고 있다. 승인결과의 일관성과 제도의 안정성을 위해 제도의 일원화가 이루어져야 할 것이다. 또한 일본은 실증을 강조한 데 비해 한국은 규제혁신 3종 세트를 제공하였으며 일본에 비해 높은 활용도를 보였다. 이는 성과이기도 하지만 기존 규제의 제약을 반증한다. 지역혁신을 위한 규제 샌드박스의 경우 한국은 비수도권만을 대상으로 하나 일본과 같이 수도권의 혁신 특수성에 대한 고려가 필요하다. 특히 일본은 규제 샌드박스 도입 이전부터 국가전략에 따라 지속적인 규제개혁을 추진해 규제개혁의 체계를 개선해 왔다. 그러므로 이번 규제혁신을 계기로 한국의 규제개혁 체계를 정립해야 할 것이다. 마지막으로 일본과 마찬가지로 규제 샌드박스의 경험이 4차 산업혁명을 대비하는 자료로 이용되도록 정보의 활용에 대한 논의가 동반되어야 할 것이다.

KCI등재

3우리나라 제약산업의 대미 비교우위 변화 분석

저자 : 김성철 ( Sung-chul Kim )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 88권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 47-66 (20 pages)

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본 연구의 목적은 미국시장을 대상으로 우리나라 제약산업의 비교우위 변화를 분석하여 정책적인 시사점을 도출하는 데 있다. 실증분석에서는 비교우위지수(RCA, ARCA, NRCA, MCA) 및 EBI·TBI 등을 사용하였으며, 다중회귀분석도 병행하였다. 분석결과 RCA지수(대세계)는 모든 품목이 1보다 작게 나타나 비교열위, NRCA 분석에서는 모든 품목이 (-)로 나타나 비교열위 상태임을 보여주었다. MCA 및 ARCA지수(이하 대미)에서도 모든 품목이 1보다 작게 나타나 비교열위 상태임을 보여주었다. 또한 TBI 분석에서는 HS 2941 및 HS 3003(2012년∼2015년)을 제외하고 모두 수입특화·비교열위 상태를 보여주었다. EBI 분석에서는 HS 3005 및 HS 2936이 1보다 컸으나, 여타품목들은 모두 1보다 작아 시장집중도가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. TBI와 RSCA의 결합관계를 보면 비교열위·수출특화 그룹에 HS 3002와 HS 2941(2017년과 2018년)이 포함되었으나, 대부분 비교열위·수입특화 그룹에 포함되었다. 다중회귀분석에서는 RCA에 대해 연구개발집약도(RDS)와 신약허가비율(RND)이 유의성이 높은 정의 영향을 나타내었다. ARCA에 대해서는 연구개발집약도(RDS)와 미국의 1인당 국민소득(USGDP)이 유의성이 높은 정의 영향을 나타내었다. 앞으로 미국시장에서 제약산업의 비교열위를 개선하려면 R&D 투자확대, 신약개발 촉진, 원료의약품의 신기술 접목 및 비용절감, 의약품의 대외적인 신뢰도 향상, 해외사업 개발 및 사업제휴, 소비자 접근성 강화, 해외 허가절차의 지속적인 모니터링, 오픈이노베이션 효과의 극대화 등에 주력해야 할 것이다.

KCI등재

4한국 제조기업 측면에서의 스마트팩토리 운영전략이 기업생산성 증대에 미치는 영향: 내부 통합화를 조절 변수로

저자 : 김현규 ( Hyun-gyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 88권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 67-95 (29 pages)

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본 연구의 목적은 한국 제조기업측면에의 스마트팩토리 운영전략이 기업 생산성 증대에 미치는 영향을 고찰하고자 하였다. 독립변수인 스마트팩토리 운영전략의 하위요인으로 기업 생산프로세스 개선, 설비자동화, 업무효율화, 그리고 기업 내부통합화를 조절변수로서 본 연구모델을 구축하였다. 본 연구를 수행하고자 경상도 지역을 거점으로 스마트팩토리를 도입·운영 중인 기업들을 대상으로 대면설문방식 형태의 설문을 실시하였으며, 총 212중 불성실하게 답변한 1부를 제외한 211부를 유효한 설문지로 인정하고 다중회귀분석을 활용한 실증을 진행하였다. 실증결과 설비자동화, 업무효율화, 생산프로세스의 독립변수의 하위 요인 중 설비자동화는 종속변수인 생산성과에 유의한 영향을 미치는 반면, 내부통합과의 조절변수적용을 통한 실증결과의 경우에는 업무효율화가 생산성과에 미치는 영향에 대한 내부통합부분에 있어 조절효과가 있었다. 다만 그 결과에 대한 해석에는 한계가 있다.

KCI등재

5인구 및 인구구조 변화와 경제성장과의 관계: 한국과 일본의 인구 및 인구구조 변화와 경제성장 간 선형·비선형 관계 분석

저자 : 이순호 ( Soon-ho Lee )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 88권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 97-118 (22 pages)

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본 연구의 주제는 인구 및 인구구조 변화와 경제성장과의 관계이며 연구 목적은 인구증가세 둔화와 고령화ㆍ저출산 등 인구구조 변화가 경제성장에 미치는 영향에 대해 일본과의 비교분석을 통해 정책적 시사점을 도출하는 데 있다. 인구증가 및 인구구조 변화와 경제성장 간 분석은 OLS를 이용한다. 먼저 인구증가와 경제성장 간 선형관계 분석을 통해 인구증가가 한국과 일본의 경제성장에 미친 영향 및 크기를 비교하며 비선형 관계(Non-Linear Relationship) 분석에서는 경제성장을 극대화하는 최적 인구증가율(Optimal Population Growth Rate)을 추정해 본다. 실증분석 결과 첫째, 인구증가가 경제성장에 미친 영향은 한국보다 일본이 큰 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 한국은 일본과 달리 인구증가와 경제성장간 비선형관계가 나타났으며 경제성장을 극대화하는 최적 인구증가율은 1.89∼2.03% 수준으로 추정되었다. 셋째, 한국은 고령화가 경제성장에 미치는 부정적 영향이 출산율의 긍정적 영향보다 더 큰 것으로 나타났다.
실증분석 결과를 토대로 인구 및 인구구조 변화가 경제성장에 기여하기 위한 정책적 시사점을 다음과 같이 제시해 본다. 첫째, 인구증가율을 경제성장률을 극대화시키는 최적 수준으로 추정된 2%대까지 높여야 된다. 둘째, 고령인구가 경제성장의 부정적 요인으로 작용하지 않도록 정부, 기업 등이 고령인구의 근로의욕 향상, 양질의 일자리 창출 등을 위한 노력을 한층 강화할 필요가 있다.
본 연구는 우리보다 앞서 인구감소, 인구구조 변화 문제를 겪고 있는 일본과의 비교분석을 통해 정책적 시사점을 찾아보았다. 특히 선행연구에서 많이 시도되지 않았던 인구와 경제성장 간 비선형 관계를 분석하고 경제성장을 극대화하는 최적 인구증가율을 추정해 보았으며 고령화ㆍ저출산 등 인구구조 변화와 관련한 정책적 시사점을 제시해 보았다는 점에서 선행연구와 차별화된다.

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