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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> The Effect of Five Weeks of Basic Military Training on Physical Fitness and Blood Biochemical Factors in Obese Military Recruits Just Conscripted into the Army

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The Effect of Five Weeks of Basic Military Training on Physical Fitness and Blood Biochemical Factors in Obese Military Recruits Just Conscripted into the Army

Sang Gook Seo , Se Hwan Park , Jin-hwan Yoon , Byeong-wan Kim , Hyunseok Jee
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 29권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 05월
  • : 154-161(8pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSIONS
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTION
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of basic military training on the physical fitness and blood biochemical factors in obese military recruits.
METHODS: Forty-eight male recruits (20-25 years of age) were randomly assigned to the Control group and Exercise group. Both groups completed 5 weeks of basic military training. The Exercise group additionally performed a resistance exercise twice daily in the morning and afternoon (1-3 sets, 3 days per week) and power walking (60-80% HRmax, 30 minutes) four times weekly. Four body composition variables, physical fitness factors, serum lipid profiles, and obesity-related hormone levels were analyzed.
RESULTS: Body weight, body fat ratio, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly decreased in both groups between pre- and post-exercise tests (p<.01). However, no changes in these parameters were observed between the Control and Exercise groups. Twenty-meter shuttle running and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly increased post exercise (p<.001). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly decreased in both (Control and Exercise) post-exercise tests (p<.05). Leptin in both groups was significantly decreased; however, ghrelin showed a reverse pattern (p<.01). A significantly changed maximal oxygen uptake value via training was noted in both groups (p<.001). The time and interaction between the groups and the time were also significantly affected (p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an additional exercise-training program with the basic military training plays an important role in improving military fitness and combat power.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-600-000801641

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1087


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1휴먼헬스디지털테크놀로지 시대에서 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-3 (3 pages)

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2운동과학에서 Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate 보충의 효과와 적용

저자 : 최은주 ( Eun-ju Choi )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 4-10 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The effect of hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on leucine is a major area of interest in exercise science. The present review aimed to investigate the various effects of HMB supplementation and provide guidelines for its practical use.
METHODS: This review collected and analyzed previous studies on HMB supplementation from online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Wiley Online Library.
RESULTS: Although studies suggest different results, this review found that HMB supplementation before or after exercise could have positive effects on body composition (muscle mass), exercise performance (strength and power, endurance), and recovery after muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase). In particular, HMB supplementation had a significant effect on resistance exercise, and in general, a daily dose of 3 g is recommended. However, the effects of combined HMB and creatine supplementation remain unclear.
CONCLUSIONS: HMB can be a useful and effective supplement for athletes with various purposes and for ordinary people who regularly exercise. Further research should investigate several limitations of HMB supplementation, as suggested in previous studies.

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3Does Taekwondo Poomsae Training Impact on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Composition in Children and Adolescents? A Systematic Review

저자 : Ye Lei , Hyung-pil Jun

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 11-25 (15 pages)

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PURPOSE: Numerous studies claim that Taekwondo can effectively help obese children improve their physical fitness. In addition, Taekwondo might help prevent lifestyle diseases and metabolic syndrome caused by obesity. However, studies and reviews on the effectiveness of Taekwondo Poomsae are very few compared to those on Taekwondo Kyorugi. Based on previous reviews, this study aims to clarify the effect of Taekwondo Poomsae training on improving body composition, physical fitness, and blood composition of children and adolescents of different groups. Furthermore, the applicability of Taekwondo Poomsae training is to be determined.
METHODS: Two-hundred and two studies were searched via Korea electronic databases RISS, KISS, and DBPIA from March 1 to 3, 2021, and 22 of these were included in this review.
RESULTS: Our review confirms that Taekwondo Poomsae is effective in improving the physical condition of developing children and adolescents. However, we cannot assert that this sport is also an effective exercise therapy for special youth groups, such as those who are overweight, obese, or have a metabolic growth or development syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sports implementers, Taekwando experts, coaches, and other sport professionals provide more Taekwondo Poomsae training programs suitable for physical and physiotherapeutic exercises for different ages and groups.

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4Effects of Resistance Training and/or Protein Supplementation on Usual Gait Speed in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Jae Ho Park , Junghwan Oh , Sok Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 26-41 (16 pages)

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PURPOSE: The present review aimed to verify the meta-effects of resistance training (RT) or protein supplementation (PS) on usual gait speed (UGS) in postmenopausal women and the additive effect of RT and PS on UGS.
METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Web of Science (core collection) was performed from inception to December 31, 2021. Electronic search methods were used to identify 18 relevant randomized controlled trials. Meta-analyses of standardized mean difference (SMD) calculated using Hedges' g between RT and/or PS groups versus control groups were conducted using a random-effects model. The meta-effects are presented in a forest plot with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that RT significantly improved UGS (SMD, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.12-0.68; p=.006), while PS did not improve UGS (SMD, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.80 to 0.46; p=.601). A subgroup analysis indicated that there were significant increases in UGS after both 'RT-only intervention (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.59; p=.046)' and 'RT combined with balance training (BT) (SMD, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.17-1.13; p=.008)', while there was no significant increase in UGS after 'RT combined with power training (PT) (SMD, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.62 to 0.45; p=.765)'. There was no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS (SMD, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.24; p=.699).
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that RT significantly improved UGS in postmenopausal women, and adding BT to RT further improved UGS. In addition, there was no significant improvement in UGS after PS in postmenopausal women, and no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS.

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5유방암 환자의 범이론적 모델 단계에 따른 신체활동량과 운동 제약

저자 : 박하늬 ( Ha Nui Park ) , 연수진 ( Su Jin Yeon ) , 민지희 ( Ji Hee Min ) , 이정민 ( Jeong Min Lee ) , 정안숙 ( Ansuk Jeong ) , 김지예 ( Jee Ye Kim ) , 박형석 ( Hyung Seok Park ) , 김승일 ( Seung Il Kim ) , 전용관 ( Justin Y. Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 42-52 (11 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical activity (PA) and exercise barriers of stages 0-3 breast cancer survivors according to the Transtheoretical Model (TTM).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study that included data from a total of 295 breast cancer survivors (Age: 52.2±8.2 years, BMI: 23.5±3.3 kg/㎡), at Shinchon Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The levels of PA and exercise barriers according to TTM were investigated using questionnaires.
RESULTS: PA participation increased in the TTM stage. The proportion of participants categorized according to TTM stage differed according to the time since cancer diagnosis: a higher proportion of participants were in pre-contemplation/contemplation within one year after diagnosis, while a higher proportion of participants were in maintenance after three three years since diagnosis. The five most prevalent exercise barriers were fatigue, low level of physical fitness, poor health, lack of interest, and tendency to be physically inactive. Fatigue is the most prevalent exercise barrier regardless of TTM stage, while most exercise barriers tend to reduce as participants are in the preparation/action and maintenance stages.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed that the participants in the maintenance stage were the most active, while the proportion of participants in the TTM stage varied according to time since diagnosis. Since PA and exercise barriers vary according to the TTM stage, the TTM stage may increase PA participation in breast cancer patients.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6양측 및 편측 신장성 운동이 근손상 및 근생리학적 지표에 미치는 영향

저자 : 박종연 ( Jong-yeon Park ) , 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 53-61 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effects of bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises on muscle damage and muscular physiological indices in healthy men.
METHODS: Using a randomized crossover design, nine adult males without musculoskeletal disorders were divided into a bilateral eccentric exercise group (BEG, n=9) and a unilateral eccentric exercise group (UEG, n=9). Bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises involved five sets of six repetitions of the rhythm metronome speed eccentric contraction 3 seconds at 110% one repetition maximum (1RM) using bilateral of BEG and the dominant and non-dominant of UEG separated by four weeks, respectively. Muscle damage (flexed and extended ROM, CIR, and VAS) and muscular physiological indices (muscle activity, muscle fatigue, and muscle tone) were measured before, immediately after (0 hour), 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.
RESULTS: The flexed ROM, CIR, VAS, muscle activity, and muscle tone were significantly increased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). Extended ROM and muscle activity significantly decreased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). However, there was no significant interaction between side (S) and time and side (T×S).
CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that there was no difference in muscle damage and physiological indices after measuring and setting the 1RM muscle strength separated by bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.

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7위드 코로나 시대 8주간의 온라인 고강도 인터벌 트레이닝이 과체중 남성의 신체조성, 혈중지질, 사이토카인 및 삶의 질에 미치는 영향

저자 : 최동훈 ( Dong-hun Choi ) , 현아현 ( Ah-hyun Hyun )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 62-71 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), using real-time video application programs, on the body composition, blood lipids, cytokines, and quality of life (QOL) of over-weight men.
METHODS: The participants of this study were overweight men, aged < 45 years, who voluntarily applied to the online notices for this study. The men had a body mass index (BMI) >28. Twenty people participated in this experiment and were divided into two groups: a HIIT group (n=10) and a control group (n=10). Both groups were pre-examined to determine body composition, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and QOL indices and also underwent blood tests. The HIIT group underwent high-intensity interval training for 8 weeks (twice a week and 35 minutes per day) using real-time video programs. The main exercise program for HIIT was 20 seconds high-intensity (85-90% HRmax) exercise followed by 30 seconds exercise at a 60% HRmax.
RESULTS: Comparison and analysis of the effects observed before and after the exercise revealed that the real-time online HIIT group showed reduced body fat (F=5.690, p=.028). Results of the blood tests showed that the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL; F=24.584, p=.001) was increased, while the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL; F=24.963, p=.001), triglycerides (TG; F=7.295, p=.015;), and total cholesterol (TC; F=14.934, p=.001) levels were decreased. No significant effects were observed on the insulin and c-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Finally, the QOL test results showed that the total score of the HIIT group had increased (F=190.815, p=.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Online HIIT is a useful method that aids in reducing fat levels in obese men and improving their blood lipid profile and QOL during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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8Changes in Heart Rate, Muscle Temperature, Blood Lactate Concentration, Blood Pressure, and Fatigue Perception Following Jogging and Running: An Observational Study

저자 : Junhyeong Lim , Hyeongjun Park , Seunghee Lee , Jihong Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 72-79 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: To report the magnitude of changes in heart rate, muscle temperature, blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception after treadmill jogging and running.
METHODS: Eleven healthy male adults (174±7 cm, 72±10 kg) visited the laboratory twice. After a 10-minute rest each visit, subjects performed a treadmill jog (maintaining a speed of 9 km/h at a 1% incline) or a treadmill run (initially 5 km/h at a 1% incline, belt speed, and incline increased by 1 km/h and 0.5% every minute; average speed of 9 km/h). Heart rate and muscle (gastrocnemius) temperature were recorded before, during, and after the treadmill jog/run. Blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception were assessed before and after. The effect of the condition over time was analysed using parametric or nonparametric tests (p≤.05) with Cohen's d effect sizes.
RESULTS: There was a condition effect over time in heart rate (F1,30=22.16, p<.0001), blood lactate concentration (χ2=34.88, df=3, p<.0001), systolic blood pressure (F1,30=4.18, p=.05), and fatigue perception (F1,30=10.24, p=.003). Specifically, subjects who ran showed a higher heart rate (187 vs. 158 bpm, p<.0001, d=2.11), blood lactate concentration (11.4 vs. 3.8 mmol/L, p<.0001, d=3.39), systolic blood pressure (164 vs. 147 mmHg, p=.006, d=1.34), and fatigue perception (2.7 vs. 5.0 cm, p=.0005, d=1.46) than those who jogged. There was a time effect (F1,30=94.84, p<.0001) on muscle temperature, with a 1.5°C increase in muscle temperature after jogging/running (p<.0001, d=1.88).
CONCLUSIONS: While treadmill jogging and running induced a similar temperature increase in the gastrocnemius, running resulted in higher heart rate, blood lactate concentration, systolic blood pressure, and fatigue perception. These results can be used as a basis for planning warm-up protocols.

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9여성 노인의 낙상과 비낙상의 보행변인 비교 및 평지와 장애물 보행 중 보행속도에 따른 낙상여부의 비교위험도

저자 : 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang ) , 이병근 ( Byung-kun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 80-87 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the gait variables and the relative risk of falling between elderly Korean women that fall and do not fall based on the walking speed during flat walking and in the presence of obstacles.
METHODS: The study included 148 women, aged 65 years or older (22 fallers, aged 75.05±5.38 years; 126 non-fallers, aged 71.80±5.14 years). The gait variables were measured in a space of 9 m×1 m, and obstacle walking was measured while crossing obstacles measuring, 5 cm and 30 cm. A t-test, correlation analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the gait variables to determine if there was a fall and to analyze the relationship and the risk ratio of a fall at a walking speed.
RESULTS: Out of 148 participants, 22 participants (14.9%), fell while walking. During flat ground walking, right step length (p<.01) left step length (p<.05), and stride lengths (p<.01) were smaller in the faller group, while the stance phase (p<.01) and double-support time ratio (p<.05) were smaller in the non-faller group. In obstacle walking, slower walking speeds were observed for the 5-cm obstacles (p<.01) and 30-cm obstacles (p<.05) in the faller group. For the low-speed and medium-high speed groups, the odds ratio of the fall experience was 2.844 (1.125-7.191) (p<.05) for flat gait, 3.585 (1.354-9.491) (p<.05) for the 5 cm obstacle, and 4.877 (1.731- 13.742) (p<.01) for the 30 cm obstacle. As the height of the obstacle increased, the fall odds ratio increased.
CONCLUSIONS: In the faller group, the step and stride lengths were smaller during flat walking, and the walking speed of the obstacles was low. The low-speed group had a high falling experience odds ratio, and as the height of the obstacle increased, the falling experience odds ratio increased.

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10웨이트 트레이닝 전 자가근막이완 기법이 기능적 움직임과 지연성 근육통에 미치는 효과

저자 : 이미래 ( Mi-rae Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 88-97 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of the self-myofascial release technique conducted before weight training on functional movement and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
METHODS: The study subjects were divided into three groups: a control group (CON, n=8), an active stretching group (DS, n=8), and a self-myofascial release group (SMR, n=8). All three groups performed the same leg press exercise program for 30 minutes, twice a week for eight weeks. Active stretching and self-myofascial release techniques were conducted before exercise for 30 minutes. Body composition, 1RM, and functional movement screen (FMS) were tested before the 1st-week exercise and after the 4th- and 8th-week exercise training. The DOMS levels were assessed immediately after exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise using the visual analog scale (VAS).
RESULTS: Body weight and body fat percentage showed a significant decrease (p<0.01), and muscle mass and 1RM increased with the exercise period (p<0.01). The FMS score differed between the groups (p<0.05), periods (p<0.01), and groups×periods (p<0.01). The FMS score was significantly higher in the SMR than in the CON group at the 4th- and 8th-week exercise. The exercise-induced VAS level peaked at 48 hours post-exercise in all groups and significantly decreased at 72 hours post-exercise in the SMR group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that self-myofascial release positively affects functional movements and effectively alleviates exercise-induced pain levels. Therefore, self-myofascial release techniques could be used as an effective warm-up strategy to improve physical function and relieve exercise-induced injury and muscle pain.

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1운동과학-지평을 넘어서

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 107-108 (2 pages)

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2근감소증을 가진 고령자의 근육량, 근력 및 신체 수행력에 저항 운동의 효과: 체계적 고찰과 메타분석

저자 : 김경민 ( Kyung Min Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun Joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 109-120 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: Sarcopenia, also known as the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle fitness, and physical performance, has been related to many adverse health outcomes. Resistance exercise may have an important role in effecting strategy for sarcopenia in aging populations. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the effects resistance exercise interventions on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia.
METHODS: A comprehensive search on electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHLPlus, SPORTDiscus, KERIS, KISS, and NAL were conducted. Eligible studies were divided into exercise and randomized controlled trials in elderly with sarcopenia. Searches retrieved 1,067 titles. Eighty full texts were evaluated, and seven studies were used for final systematic reviews. CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis) ver 3.0 was used for meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that lower muscle mass (ES=0.579, 95% CI: 0.266-0.892, p=.000), appendicular muscle mass (ES=0.341, 95% CI: 0.006-0.676, p=.046), right hand grip strength (ES=0.739, 95% CI: 0.216-1.262, p=.006), left hand grip strength (ES=0.692, 95% CI: 0.167-1.217, p=.010), knee extension strength (ES=1.448, 95% CI: 0.273-2.624, p=.016), and timed up and go (ES=1.471, 95% CI: 0.492-2.450, p=.003) significantly improved in response to resistance exercise programs.
CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is increasing with the growing elderly population; thus prevention and effective interventions are very important. The data suggest that resistance exercise may be actual in enhancing not only appendicular muscle mass, but also knee extension strength and timed up and go in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia. Further follow-up studies on larger populations and a variety of approaches are required to reconfirm these results.

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3Rearfoot and Tibial Motion during Gait Associated with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: A Systematic Review

저자 : Hyung-pil Jun , Eunwook Chang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 121-128 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to confirm the kinematic characteristics of overuse leg injuries during gait through a systematic review.
METHODS: Electronic databases from 1960 to 2018 were used to search studies. Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale was used for quality of studies. Effect sizes (ES) of between-groups and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
RESULTS: Seven studies were selected for review. The average Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale score was 4.3 of 10-point scale. The ES for maximum rearfoot eversion from 5 studies ranged from -0.34 to 0.67 with 3 of 5 studies statistically significant. The ES of eversion excursion from 4 studies ranged from -0.24 to 2.37 and 3 of 4 studies showed statistically significant. The ES of maximum eversion velocity ranged from 0.29 to 0.38 from all of 2 studies. With abduction, the ES for abduction excursion ranged from -0.04 to 0.35, and 2 of 3 studies revealed statistically significant. The ES of maximum abduction velocity showed statistically significant with the ES of 0.23 and 0.61. However, maximum abduction from 3 studies showed non-significant with ES ranges from 0.00 to 0.62.
CONCLUSIONS: The rearfoot motion (eversion) associates with overuse leg injuries during gait more than tibial motion (internal rotation).

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4Determination of Anaerobic Capacity - Reliability and Validity of Sprint Running Tests

저자 : Corinna Wawer , Oliver Heine , Hans-georg Predel , Md Da-sol Park , Bs Woo-hwi Yang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 129-137 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: A number of physiological diagnostics were developed. However, the timeline-related diagnostics of maximal anaerobic glycolytic capacity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a sprint running test to assess the anaerobic capacity.
METHODS: The study was divided into three parts. Sixty-one male (24±4 years, 181.0±4.3 cm; 78.5±5.9 kg) and twelve female (25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) sports students participated in this study. Twenty-five subjects (13 males, 24±2 years, 181.0±0.5 cm, 78.5±5.9 kg; 12 females, 25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) performed incremental step tests at running track and several linear sprints on a running track (LSRT) with different time durations (8, 10, 12, and 14 seconds)(part I) on different days. Twenty-five male subjects (24±3 years, 180.7±6.7 cm, 84.6±8.8 kg) conducted a 10 or 12 second sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill (NMT)(part II). In part III, twenty-three male subjects (24±2 years, 181.4±5.8 cm, 74.5±7.4 kg) ran a 10 second LSRT and NMT on consecutive days. Capillary blood samplings were taken before (Lacr) and after the sprint running for ten minutes at one minute intervals to find out maximal lactate concentration after exercise and to calculate the maximum lactate production rate (LPRmax).
RESULTS: For all parts reliability for LPRmax was proven (Part I: 8 seconds: ICC: r=.89; 10 seconds: ICC: r=.82; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.92; 14 seconds: r=.84, respectively; Part II: 10 seconds: ICC: r=.76; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.79). To analyze validity for LPRmax, Part III was conducted and proven valid (ICC: r=.96, p=.074).
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that LSRT and NMT reliably determine anaerobic capacity and can be used as a valid tool for physiological performance diagnostics.

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512주간 저항성 운동이 고환절제 흰쥐의 혈중 Testosterone, DHT 및 골 대사에 미치는 영향

저자 : 백경아 ( Kyung A Back ) , 박세환 ( Se Hwan Park ) , 윤진환 ( Jin Hwan Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 138-145 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a public health problem that requires constant attention in an aging society. This study examines the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training on serum sex steroid hormone and bone metabolism factors in orchiectomized rats.
METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley (20 week-old) rats divided into three groups; (1) CON (normal-control, n=10), (2) ORX-CON (orchiectomized-control, n=10), (3) ORX-RE (orchiectomized-resistance exercise, n=10). The resistance training performed ladder climbing (8 repetitions, three days per week for 12 weeks) starting 1 week after surgery.
RESULTS: The investigation revealed that compared to the CON group, the ORX-CON group showed significantly lower levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), grip strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and breaking force, but much higher levels of osteocalcin and CTx-1. The ORX-RE group showed increased grip strength, hormones (testosterone and DHT), osteocalcin, and BMD compared to ORX-CON group.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that resistance exercise training may be an intervention strategy for prevention osteoporosis and fracture in male aging process.

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6저체중 노인의 추정 심폐체력과 모든 원인 사망과의 연관성

저자 : 이인환 ( Inhwan Lee ) , 김병로 ( Byungroh Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 146-153 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.
METHODS: Data from the 2006 Korean longitudinal study of aging (KLoSA) involving 348 study participants aged 60 years and older (58.0% women) was analyzed in this study. CRF was estimated with sex- and age-specific algorithms developed by the fitness registry and the importance of exercise national database (FRIEND). Participants were classified into lowest 25% (Q1), lower 25% (Q2), middle 25% (Q3), and highest 25% (Q4) on the basis of individual eCRF distributions. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) according to eCRF levels.
RESULTS: During 7.8±3.2-year follow-up period, a total of 175 deaths occurred from all causes. Cox regression analysis showed that HR of all-cause mortality was 0.686 (95% CI, 0.474-0.991, p=.045) for Q2, 0.382 (95% CI, 0.253-0.575, p<.001) for Q3, and 0.248 (95% CI, 0.155-0.397, p<.001) for Q4 compared to Q1 as reference (HR=1). The HR of Q4 for all-cause mortality remained significant even after adjustments for covariates, including age and marital status.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that high eCRF is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.

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7The Effect of Five Weeks of Basic Military Training on Physical Fitness and Blood Biochemical Factors in Obese Military Recruits Just Conscripted into the Army

저자 : Sang Gook Seo , Se Hwan Park , Jin-hwan Yoon , Byeong-wan Kim , Hyunseok Jee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 154-161 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of basic military training on the physical fitness and blood biochemical factors in obese military recruits.
METHODS: Forty-eight male recruits (20-25 years of age) were randomly assigned to the Control group and Exercise group. Both groups completed 5 weeks of basic military training. The Exercise group additionally performed a resistance exercise twice daily in the morning and afternoon (1-3 sets, 3 days per week) and power walking (60-80% HRmax, 30 minutes) four times weekly. Four body composition variables, physical fitness factors, serum lipid profiles, and obesity-related hormone levels were analyzed.
RESULTS: Body weight, body fat ratio, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly decreased in both groups between pre- and post-exercise tests (p<.01). However, no changes in these parameters were observed between the Control and Exercise groups. Twenty-meter shuttle running and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly increased post exercise (p<.001). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly decreased in both (Control and Exercise) post-exercise tests (p<.05). Leptin in both groups was significantly decreased; however, ghrelin showed a reverse pattern (p<.01). A significantly changed maximal oxygen uptake value via training was noted in both groups (p<.001). The time and interaction between the groups and the time were also significantly affected (p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an additional exercise-training program with the basic military training plays an important role in improving military fitness and combat power.

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8일회성 중강도 유산소 운동이 젊은 성인의 대뇌 혈류량과 인지기능에 미치는 영향: 트레드밀 vs. 고정식 에르고미터

저자 : 강예진 ( Yejin Kang ) , 이루다 ( Ruda Lee ) , 황문현 ( Moon-hyon Hwang ) , 임명주 ( Myong-joo Lim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 162-169 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of different types (treadmill vs. cycle) of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in young adults.
METHODS: By a randomized crossover study design, ten participants were initially assigned to either treadmill exercise (TE; n=5) or cycle ergometer exercise (CE; n=5) and then they performed the other with seven-day wash-out period. Both exercises were implemented at the target heart rate corresponding to 70% of heart rate reserve for 30 minutes. Cognitive function was assessed by the Stroop Color-Word test at pre- and post-exercise. Cerebral blood flow was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy technique during rest, cognitive function test (CFT), and exercise.
RESULTS: There was a significant group by time interaction in tissue saturation index (TSI) (p=.046). Post-hoc analysis presented that TSI at post-exercise CFT was higher than during exercise in TE (p=.02). In both exercises, TSI at pre-exercise CFT significantly increased compared to the resting value (p=.001). Cerebral oxyhemoglobin level was significantly increased during exercise and at post-exercise CFT compared to the resting value in both exercises (p<.001). The reaction time for certain cognitive tasks such as color, word with matched color, word with color interference, and color with word interference was improved after both exercises (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: One-bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise acutely improves cerebral blood flow and cognitive function even in healthy young adults. Exercise types with the same intensity do not seem to make meaningful difference in the positive effects of aerobic exercise.

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9Relationship between Smartphone Use Time, Sitting Time, and Fitness Level in University Students

저자 : Jun-il Yoo , Jinkyung Cho , Kyung-wan Baek , Min-ho Kim , Ji-seok Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 170-177 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of smartphone use time, sitting time, and fitness level in university students.
METHODS: The participants of this study were 237 healthy university students (157 males and 80 females) enrolled from 2017 to 2018. The smartphone use time was divided into three groups: 0-4, ≥4-10, and ≥10 hours, as was the sitting time: 0-4, 4-7, and ≥7 hours. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the smartphone use time and sitting time for having low levels of fitness.
RESULTS: There were linear decreases in physical fitness levels across incremental smartphone use time and sitting time. Compared to the smartphone use time for 0-4 hours (reference), smartphone use time for the ≥4-10 hours (OR=2.498; 95% CI=1.007-6.197; p=.048) or the 10≥group (OR=3.516; 95% CI=1.228-10.064; p=.019) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity and percent body fat. Likewise, logistic regression analyses showed that those who had sitting time for ≥7 hours (OR=3.135; 95% CI=1.155-8.512; p=.025) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity, and percent body fat, as compared with those who had sitting time for 0-<4 hours.
CONCLUSIONS: The current finding suggest that the smartphone using time and sitting time were associated with having the risk of lower level of physical fitness in university students.

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10중강도 운동이 고지방식을 유도한 알츠하이머 치매 마우스의 시냅스 소포체 및 항산화 효소 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김동현 ( Dong-hyun Kim ) , 김인재 ( In-jae Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 178-187 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aerobic exercise on the expression of synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzymes in obesity and to investigate the feasibility of exercise training to reduce AD pathogenesis in the 3xTg-AD mice fed a high fat diet.
METHODS: Male 3 month old 3xTg-AD mice were divided into standard chow(SC, n=10), standard chow+exercise (SC-EXE, n=10), high fat diet (HFD, n=10), and high fat diet+exercise (HFD-EXE, n=10) groups. EXE mice were subjected to treadmill running at a moderate intensity with duration of 30 minutes per day and frequency of 5 days per week for 12 weeks. HFD mice were fed a 60% fat HFD during the same period. Mice were sacrificed and immunohistology and western blot analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Compared with the SC mice, the HFD mice had significantly higher levels of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.01) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.05), VGAT (p<.05), postsynaptic density 95 (p<.01) and GPX (p<.05) in the hippocampus. On the other hand, we found that treadmill running attenuated HFD-induced exacerbations of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.05) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.01), Synaptophysin (p<.05), SOD1 (p<.05) in the hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet-induced obesity resulted in increased AD neuropathology and decreased synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzyme in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. However, aerobic exercise delayed AD-like disease progression, alleviated impaired synaptic function and the decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus.

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