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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> Determination of Anaerobic Capacity - Reliability and Validity of Sprint Running Tests

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Determination of Anaerobic Capacity - Reliability and Validity of Sprint Running Tests

Corinna Wawer , Oliver Heine , Hans-georg Predel , Md Da-sol Park , Bs Woo-hwi Yang
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 29권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 05월
  • : 129-137(9pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTION
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: A number of physiological diagnostics were developed. However, the timeline-related diagnostics of maximal anaerobic glycolytic capacity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a sprint running test to assess the anaerobic capacity.
METHODS: The study was divided into three parts. Sixty-one male (24±4 years, 181.0±4.3 cm; 78.5±5.9 kg) and twelve female (25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) sports students participated in this study. Twenty-five subjects (13 males, 24±2 years, 181.0±0.5 cm, 78.5±5.9 kg; 12 females, 25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) performed incremental step tests at running track and several linear sprints on a running track (LSRT) with different time durations (8, 10, 12, and 14 seconds)(part I) on different days. Twenty-five male subjects (24±3 years, 180.7±6.7 cm, 84.6±8.8 kg) conducted a 10 or 12 second sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill (NMT)(part II). In part III, twenty-three male subjects (24±2 years, 181.4±5.8 cm, 74.5±7.4 kg) ran a 10 second LSRT and NMT on consecutive days. Capillary blood samplings were taken before (Lacr) and after the sprint running for ten minutes at one minute intervals to find out maximal lactate concentration after exercise and to calculate the maximum lactate production rate (LPRmax).
RESULTS: For all parts reliability for LPRmax was proven (Part I: 8 seconds: ICC: r=.89; 10 seconds: ICC: r=.82; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.92; 14 seconds: r=.84, respectively; Part II: 10 seconds: ICC: r=.76; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.79). To analyze validity for LPRmax, Part III was conducted and proven valid (ICC: r=.96, p=.074).
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that LSRT and NMT reliably determine anaerobic capacity and can be used as a valid tool for physiological performance diagnostics.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-600-000801616

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1134


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1Exercise Convergence Science for the Treatment of Mild Cognitive Impairment

저자 : Ji-eun Lee , Ho-seong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 423-427 (5 pages)

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2운동과 장내 미생물: 연구방법의 발전과 연구동향

저자 : 백경완 ( Kyung-wan Baek ) , 안궁 ( Kung Ahn ) , 안용주 ( Yong Ju Ahn ) , 샹잉잉 ( Ying-ying Xiang ) , 김지석 ( Ji-seok Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 428-437 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: To suggest future research directions and current research trends based on representative studies of existing exercises and the gut microbiome. In addition, we reviewed methodologies to study the relationship between exercise and the gut microbiome.
METHODS: The research methodologies and results were integrated through a literature review of the latest “exercise and gut microbiome” studies and a narrative review.
RESULTS: Although exercise is indirectly related to the gut microbiome or immunity, evidence for a direct effect is still lacking. However, with the recent discovery of gut microbiomes that can help improve exercise performance, it is clear that exercise can positively alter the gut microbiome.
CONCLUSIONS: Strong evidence suggests that regular moderate exercise improves overall immune function and lowers the incidence of inflammation-related disease. In addition, certain microorganisms affect exercise performance.

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3노인운동지도자의 정량적 평가를 위한 척도 개발

저자 : 홍지영 ( Jeeyoung Hong ) , 김혜령 ( Haeryung Kim ) , 공현중 ( Hyoun-joong Kong )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 438-443 (6 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to quantitatively evaluate the exercise instructor's teaching ability and to verify its validity and reliability.
METHODS: The participants were 331 students enrolled in the college of physical education. The survey was conducted using Google Forms. The questionnaire contained 36 questions, comprising seven questions on professionalism; eight on emotional communication ability; nine on fidelity; and, twelve on safety. A 5-point Likert scale was used. Factor analysis was performed, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for the validity and reliability analyses of the research tool; additionally, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed. All data were analyzed using the STATA 17.0 statistical program.
RESULTS: In the exercise instructor for older people evaluation questionnaire developed in this study, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value was 0.8 (0.88-0.93) for all factors, demonstrating its validity for factors including professionalism, emotional communication ability, fidelity, and safety. Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.9031, indicating high reliability. A strong correlation exists between factors, and through regression analysis, age (.1874, p=.027), professionalism (.8049, p=.000), fidelity (.6009, p=.000). The adequacy of the evaluation questionnaire (1.8606, p=.000) had a statistically significant effect on safety.
CONCLUSIONS: This questionnaire can be used as a tool to improve the quality of the exercise instructors for older people and serve to recognize the appropriate instructional methods for prospective exercise instructors for older people.

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4The Impact of Ballet Program on Appetite Related Hormones, Insulin Resistance, and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

저자 : Woo-hyeon Son , Yi-sub Kwak , Kwi-baek Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 444-451 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Postmenopausal status is associated with an age-related decline in hormones, abnormal appetite regulation, weight gain, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise is a useful non-pharmacological intervention that improves the levels of hormones involved in appetite regulation and weight management while reducing CVD risk factors. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of a ballet program on menopause-related changes in satiety or levels of appetite regulation hormones, including leptin and ghrelin, homeostatic model of assessing insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
METHODS: The EX group performed the ballet program. In the fasting state, body composition; leptin, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose levels; and HOMA-IR values were assessed before and 12 weeks after the intervention.
RESULTS: A significant group by time interaction (p<.05) was noted for percentage body fat, leptin, insulin, and HOMA-IR, which significantly decreased (p<.05), and ghrelin, which significantly increased (p<.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that this ballet program may be an attractive and enjoyable intervention for improving menopause-associated appetite regulation hormone changes in postmenopausal women

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5하지 연부조직의 강직도가 K-7 축구선수들의 운동수행능력에 미치는 영향: 예비연구

저자 : 선세영 ( Se-young Seon ) , 박병재 ( Byoung-jae Park ) , 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 452-458 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to verify the effect of soft tissue stiffness on joint range of motion and athletic performance in soccer players.
METHODS: Fifteen adult male soccer players participated in the study. After the warm-up, calf muscle and Achilles tendon stiffness were measured. Subsequently, range of motion of the ankle joint and 30 m sprint and vertical jump were performed. Exercise performance was assessed as a field test to create an experimental environment similar to that of actual training and competition.
RESULTS: Achilles tendon stiffness showed a significant correlation with the 30 m sprint and the vertical jump (p<.05). A moderate correlation was observed between the 30 m sprint and the vertical jump(p<.01). Soleus muscle stiffness was significantly correlated with the 30 m sprint(p<.05). No other correlations were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, it was confirmed that Achilles tendon stiffness affects exercise performance. In a follow-up study, it was necessary to confirm the effect of the stiffness of various soft tissues on exercise performance.

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6저항성 운동, 블랙마카와 복합처치가 라켓운동선수들의 혈중 근피로인자와 근기능에 미치는 영향

저자 : 박명훈 ( Myeong-hun Park ) , 임승택 ( Seung-taek Lim ) , 이진석 ( Jinseok Lee ) , 김병주 ( Byoung-ju Kim ) , 오성부 ( Sung-bu Oh ) , 강성훈 ( Sunghwun Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 459-468 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study was conducted with racket athletes at a university to determine the effect of combination of resistance exercise and black maca for four weeks on strength and endurance of trunk muscles and fatigue-related biomarkers.
METHODS: There were 16 university racket athletes classified into two groups: CO (control) (n=8) and RE (resistance exercise) (n=8). Body composition and muscle function were tested before the experiment (baseline), after four weeks (racket), and after ten weeks (racket+black maca). Before measuring body composition, we collected a blood sample to measure fatigue-related biomarkers such as myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), lactic acid, and ammonia. Black maca was purchased from Essoco.
RESULTS: In both the CO and RE groups, racket+black maca lowered blood ammonia levels compared to that at the baseline (p<.05) and racket (p<.001). There were no differences in the other fatigue-related factors. In the muscle function test, the racket+black maca increased the extension and flexion strength compared to that at the baseline (p<.05), while only extension strength increased after racket (p<.05) in the RE group. In both groups, the racket+black maca increased the extension and flexion endurance compared to that at the baseline (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Black maca intake effectively lowered the blood ammonia levels and improved muscle function. The effect on muscle function enhanced significantly when combined with resistance exercises. These results suggest that combination of black maca and resistance exercise may help improve exercise performance.

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7한국 국가대표 남자 봅슬레이·스켈레톤 선수들의 경기력 및 체력 요인과의 관계

저자 : 민석기 ( Seok-ki Min ) , 임승택 ( Seung-taek Lim ) , 이광규 ( Kwang-kyu Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 469-480 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between performance-related factors and physical abilities in Korean national bobsled and skeleton athletes.
METHODS: Sixteen bobsled and skeleton athletes who participated in the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics as a Korean national team volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were evaluated in terms of performance-related factors, including anaerobic power, 5 bound jump (5 BJ), and sprinting speed by sections, and physical abilities, including isokinetic strength, 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) strength, body composition, anthropometry, and agility. Stepwise selection of multiple regression analyses was used to investigate the relationship between performance-related factors and physical ability.
RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were observed between anaerobic power, sprinting speed by sections, 5 BJ and chest, isokinetic strength (knee, 180°/s), deadlift, and side-step.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the performance of Korean national bobsled and skeletal athletes is related to upper and lower body strength and agility. Thus, future training programs for bobsled and skeletal athletes should focus on improving strength and agility for performance enhancement.

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8대학생의 식사 속도와 대사증후군의 관계에 대한 신체활동 및 심폐체력의 역할

저자 : 강민정 ( Minjeong Kang ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 481-490 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated whether physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modulate the relationship between eating speed and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean university students.
METHODS: A total of 1,071 college students 751 males and 320 females participated in this study. The volume of PA (minutes per week) assessed by a self-reported questionnaire was classified as sufficient or insufficient based on the global recommendation of 150 minutes per week. Self-reported eating speed was classified as normal or fast. CRF was classified as low (lowest 25%), moderate (middle 50%), and high (highest 25%) based on the maximum volume of oxygen consumption determined during a graded treadmill running.
RESULTS: Bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of fast eating for metabolic syndrome was 1.94 (95% confidence interval, CI=1.34-2.82, p<.001) in the total group and 1.75 (95% CI=1.18-2.59, p=.005) in male students only. Logistic regression showed that in the total group, fasting eating was associated with an increased risk of MetS (OR=1.780, 95% CI=1.223-2.259, p=.003) compared to individuals with normal eating speed (OR=1) even after adjustments for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol intake. Additionally, male students with fast eating were at increased risk of MetS (OR=1.750, 95% CI=1.181-2.529, p=.005) compared to their counterparts with normal eating speed even after adjustments for all the covariates. Moderation analyses by Andrew F. Hayes showed that the effect of eating speed on MetS risk differed by physical activity (β=-0.389, 95% CI=-0.706- 0.071, p=.017) and CRF levels (β=-0.307, 95% CI=-0.496-0.118, p=.002) even after adjustments for all the covariates.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of the study suggest that both regular PA and CRF can play a preventive role against MetS associated with fast eating in Korean college students.

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9부상 경험이 있는 선수들의 감정상태에 따른 통증 인지의 정도

저자 : 오성민 ( Sungmin Oh ) , 전형필 ( Hyung-pil Jun )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 491-498 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify whether the degree of pain cognition by injury-experienced athletes in a sports setting varies depending on their emotional status, and to compare the values between the VAS (subjective pain score) and RIII reflex (objective pain data).
METHODS: Injured (n=15) and non-injured (n=15) experienced athletes participated in the experimental procedures with pain stimulation, RIII reflex, and VAS measurement, while emotional images (neutral, pleasure, and unpleasure) were randomly presented. The RIII reflex was measured simultaneously with TENS stimulation of the sural nerve while the OASIS images were presented, and the VAS was measured between the sets of images. Data were collected using electromyography (EMG) and VAS.
RESULTS: The relationship between the group and the VAS score according to the emotional state was significant (p=.028), and the relationship between the group and the RIII reflex depending on the emotional state was not significant (p=.344). Furthermore, the relationship of the group “emotion” measurement was not significant (p=.081), but the results indicate toward a correlation.
CONCLUSIONS: Athletes recognized more pain at the same intensity when their emotional state was unpleasant, but the RIII reflex was measured constantly so they could recognize less pain in an emotionally stable state. Despite some associations, no difference was observed in the degree of pain recognition based on injury experience.

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10범이론적 모델에 근거한 청소년 학생 운동선수의 식이행동변화단계에 따른 영양지수 및 식이효능감 비교

저자 : 김나한 ( Nahan Kim ) , 홍광석 ( Kwang-seok Hong ) , 정인경 ( In-kyung Jung )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 499-510 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the direction of nutrition management and education for adolescent athletes based on the transtheoretical model (TTM).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 205 male adolescent athletes using questionnaires in Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces. Differences in nutritional indices, dietary behaviors, and dietary self-efficacies were compared according to the stage of dietary behavior change, and significance was verified using analysis of variance and chi-square tests.
RESULTS: According to the stage of change in dietary behavior, a significant difference was observed in the grade and score of the nutrition quotient (NQ), and the nutritional status and quality of meals were extremely poor in the precontemplation and contemplation groups. Dietary self-efficacy differed significantly according to the stage of change in dietary behavior. Compared to the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage groups, the action and maintenance stage groups had a higher willingness to practice desirable dietary behaviors and overcome barriers.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrated that individualized nutritional intervention based on TTM was an effective strategy for healthy dietary behavior and had a positive impact on adolescent athletes' sports performance. Furthermore, nutrition education should include content that enhances students' dietary self-efficacy.

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1운동과학-지평을 넘어서

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 107-108 (2 pages)

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2근감소증을 가진 고령자의 근육량, 근력 및 신체 수행력에 저항 운동의 효과: 체계적 고찰과 메타분석

저자 : 김경민 ( Kyung Min Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun Joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 109-120 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: Sarcopenia, also known as the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle fitness, and physical performance, has been related to many adverse health outcomes. Resistance exercise may have an important role in effecting strategy for sarcopenia in aging populations. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the effects resistance exercise interventions on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia.
METHODS: A comprehensive search on electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHLPlus, SPORTDiscus, KERIS, KISS, and NAL were conducted. Eligible studies were divided into exercise and randomized controlled trials in elderly with sarcopenia. Searches retrieved 1,067 titles. Eighty full texts were evaluated, and seven studies were used for final systematic reviews. CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis) ver 3.0 was used for meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that lower muscle mass (ES=0.579, 95% CI: 0.266-0.892, p=.000), appendicular muscle mass (ES=0.341, 95% CI: 0.006-0.676, p=.046), right hand grip strength (ES=0.739, 95% CI: 0.216-1.262, p=.006), left hand grip strength (ES=0.692, 95% CI: 0.167-1.217, p=.010), knee extension strength (ES=1.448, 95% CI: 0.273-2.624, p=.016), and timed up and go (ES=1.471, 95% CI: 0.492-2.450, p=.003) significantly improved in response to resistance exercise programs.
CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is increasing with the growing elderly population; thus prevention and effective interventions are very important. The data suggest that resistance exercise may be actual in enhancing not only appendicular muscle mass, but also knee extension strength and timed up and go in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia. Further follow-up studies on larger populations and a variety of approaches are required to reconfirm these results.

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3Rearfoot and Tibial Motion during Gait Associated with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: A Systematic Review

저자 : Hyung-pil Jun , Eunwook Chang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 121-128 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to confirm the kinematic characteristics of overuse leg injuries during gait through a systematic review.
METHODS: Electronic databases from 1960 to 2018 were used to search studies. Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale was used for quality of studies. Effect sizes (ES) of between-groups and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
RESULTS: Seven studies were selected for review. The average Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale score was 4.3 of 10-point scale. The ES for maximum rearfoot eversion from 5 studies ranged from -0.34 to 0.67 with 3 of 5 studies statistically significant. The ES of eversion excursion from 4 studies ranged from -0.24 to 2.37 and 3 of 4 studies showed statistically significant. The ES of maximum eversion velocity ranged from 0.29 to 0.38 from all of 2 studies. With abduction, the ES for abduction excursion ranged from -0.04 to 0.35, and 2 of 3 studies revealed statistically significant. The ES of maximum abduction velocity showed statistically significant with the ES of 0.23 and 0.61. However, maximum abduction from 3 studies showed non-significant with ES ranges from 0.00 to 0.62.
CONCLUSIONS: The rearfoot motion (eversion) associates with overuse leg injuries during gait more than tibial motion (internal rotation).

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4Determination of Anaerobic Capacity - Reliability and Validity of Sprint Running Tests

저자 : Corinna Wawer , Oliver Heine , Hans-georg Predel , Md Da-sol Park , Bs Woo-hwi Yang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 129-137 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: A number of physiological diagnostics were developed. However, the timeline-related diagnostics of maximal anaerobic glycolytic capacity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a sprint running test to assess the anaerobic capacity.
METHODS: The study was divided into three parts. Sixty-one male (24±4 years, 181.0±4.3 cm; 78.5±5.9 kg) and twelve female (25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) sports students participated in this study. Twenty-five subjects (13 males, 24±2 years, 181.0±0.5 cm, 78.5±5.9 kg; 12 females, 25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) performed incremental step tests at running track and several linear sprints on a running track (LSRT) with different time durations (8, 10, 12, and 14 seconds)(part I) on different days. Twenty-five male subjects (24±3 years, 180.7±6.7 cm, 84.6±8.8 kg) conducted a 10 or 12 second sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill (NMT)(part II). In part III, twenty-three male subjects (24±2 years, 181.4±5.8 cm, 74.5±7.4 kg) ran a 10 second LSRT and NMT on consecutive days. Capillary blood samplings were taken before (Lacr) and after the sprint running for ten minutes at one minute intervals to find out maximal lactate concentration after exercise and to calculate the maximum lactate production rate (LPRmax).
RESULTS: For all parts reliability for LPRmax was proven (Part I: 8 seconds: ICC: r=.89; 10 seconds: ICC: r=.82; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.92; 14 seconds: r=.84, respectively; Part II: 10 seconds: ICC: r=.76; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.79). To analyze validity for LPRmax, Part III was conducted and proven valid (ICC: r=.96, p=.074).
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that LSRT and NMT reliably determine anaerobic capacity and can be used as a valid tool for physiological performance diagnostics.

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512주간 저항성 운동이 고환절제 흰쥐의 혈중 Testosterone, DHT 및 골 대사에 미치는 영향

저자 : 백경아 ( Kyung A Back ) , 박세환 ( Se Hwan Park ) , 윤진환 ( Jin Hwan Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 138-145 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a public health problem that requires constant attention in an aging society. This study examines the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training on serum sex steroid hormone and bone metabolism factors in orchiectomized rats.
METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley (20 week-old) rats divided into three groups; (1) CON (normal-control, n=10), (2) ORX-CON (orchiectomized-control, n=10), (3) ORX-RE (orchiectomized-resistance exercise, n=10). The resistance training performed ladder climbing (8 repetitions, three days per week for 12 weeks) starting 1 week after surgery.
RESULTS: The investigation revealed that compared to the CON group, the ORX-CON group showed significantly lower levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), grip strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and breaking force, but much higher levels of osteocalcin and CTx-1. The ORX-RE group showed increased grip strength, hormones (testosterone and DHT), osteocalcin, and BMD compared to ORX-CON group.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that resistance exercise training may be an intervention strategy for prevention osteoporosis and fracture in male aging process.

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6저체중 노인의 추정 심폐체력과 모든 원인 사망과의 연관성

저자 : 이인환 ( Inhwan Lee ) , 김병로 ( Byungroh Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 146-153 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.
METHODS: Data from the 2006 Korean longitudinal study of aging (KLoSA) involving 348 study participants aged 60 years and older (58.0% women) was analyzed in this study. CRF was estimated with sex- and age-specific algorithms developed by the fitness registry and the importance of exercise national database (FRIEND). Participants were classified into lowest 25% (Q1), lower 25% (Q2), middle 25% (Q3), and highest 25% (Q4) on the basis of individual eCRF distributions. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) according to eCRF levels.
RESULTS: During 7.8±3.2-year follow-up period, a total of 175 deaths occurred from all causes. Cox regression analysis showed that HR of all-cause mortality was 0.686 (95% CI, 0.474-0.991, p=.045) for Q2, 0.382 (95% CI, 0.253-0.575, p<.001) for Q3, and 0.248 (95% CI, 0.155-0.397, p<.001) for Q4 compared to Q1 as reference (HR=1). The HR of Q4 for all-cause mortality remained significant even after adjustments for covariates, including age and marital status.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that high eCRF is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.

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7The Effect of Five Weeks of Basic Military Training on Physical Fitness and Blood Biochemical Factors in Obese Military Recruits Just Conscripted into the Army

저자 : Sang Gook Seo , Se Hwan Park , Jin-hwan Yoon , Byeong-wan Kim , Hyunseok Jee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 154-161 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of basic military training on the physical fitness and blood biochemical factors in obese military recruits.
METHODS: Forty-eight male recruits (20-25 years of age) were randomly assigned to the Control group and Exercise group. Both groups completed 5 weeks of basic military training. The Exercise group additionally performed a resistance exercise twice daily in the morning and afternoon (1-3 sets, 3 days per week) and power walking (60-80% HRmax, 30 minutes) four times weekly. Four body composition variables, physical fitness factors, serum lipid profiles, and obesity-related hormone levels were analyzed.
RESULTS: Body weight, body fat ratio, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly decreased in both groups between pre- and post-exercise tests (p<.01). However, no changes in these parameters were observed between the Control and Exercise groups. Twenty-meter shuttle running and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly increased post exercise (p<.001). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly decreased in both (Control and Exercise) post-exercise tests (p<.05). Leptin in both groups was significantly decreased; however, ghrelin showed a reverse pattern (p<.01). A significantly changed maximal oxygen uptake value via training was noted in both groups (p<.001). The time and interaction between the groups and the time were also significantly affected (p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an additional exercise-training program with the basic military training plays an important role in improving military fitness and combat power.

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8일회성 중강도 유산소 운동이 젊은 성인의 대뇌 혈류량과 인지기능에 미치는 영향: 트레드밀 vs. 고정식 에르고미터

저자 : 강예진 ( Yejin Kang ) , 이루다 ( Ruda Lee ) , 황문현 ( Moon-hyon Hwang ) , 임명주 ( Myong-joo Lim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 162-169 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of different types (treadmill vs. cycle) of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in young adults.
METHODS: By a randomized crossover study design, ten participants were initially assigned to either treadmill exercise (TE; n=5) or cycle ergometer exercise (CE; n=5) and then they performed the other with seven-day wash-out period. Both exercises were implemented at the target heart rate corresponding to 70% of heart rate reserve for 30 minutes. Cognitive function was assessed by the Stroop Color-Word test at pre- and post-exercise. Cerebral blood flow was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy technique during rest, cognitive function test (CFT), and exercise.
RESULTS: There was a significant group by time interaction in tissue saturation index (TSI) (p=.046). Post-hoc analysis presented that TSI at post-exercise CFT was higher than during exercise in TE (p=.02). In both exercises, TSI at pre-exercise CFT significantly increased compared to the resting value (p=.001). Cerebral oxyhemoglobin level was significantly increased during exercise and at post-exercise CFT compared to the resting value in both exercises (p<.001). The reaction time for certain cognitive tasks such as color, word with matched color, word with color interference, and color with word interference was improved after both exercises (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: One-bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise acutely improves cerebral blood flow and cognitive function even in healthy young adults. Exercise types with the same intensity do not seem to make meaningful difference in the positive effects of aerobic exercise.

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9Relationship between Smartphone Use Time, Sitting Time, and Fitness Level in University Students

저자 : Jun-il Yoo , Jinkyung Cho , Kyung-wan Baek , Min-ho Kim , Ji-seok Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 170-177 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of smartphone use time, sitting time, and fitness level in university students.
METHODS: The participants of this study were 237 healthy university students (157 males and 80 females) enrolled from 2017 to 2018. The smartphone use time was divided into three groups: 0-4, ≥4-10, and ≥10 hours, as was the sitting time: 0-4, 4-7, and ≥7 hours. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the smartphone use time and sitting time for having low levels of fitness.
RESULTS: There were linear decreases in physical fitness levels across incremental smartphone use time and sitting time. Compared to the smartphone use time for 0-4 hours (reference), smartphone use time for the ≥4-10 hours (OR=2.498; 95% CI=1.007-6.197; p=.048) or the 10≥group (OR=3.516; 95% CI=1.228-10.064; p=.019) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity and percent body fat. Likewise, logistic regression analyses showed that those who had sitting time for ≥7 hours (OR=3.135; 95% CI=1.155-8.512; p=.025) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity, and percent body fat, as compared with those who had sitting time for 0-<4 hours.
CONCLUSIONS: The current finding suggest that the smartphone using time and sitting time were associated with having the risk of lower level of physical fitness in university students.

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10중강도 운동이 고지방식을 유도한 알츠하이머 치매 마우스의 시냅스 소포체 및 항산화 효소 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김동현 ( Dong-hyun Kim ) , 김인재 ( In-jae Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 178-187 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aerobic exercise on the expression of synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzymes in obesity and to investigate the feasibility of exercise training to reduce AD pathogenesis in the 3xTg-AD mice fed a high fat diet.
METHODS: Male 3 month old 3xTg-AD mice were divided into standard chow(SC, n=10), standard chow+exercise (SC-EXE, n=10), high fat diet (HFD, n=10), and high fat diet+exercise (HFD-EXE, n=10) groups. EXE mice were subjected to treadmill running at a moderate intensity with duration of 30 minutes per day and frequency of 5 days per week for 12 weeks. HFD mice were fed a 60% fat HFD during the same period. Mice were sacrificed and immunohistology and western blot analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Compared with the SC mice, the HFD mice had significantly higher levels of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.01) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.05), VGAT (p<.05), postsynaptic density 95 (p<.01) and GPX (p<.05) in the hippocampus. On the other hand, we found that treadmill running attenuated HFD-induced exacerbations of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.05) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.01), Synaptophysin (p<.05), SOD1 (p<.05) in the hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet-induced obesity resulted in increased AD neuropathology and decreased synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzyme in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. However, aerobic exercise delayed AD-like disease progression, alleviated impaired synaptic function and the decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus.

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