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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 근감소증을 가진 고령자의 근육량, 근력 및 신체 수행력에 저항 운동의 효과: 체계적 고찰과 메타분석

KCI등재SCOUPUS

근감소증을 가진 고령자의 근육량, 근력 및 신체 수행력에 저항 운동의 효과: 체계적 고찰과 메타분석

Effects of Resistance Exercise on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Physical Performances in Elderly with Diagnosed Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

김경민 ( Kyung Min Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun Joo Kang )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 29권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 05월
  • : 109-120(12pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

서 론
연구 방법
체계적 고찰에 대한 분석 결과
메타분석 결과
논 의
결 론
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTION
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: Sarcopenia, also known as the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle fitness, and physical performance, has been related to many adverse health outcomes. Resistance exercise may have an important role in effecting strategy for sarcopenia in aging populations. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the effects resistance exercise interventions on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia.
METHODS: A comprehensive search on electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHLPlus, SPORTDiscus, KERIS, KISS, and NAL were conducted. Eligible studies were divided into exercise and randomized controlled trials in elderly with sarcopenia. Searches retrieved 1,067 titles. Eighty full texts were evaluated, and seven studies were used for final systematic reviews. CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis) ver 3.0 was used for meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that lower muscle mass (ES=0.579, 95% CI: 0.266-0.892, p=.000), appendicular muscle mass (ES=0.341, 95% CI: 0.006-0.676, p=.046), right hand grip strength (ES=0.739, 95% CI: 0.216-1.262, p=.006), left hand grip strength (ES=0.692, 95% CI: 0.167-1.217, p=.010), knee extension strength (ES=1.448, 95% CI: 0.273-2.624, p=.016), and timed up and go (ES=1.471, 95% CI: 0.492-2.450, p=.003) significantly improved in response to resistance exercise programs.
CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is increasing with the growing elderly population; thus prevention and effective interventions are very important. The data suggest that resistance exercise may be actual in enhancing not only appendicular muscle mass, but also knee extension strength and timed up and go in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia. Further follow-up studies on larger populations and a variety of approaches are required to reconfirm these results.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-600-000801590

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1119


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1Suggestions for Exercise Science's Promotion to a Top-Tier Journal in the Category of Sports Science

저자 : Sun Huh

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 279-281 (3 pages)

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2마른 비만의 대사 및 심혈관계 질환 위험성과 선제적 예방을 위한 운동 중재

저자 : 지민제 ( Minje Ji ) , 조채은 ( Chaeeun Cho ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 282-294 (13 pages)

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PURPOSE: Normal weight obesity (NWO) is characterized by a normal body mass index but a high body fat mass percentage and low skeletal muscle mass, thereby increasing the risk of cardiometabolic dysfunction and morbidity. However, the effects of exercise intervention in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic disease in NWO have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize the potential cardiometabolic disease risk and to provide implications of exercise interventions for the proactive prevention of cardiometabolic disease risk in NWO.
METHODS: We searched and summarized the literature on the cardiometabolic risk factors in NWO. In addition, we summarized literature investigating the effects of exercise intervention on the cardiometabolic risk factors in NWO. We performed the literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases.
RESULTS: NWO was associated with increased visceral fat, ectopic fat, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and subclinical atherosclerosis compared with normal weight lean. NWO requires exercise interventions that induce alterations in body composition, such as decreased body fat percentage and increased muscle mass. Resistance exercise (RE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can improve lipid components and alter body composition in NWO. In addition, low-intensity blood flow restriction resistance exercise (BFR-RE) may enhance muscular strength and anaerobic power in NWO.
CONCLUSIONS: The cardiometabolic disease risk is increased in NWO. We suggest that exercise interventions (RE, HIIE, and BFR-RE) may effectively prevent cardiometabolic disease risk and alter body composition in NWO. As this has potential implications for exercise interventions in NWO, further investigations are needed to find the optimal exercise for proactive prevention of cardiometabolic risk in NWO.

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3Therapeutic Sources of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration from Volumetric Muscle Loss: A Narrative Review

저자 : Kwangjun Lee , Wonil Park , Kwang-seok Hong

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 295-303 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Minor skeletal muscle injuries can be repaired, but more extensive volumetric muscle loss (VML) leads to a permanent functional disability with ambiguous therapeutic outcomes, and reconstructive surgical procedures are constrained by donor tissue scarcity. This review assessed the considerable attention paid to biomaterials in healing damaged skeletal muscle.
METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Wiley Online Library was conducted to obtain previous studies exploring the state of biocompatible tissue scaffolds for VML recovery.
RESULTS: By regenerating the function of damaged skeletal muscle, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle construction could revolutionize the treatment of VML. However, transporting cells into the wounded muscle location presents a significant challenge because it may result in unfavorable immunological reactions. The development and validation of several biomaterials with varying physical and chemical natures to treat various muscle injuries have recently been undertaken to overcome this problem. This review discusses the relative benefits of satellite cells (SC), the most prevalent skeletal muscle stem cells employed to seed scaffolds.
CONCLUSIONS: Biomaterials can be used with skeletal muscle stem cells and growth factors to repair VML because of their customizable and desirable physicochemical qualities. Owing to the capacity of SCs for self-renewal and their undifferentiated state, these cells are excellent candidates for cell therapy. A large gap exists between understanding SC behavior and how it can be used to repair and regenerate human skeletal muscle tissue. Thus, this review sought to portray the current knowledge on the lifespan of SCs and their involvement in exercise-induced muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4실험실 측정지표를 활용한 4주간의 훈련이 여자 중거리 선수의 경기 기록에 미치는 영향: 사례 보고

저자 : 이상현 ( Sang-hyun Lee ) , 김수진 ( Su-jin Kim ) , 김영식 ( Young-Sik Kim ) , 김창선 ( Chang-sun Kim ) , 곽효범 ( Hyo-bum Kwak ) , 강주희 ( Ju-hee Kang ) , 박동호 ( Dong-ho Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 304-311 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a 4-week training using a laboratory index on the competition record of elite female middle-distance runners.
METHODS: A female, middle-distance, trained runner with the following characteristics: age, 20 years; height, 168.7 cm; weight, 64.3 kg; 27.2% fat; and VO2max, 56.4 VO2 mL/kg/min; volunteered to participate in this study. Before the training program, the participant took part in a 1,500-m track and field national event in April and the onset of blood lactate threshold was analyzed using (OBVA/ vOBLA), VO2max/vVO2max, and tVO2max tests. After completing the 4-week training program, the participant again took part in the 1,500-m track and field national event in May and her parameters were reassessed using the OBVA/vOBLA, VO2max/vVO2max, and tVO2max tests.
RESULTS: Pre- and post-training indicate that vVO2max did not improve; however, tVO2max (206 seconds pre-training vs. 251.51 seconds post-training) and VO2max (56.4 vs. 59.3 VO2 mL/kg/min)significantly. However, this improvement in relative VO2 was due to weight loss, and the absolute value of VO2 (3.63 vs. 3.62 L/min) did not change. The 1,500-m race record in track and field events decreased significantly from a pre-training value of 5 minutes 03 seconds to a post-training value of 4 minutes 52 seconds.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that utilizing laboratory indicators including vOBLA, vVO2max, and tVO2max may be extremely valuable when prescribing training programs for middle-distance runners.

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5Association Serum Lipid Levels with Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults Over the Age of 50: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016-2018

저자 : Young-ran Yeun , Yi Sub Kwak , Hye-young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 312-318 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Although the prevalence of periodontal disease in adults over the age of 50 is rapidly increasing, the association between serum lipid levels and periodontal disease in Korean adults over the age of 50 still remains to investigate. Thus, the aim was to determine the effect of serum lipid levels on periodontal disease in older adults over the age of 50 using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
METHODS: The study used the data of 809 adults aged ≥50 years targeted in the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016-2018. Levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density- lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol), and low density-lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and periodontal conditions were measured. Complex-sample chi square test and linear regression were used to analyze the relationship serum lipid levels with periodontal disease.
RESULTS: The results of chi square tests showed that the prevalence of periodontal disease among the elderly ≥50 years were statistically significant differences according to gender, age, education level, marital status, and smoking status. After adjusting for all confounding factors, HDL-cholesterol alleviated periodontal disease, while LDL-cholesterol exacerbates periodontal disease. However, total cholesterol and triglycerides were not connected with periodontal disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, controlling HDL and LDL cholesterol levels through physical exercise could be a preventative measure for periodontal disease.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6지구성 운동과 메스암페타민 투여가 수컷 Sprague-Dawley 쥐의 해마에서 혈뇌장벽 관련 인자 및 BDNF 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 정수련 ( Su-ryun Jung )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 319-327 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of short-term endurance exercise and methamphetamine administration on blood-brain barrier (BBB)-related marker and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
METHODS: Forty male SD-rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups and treated for 2 weeks. For the methamphetamine group, 1 mg/ kg (+)-S-Methamphetamine hydrochloride (METH) was intraperitoneally injected daily, and an endurance exercise was performed at 21 m/min for 60 minutes. All treatments were performed daily, and METH or saline was administered after exercise. After 2 weeks of treatment, the head was decapitated under anesthesia, and the hippocampus was separated for western blotting.
RESULTS: Two weeks of endurance exercise significantly increased the expression of occludin and claudin-5 in the hippocampus of the rats. Similarly, phosphorylation of CREB/BDNF and AKT/GSK3 signaling pathways were significantly increased. This phenomenon was also observed in the exercise and METH co-treatment groups. However, the single treatment of 1 mg/kg METH did not affect tight junction protein and BDNF expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Endurance exercise increased the expression of BBB-related proteins and neurogenesis-related molecules, which were not inhibited by METH administration.

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7점증운동부하 검사 동안 걷기와 달리기 형태별 국가대표 경보선수들의 심폐기능평가 비교

저자 : 성봉주 ( Bong-ju Sung ) , 이민호 ( Min-ho Lee ) , 이광규 ( Kwang-kyu Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 328-336 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify a sport-specific assessment for elite race-walking athletes by comparing physiological responses between walking and running graded exercise test (GXT) protocols.
METHODS: Six elite race-walking athletes completed both walking and running protocols in a randomized crossover design with 1 week interval between trials. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout and after each trial, and blood lactate levels were collected during the recovery period.
RESULTS: There were significant differences in VO2max, VE, and HR values between the walking and running protocols (p<.001). During the recovery period, VO2max, VE, HR, and blood lactate levels were significantly different in each measurement (p<.001); however, there was no difference between the walking and running protocols.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, both the walking and running GXT protocols were inappropriate for assessing elite race-walking athletes. This study suggests that a supplement GXT protocol is required to specifically assess elite race-walking athletes.

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8지체장애 노인의 저강도 신체활동과 모든 원인 사망과의 연관성

저자 : 이인환 ( Inhwan Lee ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 337-344 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between light intensity physical activity (LPA) and all-cause mortality in older adults with physical disability.
METHODS: Data from the 2008 Living Profiles of Older People Survey involving 14367 Korean adults aged ≥60 y (13417 without disabilities and 950 with disabilities) were used. Participants were divided into active and inactive groups based on weekly LPA and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), according to disability status and physical activity levels.
RESULTS: During 3.3±0.4 years follow-up period, 1024 deaths occurred from all causes. Among non-disabled people, the inactive group showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.282, 95% CI=1.122-1.465, p<0.001) than the active group (reference=1) in LPA. Similarly, for MVPA, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the inactive group (HR=1.522, 95% CI=1.230-1.882, p<0.001) than in the active group (reference=1). However, among physically disabled people, the inactive group correspondingly showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR=2.735, 95% CI=1.761-4.246, p<0.001) than the active group, while there was no significant difference between both groups in MVPA.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that promoting LPA may play an important role in preventing premature death from all-cause mortality in older adults with physical disability.

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9지속적인 매트 필라테스 운동이 여대생의 기초체력, 코어 안정성 및 허리 통증에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김효진 ( Hyojin Kim ) , 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 345-356 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 wks of mat Pilates exercise on back pain, muscle mass, isokinetic muscle function, and core stability in healthy college female.
METHODS: Twenty healthy college females (aged 21.7±2.5 y) were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups: mat Pilates exercise group (MP, n=10) and non-Pilates control group (CON, n=10). The MP group participated in the mat Pilates exercise program for 60 min a day, 3 d per week for 8 wks. Back pain and basal physical fitness were assessed before and after the experimental period. Left and right core stabilities at 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° were measured using Centaur (BFMC, Germany). Isokinetic muscle function (60°/s) of both the knee and trunk was also measured using the isokinetic dynamometer Cybex.
RESULTS: After mat Pilates exercise for 8 wks, there was a significant interaction between the MP and CON groups in back pain during daily activity and lower back stiffness (p<.05), respectively. There was also a significant interaction between the two groups in the left and right core stability at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° (p<.05, p<.01, p<.001), respectively. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between the two groups in the right knee and left knee isokinetic extensor muscle strength (p<.05, p<.001, respectively). However, there was no significant interaction between the two groups in trunk isokinetic extensor and flexor muscle strength (NS). There were no significant interactions between two groups in the muscle mass of total body, trunk, and legs (NS), respectively. Regarding basic physical fitness, there were significant interaction effects between the two groups in cardiovascular fitness, sagittal reach, and sit-ups (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that continued mat Pilates exercise can improve back pain and core stability with enhancement of leg isokinetic muscle strength independent of the muscle mass of the total body, trunk, and legs.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

10한국 성인과 노인의 신체활동과 대사증후군의 연관성: 국민건강영양조사 2014-2017 가속도계 자료를 이용하여

저자 : 임정준 ( Jungjun Lim ) , 김준식 ( Joon-sik Kim ) , 김연수 ( Yeonsoo Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 357-363 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults and older adults.
METHODS: A total of 2,191 adults and older adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2014 to 2017 were analyzed. Participants were categorized into three groups ('Inactive', 'Active', 'Highly active') according to physical activity guidelines. A chi-square test was performed to confirm whether the physical activity guidelines were met according to metabolic syndrome and the difference between metabolic syndrome according to age group. Logistic regression was used to predict the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome differed according to whether physical activity guidelines were met in older adults, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors varied according to age group. Compared to the Inactive group, the odds ratios (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.56-0.95) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.47-0.88) in adults in the Active and Highly active groups, respectively; and 0.46 (95% CI:0.28-0.78) and 0.39 (95% CI:0.22-0.69) in older adults in the Active and Highly active groups, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: As the level of physical activity increased, the OR of having metabolic syndrome and its risk factors decreased: this relationship was stronger in older adults than in adults. Therefore, physical activity guidelines should be met to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome.

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1운동과학-지평을 넘어서

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 107-108 (2 pages)

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2근감소증을 가진 고령자의 근육량, 근력 및 신체 수행력에 저항 운동의 효과: 체계적 고찰과 메타분석

저자 : 김경민 ( Kyung Min Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun Joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 109-120 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: Sarcopenia, also known as the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle fitness, and physical performance, has been related to many adverse health outcomes. Resistance exercise may have an important role in effecting strategy for sarcopenia in aging populations. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the effects resistance exercise interventions on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia.
METHODS: A comprehensive search on electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHLPlus, SPORTDiscus, KERIS, KISS, and NAL were conducted. Eligible studies were divided into exercise and randomized controlled trials in elderly with sarcopenia. Searches retrieved 1,067 titles. Eighty full texts were evaluated, and seven studies were used for final systematic reviews. CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis) ver 3.0 was used for meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that lower muscle mass (ES=0.579, 95% CI: 0.266-0.892, p=.000), appendicular muscle mass (ES=0.341, 95% CI: 0.006-0.676, p=.046), right hand grip strength (ES=0.739, 95% CI: 0.216-1.262, p=.006), left hand grip strength (ES=0.692, 95% CI: 0.167-1.217, p=.010), knee extension strength (ES=1.448, 95% CI: 0.273-2.624, p=.016), and timed up and go (ES=1.471, 95% CI: 0.492-2.450, p=.003) significantly improved in response to resistance exercise programs.
CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is increasing with the growing elderly population; thus prevention and effective interventions are very important. The data suggest that resistance exercise may be actual in enhancing not only appendicular muscle mass, but also knee extension strength and timed up and go in elderly diagnosed with sarcopenia. Further follow-up studies on larger populations and a variety of approaches are required to reconfirm these results.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

3Rearfoot and Tibial Motion during Gait Associated with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: A Systematic Review

저자 : Hyung-pil Jun , Eunwook Chang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 121-128 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to confirm the kinematic characteristics of overuse leg injuries during gait through a systematic review.
METHODS: Electronic databases from 1960 to 2018 were used to search studies. Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale was used for quality of studies. Effect sizes (ES) of between-groups and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
RESULTS: Seven studies were selected for review. The average Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale score was 4.3 of 10-point scale. The ES for maximum rearfoot eversion from 5 studies ranged from -0.34 to 0.67 with 3 of 5 studies statistically significant. The ES of eversion excursion from 4 studies ranged from -0.24 to 2.37 and 3 of 4 studies showed statistically significant. The ES of maximum eversion velocity ranged from 0.29 to 0.38 from all of 2 studies. With abduction, the ES for abduction excursion ranged from -0.04 to 0.35, and 2 of 3 studies revealed statistically significant. The ES of maximum abduction velocity showed statistically significant with the ES of 0.23 and 0.61. However, maximum abduction from 3 studies showed non-significant with ES ranges from 0.00 to 0.62.
CONCLUSIONS: The rearfoot motion (eversion) associates with overuse leg injuries during gait more than tibial motion (internal rotation).

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4Determination of Anaerobic Capacity - Reliability and Validity of Sprint Running Tests

저자 : Corinna Wawer , Oliver Heine , Hans-georg Predel , Md Da-sol Park , Bs Woo-hwi Yang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 129-137 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: A number of physiological diagnostics were developed. However, the timeline-related diagnostics of maximal anaerobic glycolytic capacity remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a sprint running test to assess the anaerobic capacity.
METHODS: The study was divided into three parts. Sixty-one male (24±4 years, 181.0±4.3 cm; 78.5±5.9 kg) and twelve female (25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) sports students participated in this study. Twenty-five subjects (13 males, 24±2 years, 181.0±0.5 cm, 78.5±5.9 kg; 12 females, 25±3 years, 167.0±0.6 cm, 60.4±5.7 kg) performed incremental step tests at running track and several linear sprints on a running track (LSRT) with different time durations (8, 10, 12, and 14 seconds)(part I) on different days. Twenty-five male subjects (24±3 years, 180.7±6.7 cm, 84.6±8.8 kg) conducted a 10 or 12 second sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill (NMT)(part II). In part III, twenty-three male subjects (24±2 years, 181.4±5.8 cm, 74.5±7.4 kg) ran a 10 second LSRT and NMT on consecutive days. Capillary blood samplings were taken before (Lacr) and after the sprint running for ten minutes at one minute intervals to find out maximal lactate concentration after exercise and to calculate the maximum lactate production rate (LPRmax).
RESULTS: For all parts reliability for LPRmax was proven (Part I: 8 seconds: ICC: r=.89; 10 seconds: ICC: r=.82; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.92; 14 seconds: r=.84, respectively; Part II: 10 seconds: ICC: r=.76; 12 seconds: ICC: r=.79). To analyze validity for LPRmax, Part III was conducted and proven valid (ICC: r=.96, p=.074).
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that LSRT and NMT reliably determine anaerobic capacity and can be used as a valid tool for physiological performance diagnostics.

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512주간 저항성 운동이 고환절제 흰쥐의 혈중 Testosterone, DHT 및 골 대사에 미치는 영향

저자 : 백경아 ( Kyung A Back ) , 박세환 ( Se Hwan Park ) , 윤진환 ( Jin Hwan Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 138-145 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a public health problem that requires constant attention in an aging society. This study examines the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training on serum sex steroid hormone and bone metabolism factors in orchiectomized rats.
METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley (20 week-old) rats divided into three groups; (1) CON (normal-control, n=10), (2) ORX-CON (orchiectomized-control, n=10), (3) ORX-RE (orchiectomized-resistance exercise, n=10). The resistance training performed ladder climbing (8 repetitions, three days per week for 12 weeks) starting 1 week after surgery.
RESULTS: The investigation revealed that compared to the CON group, the ORX-CON group showed significantly lower levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), grip strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and breaking force, but much higher levels of osteocalcin and CTx-1. The ORX-RE group showed increased grip strength, hormones (testosterone and DHT), osteocalcin, and BMD compared to ORX-CON group.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that resistance exercise training may be an intervention strategy for prevention osteoporosis and fracture in male aging process.

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6저체중 노인의 추정 심폐체력과 모든 원인 사망과의 연관성

저자 : 이인환 ( Inhwan Lee ) , 김병로 ( Byungroh Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 146-153 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.
METHODS: Data from the 2006 Korean longitudinal study of aging (KLoSA) involving 348 study participants aged 60 years and older (58.0% women) was analyzed in this study. CRF was estimated with sex- and age-specific algorithms developed by the fitness registry and the importance of exercise national database (FRIEND). Participants were classified into lowest 25% (Q1), lower 25% (Q2), middle 25% (Q3), and highest 25% (Q4) on the basis of individual eCRF distributions. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) according to eCRF levels.
RESULTS: During 7.8±3.2-year follow-up period, a total of 175 deaths occurred from all causes. Cox regression analysis showed that HR of all-cause mortality was 0.686 (95% CI, 0.474-0.991, p=.045) for Q2, 0.382 (95% CI, 0.253-0.575, p<.001) for Q3, and 0.248 (95% CI, 0.155-0.397, p<.001) for Q4 compared to Q1 as reference (HR=1). The HR of Q4 for all-cause mortality remained significant even after adjustments for covariates, including age and marital status.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that high eCRF is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality in underweight older adults.

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7The Effect of Five Weeks of Basic Military Training on Physical Fitness and Blood Biochemical Factors in Obese Military Recruits Just Conscripted into the Army

저자 : Sang Gook Seo , Se Hwan Park , Jin-hwan Yoon , Byeong-wan Kim , Hyunseok Jee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 154-161 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of basic military training on the physical fitness and blood biochemical factors in obese military recruits.
METHODS: Forty-eight male recruits (20-25 years of age) were randomly assigned to the Control group and Exercise group. Both groups completed 5 weeks of basic military training. The Exercise group additionally performed a resistance exercise twice daily in the morning and afternoon (1-3 sets, 3 days per week) and power walking (60-80% HRmax, 30 minutes) four times weekly. Four body composition variables, physical fitness factors, serum lipid profiles, and obesity-related hormone levels were analyzed.
RESULTS: Body weight, body fat ratio, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly decreased in both groups between pre- and post-exercise tests (p<.01). However, no changes in these parameters were observed between the Control and Exercise groups. Twenty-meter shuttle running and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly increased post exercise (p<.001). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly decreased in both (Control and Exercise) post-exercise tests (p<.05). Leptin in both groups was significantly decreased; however, ghrelin showed a reverse pattern (p<.01). A significantly changed maximal oxygen uptake value via training was noted in both groups (p<.001). The time and interaction between the groups and the time were also significantly affected (p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an additional exercise-training program with the basic military training plays an important role in improving military fitness and combat power.

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8일회성 중강도 유산소 운동이 젊은 성인의 대뇌 혈류량과 인지기능에 미치는 영향: 트레드밀 vs. 고정식 에르고미터

저자 : 강예진 ( Yejin Kang ) , 이루다 ( Ruda Lee ) , 황문현 ( Moon-hyon Hwang ) , 임명주 ( Myong-joo Lim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 162-169 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of different types (treadmill vs. cycle) of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in young adults.
METHODS: By a randomized crossover study design, ten participants were initially assigned to either treadmill exercise (TE; n=5) or cycle ergometer exercise (CE; n=5) and then they performed the other with seven-day wash-out period. Both exercises were implemented at the target heart rate corresponding to 70% of heart rate reserve for 30 minutes. Cognitive function was assessed by the Stroop Color-Word test at pre- and post-exercise. Cerebral blood flow was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy technique during rest, cognitive function test (CFT), and exercise.
RESULTS: There was a significant group by time interaction in tissue saturation index (TSI) (p=.046). Post-hoc analysis presented that TSI at post-exercise CFT was higher than during exercise in TE (p=.02). In both exercises, TSI at pre-exercise CFT significantly increased compared to the resting value (p=.001). Cerebral oxyhemoglobin level was significantly increased during exercise and at post-exercise CFT compared to the resting value in both exercises (p<.001). The reaction time for certain cognitive tasks such as color, word with matched color, word with color interference, and color with word interference was improved after both exercises (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: One-bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise acutely improves cerebral blood flow and cognitive function even in healthy young adults. Exercise types with the same intensity do not seem to make meaningful difference in the positive effects of aerobic exercise.

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9Relationship between Smartphone Use Time, Sitting Time, and Fitness Level in University Students

저자 : Jun-il Yoo , Jinkyung Cho , Kyung-wan Baek , Min-ho Kim , Ji-seok Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 170-177 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of smartphone use time, sitting time, and fitness level in university students.
METHODS: The participants of this study were 237 healthy university students (157 males and 80 females) enrolled from 2017 to 2018. The smartphone use time was divided into three groups: 0-4, ≥4-10, and ≥10 hours, as was the sitting time: 0-4, 4-7, and ≥7 hours. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the smartphone use time and sitting time for having low levels of fitness.
RESULTS: There were linear decreases in physical fitness levels across incremental smartphone use time and sitting time. Compared to the smartphone use time for 0-4 hours (reference), smartphone use time for the ≥4-10 hours (OR=2.498; 95% CI=1.007-6.197; p=.048) or the 10≥group (OR=3.516; 95% CI=1.228-10.064; p=.019) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity and percent body fat. Likewise, logistic regression analyses showed that those who had sitting time for ≥7 hours (OR=3.135; 95% CI=1.155-8.512; p=.025) had significantly higher ORs of having lower fitness even after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity, and percent body fat, as compared with those who had sitting time for 0-<4 hours.
CONCLUSIONS: The current finding suggest that the smartphone using time and sitting time were associated with having the risk of lower level of physical fitness in university students.

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10중강도 운동이 고지방식을 유도한 알츠하이머 치매 마우스의 시냅스 소포체 및 항산화 효소 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김동현 ( Dong-hyun Kim ) , 김인재 ( In-jae Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 178-187 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aerobic exercise on the expression of synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzymes in obesity and to investigate the feasibility of exercise training to reduce AD pathogenesis in the 3xTg-AD mice fed a high fat diet.
METHODS: Male 3 month old 3xTg-AD mice were divided into standard chow(SC, n=10), standard chow+exercise (SC-EXE, n=10), high fat diet (HFD, n=10), and high fat diet+exercise (HFD-EXE, n=10) groups. EXE mice were subjected to treadmill running at a moderate intensity with duration of 30 minutes per day and frequency of 5 days per week for 12 weeks. HFD mice were fed a 60% fat HFD during the same period. Mice were sacrificed and immunohistology and western blot analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Compared with the SC mice, the HFD mice had significantly higher levels of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.01) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.05), VGAT (p<.05), postsynaptic density 95 (p<.01) and GPX (p<.05) in the hippocampus. On the other hand, we found that treadmill running attenuated HFD-induced exacerbations of Aβ (p<.01), p-tau/t-tau (p<.05) and defects of Vglut1 (p<.01), Synaptophysin (p<.05), SOD1 (p<.05) in the hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet-induced obesity resulted in increased AD neuropathology and decreased synaptic vesicle transporter and antioxidant enzyme in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. However, aerobic exercise delayed AD-like disease progression, alleviated impaired synaptic function and the decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus.

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