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한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회)> 운동과학> 중강도 운동이 고지방식을 유도한 알츠하이머 치매 마우스의 시냅스 소포체 및 항산화 효소 발현에 미치는 영향

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중강도 운동이 고지방식을 유도한 알츠하이머 치매 마우스의 시냅스 소포체 및 항산화 효소 발현에 미치는 영향

Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Synaptic Vesicle Transporter and Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in High Fat Diet Fed 3xTg Mice

김동현 ( Dong-hyun Kim ) , 김인재 ( In-jae Kim )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 29권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 05월
  • : 178-187(10pages)
운동과학

DOI


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서 론
연구 방법
연구 결과
논 의
결 론
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTION
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aerobic exercise on the expression of synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzymes in obesity and to investigate the feasibility of exercise training to reduce AD pathogenesis in the 3xTg-AD mice fed a high fat diet.
METHODS: Male 3 month old 3xTg-AD mice were divided into standard chow(SC, n=10), standard chow+exercise (SC-EXE, n=10), high fat diet (HFD, n=10), and high fat diet+exercise (HFD-EXE, n=10) groups. EXE mice were subjected to treadmill running at a moderate intensity with duration of 30 minutes per day and frequency of 5 days per week for 12 weeks. HFD mice were fed a 60% fat HFD during the same period. Mice were sacrificed and immunohistology and western blot analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Compared with the SC mice, the HFD mice had significantly higher levels of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.01) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.05), VGAT (p<.05), postsynaptic density 95 (p<.01) and GPX (p<.05) in the hippocampus. On the other hand, we found that treadmill running attenuated HFD-induced exacerbations of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.05) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.01), Synaptophysin (p<.05), SOD1 (p<.05) in the hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet-induced obesity resulted in increased AD neuropathology and decreased synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzyme in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. However, aerobic exercise delayed AD-like disease progression, alleviated impaired synaptic function and the decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-600-000801676

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2021
  • : 1071


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1Emerging Era of Exercise Genomics

저자 : Seung Kyum Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 407-411 (5 pages)

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2앞십자인대 손상 예방을 위한 근신경 훈련의 최신 경향: 문헌 고찰

저자 : 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 412-418 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common in sports and have doubled in the past 20 years. This study aimed to analyze the latest trends and changes in training programs for ACL injury prevention.
METHODS: In this study, literature was searched using academic search sites, such as 'PubMed', 'Google Scholar', and 'Wiley Online Library'. The literature published between 2015 and 2021 was used.
RESULTS: Eleven papers were selected based on the literature selection criteria. Five warm-up exercise papers and six ACL injury prevention training program papers emphasized neuromuscular training.
CONCLUSIONS: The ACL injury prevention program can be applied in warm-up exercises and training programs. It consists of an exercise form that includes multidimensional components such as plyometrics, muscle strength, balance, and agility. The key to the ACL injury prevention program is to reflect multidimensional components in neuromuscular training and to obtain a significant effect, and it is recommended to participate in regular training for 12-18 sessions and at least 6 months. In addition, it is suggested to utilize the ACL injury prevention program presented in this study until an individual study for ACL injury prevention by sports type is conducted.

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3비만 노쇠와 복합 운동

저자 : 이해성 ( Hae Sung Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 419-431 (13 pages)

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PURPOSE: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that impairs the health and quality of life of older adults. While unintended weight loss is known to be a primary risk factor for frailty, obesity has also been closely associated with frailty. Combined exercise is thought to be an effective way of resolving obesity and frailty, but studies demonstrating the effect of combined exercise on obese frailty are lacking. In this review, we seek to understand the relevant mechanisms by exploring prior studies on obese frailty, and provide the implications of appropriate combined exercise interventions for obese frailty.
METHODS: To collect data for this study, we used academic search systems such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science. The keywords used for the search were a combination of words such as 'obesity', 'frailty', 'combined or multicomponent exercise', and 'older or elderly adults'.
RESULTS: The results from the 16 selected articles confirmed that combined exercise reduces body weight, percentage of body fat, and risk of falls. Moreover, it improves muscle strength, balance, and walking function of the obese frail population.
CONCLUSIONS: As we have confirmed the positive outcomes on the combined exercise for obese frail older adults, an optimal exercise program needs to be presented. Older adults with obesity are recommended to exercise at least 2-3 times a week during the initial period. Further, they should begin with low-intensity walking, full-body exercise, balance, and flexibility exercises, then gradually increase the exercise volume. Moreover, to facilitate the positive outcomes of physical training and to encourage autonomy and enjoyment of exercise among obese frail older adults, a novel method and an individualized scientific exercise program need to be developed.

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4유방암 환자의 인지 손상에 미치는 운동 효과: 메타분석적 접근

저자 : 은홍범 ( Hong-bum Eun ) , 백성수 ( Seung-soo Baek )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 432-443 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is exposed to cognitive impairments that interfere with their daily lives after a complete recovery. Exercise is one of the effective non-pharmacological treatments to prevent or improve cognitive function decline. This study evaluated the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function improvement in CRCI breast cancer patients and searched the association of various aspects in which exercise affects cognitive function improvement.
METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, ACS journal, and Google scholar databases from 1 January 2014 to 31 May 2021 were utilized for searching articles related to research purpose. Meta-analysis was conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 using the random-effect model.
RESULTS: A meta-analysis of seven studies showed that walking (ES=0.59, p=.000) was the most effective in improving cognitive function, and moderate-intensity (ES=0.60, p=.000) was more effective than moderate-to-high intensity (ES=0.27, p=.007) exercise in CRCI patients with breast cancer. Cognitive function improvement was observed in short-term exercise intervention for four weeks (ES=0.46, p=.038), and after that, it was found that the cognition improvement effect was maintained or improved through long-term (12 or 24 weeks) exercise. Moreover, the cognitive function of CRCI patients with breast cancer improved without supervision during exercise interventions (ES=0.39, p=.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Walking and moderate-intensity exercise can suppress cognitive impairment in CRCI patients with breast cancer. Personalized exercise prescription through short-term and long-term exercise periods can alleviate cognitive decline and improve the cognitive function of CRCI breast cancer patients. Exercise interventions without supervision also show a positive influence on cognitive function improvement.

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5Differential Gene Expression in Cell Types of the Human Skeletal Muscle: A Bioinformatics-Based Meta-Review

저자 : Kyung-wan Baek , So-jeong Kim , Ji-seok Kim , Sun-ok Kwon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 444-452 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study evaluates the differences in the expression of genes frequently analyzed in the field of exercise science between the skeletal muscle tissue and various cell types that comprise the skeletal muscle tissue.
METHODS: We summarized the genes and proteins expressed in the skeletal muscle that were published in “Exercise Science” journal from 2015 to present. Thereafter, we selected 15 genes and proteins that were the most analyzed genes and proteins in the skeletal muscle. These genes and proteins were horizontally compared for expression differences in skeletal muscle components and cultured cells based on NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets.
RESULTS: The most analyzed genes (encoding analyzed proteins) in skeletal muscle tissues in “Exercise Science” were PPARGC1A, PPARD, MTOR, MAP1LC3A, MAP1LC3B, PRKAA1, AKT1, SLC2A4, MAPK1, COX4I1, MAPK14, MEF2A, MAPK8, RPS6KB1, and SOD1. Among them, PPARGC1A, AKT1, SLC2A4, MAPK1, and COX4I1 were specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. However, expression of other genes was found to be significantly affected in other cell types of the skeletal muscle tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Genes such as PPARGC1A, which are specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle, may be analyzed without pretreating (such as perfusion) the skeletal muscle tissue. However, expression of other genes may depend on the skeletal muscle cell type. Thus, in such instances, pretreatment, such as perfusion and isolation, should be considered.

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6국소 부위 고온 및 저온 스트레스가 안정 시 및 운동 시 온냉감 민감도 및 중성역에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김대환 ( Dae-hwan Kim ) , 한진희 ( Jean-hee Han ) , 장민혁 ( Min-hyeok Jang ) , 김정현 ( Jung-hyun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 453-461 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local cold and heat stimuli on cutaneous thermal sensitivity and inter-threshold zone at rest and during exercise.
METHODS: Cutaneous warm and cold thresholds were measured on two body regions (forehead and hand) in three types of local thermal stress environments (neutral, heat, cold) using a method of limit in sixteen young, healthy male subjects (25.44±2.28 years) at rest and during exercise.
RESULTS: The results showed that the thermal inter-threshold zone was wider on the hand than on the forehead under thermal stress conditions at rest and during exercise. The thermal inter-threshold zone on both body regions widened with exercise (p<.05). Exercise significantly blunted both the warm and cold sensitivity in the forehead (p<.05), but only cold sensitivity in the hand (p<.05). Moreover, the thermal inter-threshold zone on both the forehead and hand became significantly wider when heat or cold stress was applied to the local body region (p<.001). In the forehead, warm and cold sensitivity were significantly blunted in both heat and cold stress environments (p<.05), whereas in the hard they were significantly blunted only in the heat stress environment (p<.01).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the present study showed that the forehead is more sensitive to both warm and cold stimuli than the hand, regardless of thermal stress or exercise. Furthermore, the thermal inter-threshold zone on both the forehead and the hand widened with exercise and local thermal stimuli.

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7중년 남성의 신체활동량과 형태가 백혈구 텔로미어 길이에 미치는 영향

저자 : 신윤아 ( Yun-a Shin ) , 김창선 ( Chang-sun Kim ) , 이상현 ( Sang-hyun Lee ) , 이용우 ( Yong-woo Lee ) , 김준수 ( Jun-soo Kim ) , 박동호 ( Dong-ho Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 462-471 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a potential indicator of cellular senescence. However, its relationship with the type and volume of regular exercise is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the type and volume of long-term regular exercise on the LTL in middle-aged men (N=109, mean age=44.7±4.1 years [range: 40-56 years]).
METHODS: For all participants, the volume of physical activity (PA) was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire, and blood samples were collected simultaneously. We cross-sectionally examined the associations among the type and volume of PA, LTL, telomerase activity (TA), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), and body composition in three groups: 1) bodybuilders (BBs) with at least 5 years of athletic experience (n=36, mean age: 42.3±3.3 years [40-51 years]), 2) cyclists (CCs) with an athletic career similar to that of the BBs (n=37, mean age: 45.4±4.4 years [range: 40-53 years]), and 3) healthy ordinary people (CON; n=36, mean age: 46.3±3.3 years [range: 40-56 years]).
RESULTS: The LTL showed a significant positive correlation with the volume of PA (r=.285, p=.003), regardless of the type of PA. Furthermore, the LTLs were longer in the BB (p=.007) and CC (p=.003) groups (who performed moderate-to-vigorous PA for 150 minutes or more per week) than in the CON group. Conversely, the TA was significantly higher in the BB group (p=.009) than in the CON group; however, it only tended to be high in the CC group (p=.115). There were no intergroup differences in both the mtDNA (p=.127) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (p=.289) levels.
CONCLUSIONS: The TA was found to increase, and thus prevent telomere loss, in middle-aged men who performed PA of moderate-to-vigorous intensity, regardless of the PA type.

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8소변배출, 유산소 운동, 음식 및 물섭취가 생체전기 저항법을 이용한 신체조성측정에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조채은 ( Chaeeun Cho ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 472-480 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Body composition is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, and accurate measurement of body composition is vital for the management of chronic diseases. In this study, we assessed whether major factors such as urination, aerobic exercise, food, and water consumption had significant effects on body composition by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
METHODS: To achieve the goal of this study, research was conducted on 32 healthy young males (n=18) and females (n=14). All participants underwent body composition analysis in four different conditions (both pre- and post-urination, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, immediately after food and water consumption, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after each treatment), and segmental BIA was performed using Inbody720.
RESULTS: We found that after urination, body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and basal metabolic rate (BMR) significantly decreased. However, water intake significantly increased body weight, body fat mass, and body fat percentage. Furthermore, an acute 30-minutes aerobic exercise significantly decreased body weight, fat mass, and fat percentage, and increased skeletal muscle mass and BMR. In addition, impedance decreased immediately and increased 120 minutes after the acute aerobic exercise. Finally, food ingestion significantly increased the body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and BMR.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that variables such as urination, exercise, food consumption, and water intake should be considered to accurately assess body composition.

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9폐 기능 및 운동수행력 증진을 위한 비 확장기의 효용성

저자 : 김동규 ( Dong-kyu Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 481-490 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine changes in pulmonary function induced by an internal nasal dilator (IND) and to determine whether an IND enhances exercise performance.
METHODS: Young, healthy men (n=13) were randomly assigned either an IND or control (CON) session to perform a pulmonary function test (PFT). All participants then completed treadmill exercise tests that consisted of maximal and submaximal running with or without an IND.
RESULTS: Some variables of PFTs were increased in men that used INDs compared to those in the CON group (p<.05, respectively). There was a significant difference between sessions in energy cost during the running test (65% VO2max) (p<.05). In the IND group, respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise was lower, and relaxation of respiratory muscles after exercise was faster, as compared with the CON group (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: IND may contribute to improvements in pulmonary function. Furthermore, INDs may reduce energy costs and respiratory muscle fatigue during submaximal exercise by maintaining nasal breathing and facilitating respiratory muscle relaxation after maximal exercise tests.

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10Acute Effects of Foam Rolling Exercises on Arterial Stiffness, Flexibility and Autonomic Nervous System Function in Young and Middle-Aged Women

저자 : Cheonok Lee , Sewon Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 491-500 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with flexibility. Self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller is a popular intervention to improve flexibility, restore the muscles, fascia, tendons, and ligaments, and regain soft-tissue extensibility. This study aimed to investigate whether a single bout of SMR has a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness and the function of the autonomic nervous system and the relationships among these variables in young and middle-aged women by age.
METHODS: Ten healthy young (23.20±0.59 years) and 10 middle-aged women (44.50±0.91 years) completed an instructed SMR using a foam roller. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), augmentation index (AIx), trunk flexibility, shoulder flexibility, heart rate variability, including standard deviation of normal R-R intervals (SDNN), and the root mean square of the standard deviation of the time between heartbeats (RMSSD) were measured before and after one 30-minutes bout of SMR.
RESULTS: After one bout of SMR, trunk and shoulder flexibility increased in both groups of women, while AIx decreased significantly (from 6.9±2.9 to -1.9±4.6%, p=.0072, young women group; from 22.1±3.4 to 14.7±1.7%, p=.0049, middle-aged women group). However, the baPWV, RMSSD, and SDNN did not change. In the analysis of correlations between all measured variables, changes in AIx showed negative correlations with flexibility and SDNN.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that one bout of SMR using a foam roller positively affected arterial stiffness in women by reducing AIx and improving flexibility.

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1운동과학-지평을 넘어서

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 107-108 (2 pages)

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2근감소증을 가진 고령자의 근육량, 근력 및 신체 수행력에 저항 운동의 효과: 체계적 고찰과 메타분석

저자 : 김경민 ( Kyung Min Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun Joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 109-120 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: Sarcopenia, also known as the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle fitness, and physical performance, has been related to many adverse health outcomes. Resistance exercise may have an important role in effecting strategy for sarcopenia in aging populations. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the effects resistance exercise interventions on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia.
METHODS: A comprehensive search on electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHLPlus, SPORTDiscus, KERIS, KISS, and NAL were conducted. Eligible studies were divided into exercise and randomized controlled trials in elderly with sarcopenia. Searches retrieved 1,067 titles. Eighty full texts were evaluated, and seven studies were used for final systematic reviews. CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis) ver 3.0 was used for meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that lower muscle mass (ES=0.579, 95% CI: 0.266-0.892, p=.000), appendicular muscle mass (ES=0.341, 95% CI: 0.006-0.676, p=.046), right hand grip strength (ES=0.739, 95% CI: 0.216-1.262, p=.006), left hand grip strength (ES=0.692, 95% CI: 0.167-1.217, p=.010), knee extension strength (ES=1.448, 95% CI: 0.273-2.624, p=.016), and timed up and go (ES=1.471, 95% CI: 0.492-2.450, p=.003) significantly improved in response to resistance exercise programs.
CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is increasing with the growing elderly population; thus prevention and effective interventions are very important. The data suggest that resistance exercise may be actual in enhancing not only appendicular muscle mass, but also knee extension strength and timed up and go in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia. Further follow-up studies on larger populations and a variety of approaches are required to reconfirm these results.

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3Rearfoot and Tibial Motion during Gait Associated with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: A Systematic Review

저자 : Hyung-pil Jun , Eunwook Chang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 121-128 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to confirm the kinematic characteristics of overuse leg injuries during gait through a systematic review.
METHODS: Electronic databases from 1960 to 2018 were used to search studies. Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale was used for quality of studies. Effect sizes (ES) of between-groups and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
RESULTS: Seven studies were selected for review. The average Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale score was 4.3 of 10-point scale. The ES for maximum rearfoot eversion from 5 studies ranged from -0.34 to 0.67 with 3 of 5 studies statistically significant. The ES of eversion excursion from 4 studies ranged from -0.24 to 2.37 and 3 of 4 studies showed statistically significant. The ES of maximum eversion velocity ranged from 0.29 to 0.38 from all of 2 studies. With abduction, the ES for abduction excursion ranged from -0.04 to 0.35, and 2 of 3 studies revealed statistically significant. The ES of maximum abduction velocity showed statistically significant with the ES of 0.23 and 0.61. However, maximum abduction from 3 studies showed non-significant with ES ranges from 0.00 to 0.62.
CONCLUSIONS: The rearfoot motion (eversion) associates with overuse leg injuries during gait more than tibial motion (internal rotation).

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4Determination of Anaerobic Capacity - Reliability and Validity of Sprint Running Tests

저자 : Corinna Wawer , Oliver Heine , Hans-georg Predel , Md Da-sol Park , Bs Woo-hwi Yang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 129-137 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: A number of physiological diagnostics were developed. However, the timeline-related diagnostics of maximal anaerobic glycolytic capacity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a sprint running test to assess the anaerobic capacity.
METHODS: The study was divided into three parts. Sixty-one male (24±4 years, 181.0±4.3 cm; 78.5±5.9 kg) and twelve female (25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) sports students participated in this study. Twenty-five subjects (13 males, 24±2 years, 181.0±0.5 cm, 78.5±5.9 kg; 12 females, 25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) performed incremental step tests at running track and several linear sprints on a running track (LSRT) with different time durations (8, 10, 12, and 14 seconds)(part I) on different days. Twenty-five male subjects (24±3 years, 180.7±6.7 cm, 84.6±8.8 kg) conducted a 10 or 12 second sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill (NMT)(part II). In part III, twenty-three male subjects (24±2 years, 181.4±5.8 cm, 74.5±7.4 kg) ran a 10 second LSRT and NMT on consecutive days. Capillary blood samplings were taken before (Lacr) and after the sprint running for ten minutes at one minute intervals to find out maximal lactate concentration after exercise and to calculate the maximum lactate production rate (LPRmax).
RESULTS: For all parts reliability for LPRmax was proven (Part I: 8 seconds: ICC: r=.89; 10 seconds: ICC: r=.82; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.92; 14 seconds: r=.84, respectively; Part II: 10 seconds: ICC: r=.76; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.79). To analyze validity for LPRmax, Part III was conducted and proven valid (ICC: r=.96, p=.074).
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that LSRT and NMT reliably determine anaerobic capacity and can be used as a valid tool for physiological performance diagnostics.

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512주간 저항성 운동이 고환절제 흰쥐의 혈중 Testosterone, DHT 및 골 대사에 미치는 영향

저자 : 백경아 ( Kyung A Back ) , 박세환 ( Se Hwan Park ) , 윤진환 ( Jin Hwan Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 138-145 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a public health problem that requires constant attention in an aging society. This study examines the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training on serum sex steroid hormone and bone metabolism factors in orchiectomized rats.
METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley (20 week-old) rats divided into three groups; (1) CON (normal-control, n=10), (2) ORX-CON (orchiectomized-control, n=10), (3) ORX-RE (orchiectomized-resistance exercise, n=10). The resistance training performed ladder climbing (8 repetitions, three days per week for 12 weeks) starting 1 week after surgery.
RESULTS: The investigation revealed that compared to the CON group, the ORX-CON group showed significantly lower levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), grip strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and breaking force, but much higher levels of osteocalcin and CTx-1. The ORX-RE group showed increased grip strength, hormones (testosterone and DHT), osteocalcin, and BMD compared to ORX-CON group.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that resistance exercise training may be an intervention strategy for prevention osteoporosis and fracture in male aging process.

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6저체중 노인의 추정 심폐체력과 모든 원인 사망과의 연관성

저자 : 이인환 ( Inhwan Lee ) , 김병로 ( Byungroh Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 146-153 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.
METHODS: Data from the 2006 Korean longitudinal study of aging (KLoSA) involving 348 study participants aged 60 years and older (58.0% women) was analyzed in this study. CRF was estimated with sex- and age-specific algorithms developed by the fitness registry and the importance of exercise national database (FRIEND). Participants were classified into lowest 25% (Q1), lower 25% (Q2), middle 25% (Q3), and highest 25% (Q4) on the basis of individual eCRF distributions. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) according to eCRF levels.
RESULTS: During 7.8±3.2-year follow-up period, a total of 175 deaths occurred from all causes. Cox regression analysis showed that HR of all-cause mortality was 0.686 (95% CI, 0.474-0.991, p=.045) for Q2, 0.382 (95% CI, 0.253-0.575, p<.001) for Q3, and 0.248 (95% CI, 0.155-0.397, p<.001) for Q4 compared to Q1 as reference (HR=1). The HR of Q4 for all-cause mortality remained significant even after adjustments for covariates, including age and marital status.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that high eCRF is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.

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7The Effect of Five Weeks of Basic Military Training on Physical Fitness and Blood Biochemical Factors in Obese Military Recruits Just Conscripted into the Army

저자 : Sang Gook Seo , Se Hwan Park , Jin-hwan Yoon , Byeong-wan Kim , Hyunseok Jee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 154-161 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of basic military training on the physical fitness and blood biochemical factors in obese military recruits.
METHODS: Forty-eight male recruits (20-25 years of age) were randomly assigned to the Control group and Exercise group. Both groups completed 5 weeks of basic military training. The Exercise group additionally performed a resistance exercise twice daily in the morning and afternoon (1-3 sets, 3 days per week) and power walking (60-80% HRmax, 30 minutes) four times weekly. Four body composition variables, physical fitness factors, serum lipid profiles, and obesity-related hormone levels were analyzed.
RESULTS: Body weight, body fat ratio, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly decreased in both groups between pre- and post-exercise tests (p<.01). However, no changes in these parameters were observed between the Control and Exercise groups. Twenty-meter shuttle running and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly increased post exercise (p<.001). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly decreased in both (Control and Exercise) post-exercise tests (p<.05). Leptin in both groups was significantly decreased; however, ghrelin showed a reverse pattern (p<.01). A significantly changed maximal oxygen uptake value via training was noted in both groups (p<.001). The time and interaction between the groups and the time were also significantly affected (p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an additional exercise-training program with the basic military training plays an important role in improving military fitness and combat power.

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8일회성 중강도 유산소 운동이 젊은 성인의 대뇌 혈류량과 인지기능에 미치는 영향: 트레드밀 vs. 고정식 에르고미터

저자 : 강예진 ( Yejin Kang ) , 이루다 ( Ruda Lee ) , 황문현 ( Moon-hyon Hwang ) , 임명주 ( Myong-joo Lim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 162-169 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of different types (treadmill vs. cycle) of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in young adults.
METHODS: By a randomized crossover study design, ten participants were initially assigned to either treadmill exercise (TE; n=5) or cycle ergometer exercise (CE; n=5) and then they performed the other with seven-day wash-out period. Both exercises were implemented at the target heart rate corresponding to 70% of heart rate reserve for 30 minutes. Cognitive function was assessed by the Stroop Color-Word test at pre- and post-exercise. Cerebral blood flow was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy technique during rest, cognitive function test (CFT), and exercise.
RESULTS: There was a significant group by time interaction in tissue saturation index (TSI) (p=.046). Post-hoc analysis presented that TSI at post-exercise CFT was higher than during exercise in TE (p=.02). In both exercises, TSI at pre-exercise CFT significantly increased compared to the resting value (p=.001). Cerebral oxyhemoglobin level was significantly increased during exercise and at post-exercise CFT compared to the resting value in both exercises (p<.001). The reaction time for certain cognitive tasks such as color, word with matched color, word with color interference, and color with word interference was improved after both exercises (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: One-bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise acutely improves cerebral blood flow and cognitive function even in healthy young adults. Exercise types with the same intensity do not seem to make meaningful difference in the positive effects of aerobic exercise.

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9Relationship between Smartphone Use Time, Sitting Time, and Fitness Level in University Students

저자 : Jun-il Yoo , Jinkyung Cho , Kyung-wan Baek , Min-ho Kim , Ji-seok Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 170-177 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of smartphone use time, sitting time, and fitness level in university students.
METHODS: The participants of this study were 237 healthy university students (157 males and 80 females) enrolled from 2017 to 2018. The smartphone use time was divided into three groups: 0-4, ≥4-10, and ≥10 hours, as was the sitting time: 0-4, 4-7, and ≥7 hours. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the smartphone use time and sitting time for having low levels of fitness.
RESULTS: There were linear decreases in physical fitness levels across incremental smartphone use time and sitting time. Compared to the smartphone use time for 0-4 hours (reference), smartphone use time for the ≥4-10 hours (OR=2.498; 95% CI=1.007-6.197; p=.048) or the 10≥group (OR=3.516; 95% CI=1.228-10.064; p=.019) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity and percent body fat. Likewise, logistic regression analyses showed that those who had sitting time for ≥7 hours (OR=3.135; 95% CI=1.155-8.512; p=.025) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity, and percent body fat, as compared with those who had sitting time for 0-<4 hours.
CONCLUSIONS: The current finding suggest that the smartphone using time and sitting time were associated with having the risk of lower level of physical fitness in university students.

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10중강도 운동이 고지방식을 유도한 알츠하이머 치매 마우스의 시냅스 소포체 및 항산화 효소 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김동현 ( Dong-hyun Kim ) , 김인재 ( In-jae Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 178-187 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aerobic exercise on the expression of synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzymes in obesity and to investigate the feasibility of exercise training to reduce AD pathogenesis in the 3xTg-AD mice fed a high fat diet.
METHODS: Male 3 month old 3xTg-AD mice were divided into standard chow(SC, n=10), standard chow+exercise (SC-EXE, n=10), high fat diet (HFD, n=10), and high fat diet+exercise (HFD-EXE, n=10) groups. EXE mice were subjected to treadmill running at a moderate intensity with duration of 30 minutes per day and frequency of 5 days per week for 12 weeks. HFD mice were fed a 60% fat HFD during the same period. Mice were sacrificed and immunohistology and western blot analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Compared with the SC mice, the HFD mice had significantly higher levels of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.01) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.05), VGAT (p<.05), postsynaptic density 95 (p<.01) and GPX (p<.05) in the hippocampus. On the other hand, we found that treadmill running attenuated HFD-induced exacerbations of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.05) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.01), Synaptophysin (p<.05), SOD1 (p<.05) in the hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet-induced obesity resulted in increased AD neuropathology and decreased synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzyme in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. However, aerobic exercise delayed AD-like disease progression, alleviated impaired synaptic function and the decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus.

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