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한국18세기영문학회> 18세기영문학> Hidden Mothers in Wordsworth’s Immortality Ode

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Hidden Mothers in Wordsworth’s Immortality Ode

Yangsook Shin
  • : 한국18세기영문학회
  • : 18세기영문학 17권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 05월
  • : 125-164(40pages)
18세기영문학

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This paper addresses the recurring critical issue of the Immortality Ode: the contradiction between the first eight stanzas and the last three in terms of tone and assertion. Unlike many critics who, despite the contradiction, still try to find unity between the two parts, this paper offers a biographical explanation in suggesting the poem as a two-part structure. The first part is argued to have been written at the time of the guilt-ridden and not necessarily autonomous decision about the poet’s future spouse between Annette and Mary. Under the circumstances, the poet’s latent psychological protestation or regret takes the form of exalting childhood. The second part, on the other hand, was written when the poet was psychologically stable because he had come to some sort of understanding with Annette, now settled comfortably to his new married life. As such, the poet, no longer resisting his life as a man, exalts his memory of both beautiful and sad moments of his past life whose true or “philosophic” meaning is finally understood. Thus, the second part of the poem becomes the focus of the Ode as a devotional expression of a lost and hence all the more unforgettable young days of “splendor” and “glory,” with beauty and resonance unparalleled in literary history.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-800-000847343

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  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1976-0930
  • : 2733-4996
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2004-2021
  • : 204


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1메리 셸리의 『최후의 인간』에 나타난 공감의 문제와 종에 대한 사유

저자 : 오봉희 ( Bonghee Oh )

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 18권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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Mary Shelley's The Last Man published in 1826 tells a bleak story of the extinction of mankind by the plague from the perspective of the last man, Lionel Verney. This paper explores sympathy and mankind as a biological species in The Last Man, focusing on Verney and Adrian. As an orphan and outcast, Verney desires for human sympathy. His desire is satisfied when he is accepted into a civilized society through his friendship with Adrian. Unlike Verney, Adrian approaches sympathy in the broader context of community. He takes upon himself the task of helping others and wishes to make the earth a paradise for humans. But Adrian's optimism for the future of mankind gets irrevocably destroyed at the outbreak of the plague. Sympathy turns out powerless against the invincible plague, although it is effective in resolving conflicts among humans. Now life is all that matters and all that everyone covets. The disaster of the plague clearly shows that humans are a biological being whose life depends on the organic mechanism of the body, not the lord of nature and other beings in it. As the continuity of mankind gets threatened, the fate of an individual human being becomes directly connected to the fate of mankind as a whole. Significantly, the plague wields its destructive power only upon humans. Nature remains fertile and abundant throughout the disaster of the plague, totally unaffected by the tragic annihilation of mankind. It leads us to think about the fact that mankind is one of many biological species in nature and to think about the puniness of mankind.

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2『캉디드 혹은 낙관주의』: 재난의 기억과 단층의 글쓰기

저자 : 최요환 ( Yohwan Choi )

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 18권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 29-62 (34 pages)

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Voltaire's Candide or optimism is readily associated, in the mind of most contemporary readers, with the Lisbon Earthquake of 1755. Any book that offers a general account on this chef-d'oeuvre never fails to point out that one of the principal reasons of the writing of the book can be found in this catastrophic event. What we are setting out to do in this study is not the investigation of the philosophical aspect of the Candide, even less its understanding in the historical perspective. The aim of our study lies precisely in identifying a specific mode of writing that one can witness on the surface of the text. If the Earthquake, as one argues, caused intellectual earthquake in the very mind of Voltaire, how does his own text, published four years later, reflect memories of the such event? Memories, but not the immediate nor faithful description of the catastrophe.
Our study suggests that the text, as well as its several characters is in constant motion as if the tremor subsequently follows the earthquake. What Voltaire successfully presents to the readers is the successive pictures of the tragedy underwent by the characters and carried out by the swift transition of one event to another. Moving from one place to another, from one country to another, from the barony of Westphalia to the New World, Candide and his entourage experience all kinds of “evils”: they are hanged, dissected, raped, beaten, sold to pirates, robbed, disemboweled; their castle demolished, their parents murdered. Behind this vertiginous rhythm of the narrative, even the most insensible reader can notice that it oftens lacks any causal relation. Frequent use of parataxis emphasizes the abrupt nature of the narrative. Extreme fragmentation of the text and the narrative, along with the obsessive depiction of the body in pieces, all these succeed in representing the memories of the catastrophe.
Lastly, we suggest that beyond the image of this shattered world, one can still find a possible, mysterious chain that would link one end of the globe to the other, one character to another, one event to another; and that the pessimistic vision of Voltaire reveals itself once again through the tragic nature of the ever closer world.

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3다니엘 디포의 『폭풍』: 탈인간중심적 재난서사의 가능성

저자 : 최유정 ( Yoojung Choi )

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 18권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 63-94 (32 pages)

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This article claims that we can find posthumanist possibilities in Daniel Defoe's use of “description” in The Storm (1704) as a technique which levels off the differences between human and non-human agents. A few critics have indicated that The Storm, in contrast to A Journal of the Plague Year, lacks literary value due to its striking absence of a sympathetic gaze toward human suffering and tragedy during the great storm in 1703. However, I argue that this very lack of humanity in The Storm encapsulates Defoe's authorial strategy to create the posthumanist narrative of disaster in which every being affected by the storm―houses, ships, trees, bricks, and people―is given an equal measure of attention. By linking the theory of narrative with posthumanist theory, this article demonstrates the power of “description” in The Storm that treats humans as things and things as humans. Also, The Storm's posthumanist gesture strikingly contrasts with the self-centeredness of the protagonists in Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Roxana who commonly exhibit human-centric interpretations of the storm at sea.

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4Managing Viral Information and Being at Risk in Defoe's A Journal of the Plague Year

저자 : Inhye Ha

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 18권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 95-132 (38 pages)

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During his lifetime Defoe had been inured to the vicissitude of things, such as insolvency, bankruptcy, factionalism, and even recurring natural disasters. Not only did he brave out multiple forms of uncertainty―both personal and national―through his ingenuity, Defoe also proposed a model subject against the backdrop of the South Sea Bubble and the Marseille Plague, which I term in this essay the information manager. By foregrounding an enlightened subject capable of collecting, compiling, and discerning a range of data sets and information in his plague tract A Journal of the Plague Year (1722), Defoe suggests nuanced ways of imposing order against the unruly. With a focus on the hybridity of information contained in the novel and on the lack of rigid narrative structure, I argue that A Journal can be viewed as a merchant's ledger ―a printed material resonant with the ideal of English tradesmanship that Defoe posits elsewhere. It should also be noted that the author spells out specific social relations that incur the so-called modern risks facing a majority of eighteenth-century Britons through his configuration of the information manager.

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5“A frightful spectre, to myself unknown”: The Speckled Monster and “Pox'd” Women in Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

저자 : Jane Lim

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 18권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 133-161 (29 pages)

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Smallpox, an endemic famously dubbed the “speckled monster” because it left scarring and pigmentation on the skin, pervaded the literary imagination of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England. In 1716, a year after she recovered from smallpox, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu wrote “Satturday: The Smallpox” as part of a series of Town Eclogues that probe the cultural condition of fashionable women. This paper attends to Montagu's response to eighteenth-century “poxed” women whose diseased and disfigured bodies allegedly serve as a measure of the nation state's physical and moral health. Specifically, I read the “poxed” woman not just as a victim of smallpox but an agent, author, and literary subject who channels that fatal disease as a means of self-recognition and self-fashioning. Montagu charges against accusations that smallpox produces a less than desirable female body. Rather, by giving the diseased body a poetic voice, she dissects the male gaze, a proto-Foucauldian “medical gaze” if you will, that posits dysfunctional women as the locus of public scrutiny and national fear. Through “Satturday,” Montagu presents Flavia, a fictional smallpox victim, as a discursive agent who posits the “poxed” woman as a site of transfiguration rather than disfigurement. The poem responds to smallpox not as a clinical illness but a cultural pathology that mirrors England's toxic obsession with sanitizing the female body. Montagu thus deploys the smallpox discourse as a traumatic moment of self-estrangement that enables women to articulate their negotiation of interior and exterior self.

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1신사의 자격: 『잭 대령』에 나타난 디포의 신사 이해

저자 : 배경진 ( Kyungjin Bae )

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 17권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-26 (26 pages)

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This paper aims to examine Daniel Defoe's understanding of gentility in Colonel Jack (1722). The first half of the novel, drawing a sharp contrast between the eponymous hero's claim for gentle birth and his criminal life, identifies the respectable source of wealth as the first requirement of being a gentleman. But the second half, which portrays Jack's challenge to a duel and his ruthless revenge on the captain, reveals that wealth does not guarantee the making of a complete gentleman. Defoe's intention to describe Jack as a gentleman manqué does not denunciate his hero's desire to be a gentleman as unjust and improper. Rather, Defoe suggests the need for education as the legitimate way of becoming a gentleman. Showing that Jack's notion of honor at face value primarily originates from the contemporary absence of a virtuous model, Defoe implies that a more specific discussion should follow in order to establish the new ideal gentleman.

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2From “the Pen of an Itinerate”: Reimagining the British Nation in Defoe's Tour

저자 : Ja Yun Choi

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 17권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 27-59 (33 pages)

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This article examines Daniel Defoe's use of mobility to imagine the British nation in his domestic travel narrative A Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain (1724-26). While many critics have noted his participation in the national project of imagining a unified Britain, which was of great importance due to the 1707 Act of Union, this article explores the liberating (or destabilizing) effect that Defoe's travels have on the construction of a British national identity. After discussing how his carefully planned itinerary leads him to portray Britain as a prosperous nation primarily engaged in trade, I focus on his rambling movements as an “itinerant” traveler, which take on the qualities of what Paul Smethurst calls “disorderly mobility.” In examining how he repeatedly deviates from his itinerary to venture into less-traveled (and less-commercialized) areas, I argue that Defoe employs his wanderings to subvert the homogeneity of his own national vision and instead imagine Britain in terms of its geography. It is by envisioning Britain as an island, an inclusive space in which everyone within its borders is endowed with a British national identity regardless of how they may differ from each other, that Defoe is able to propose an alternative and more inclusive notion of the nation, which I assert the later editions of the Tour supplement with their “great Additions, Improvements, and Corrections.”

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3Transforming Voices in Helen Maria Williams's Third and Fourth Volumes of Letters from France

저자 : Jihee Kim

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 17권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 61-86 (26 pages)

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This paper discusses Helen Maria Williams's changing voices in the third and fourth volumes of Letters from France (1793). Published anonymously, the third and fourth of volumes of Letters were written by Williams and other male collaborators, including John Hurford Stone and Thomas Christie. In light of the uncertainty about which letters were written by Williams and which by her collaborators, it is crucial to distinguish Williams's voices from others in these volumes. This research reviews the authorship of the third and fourth volumes of Letters in order to locate Williams's voices. The paper then explores how she varies her voices in the third volume to reveal the involvement of the Mountain, a radical political group involved in the French Revolution, in the 1792 September Massacres, compared to her previous two volumes of Letters. Even between the third and fourth volumes, which were published together in the same year, Williams transforms her voices in the fourth volume and uses different strategies to show her opinion on the execution of Louis XVI. By carefully tracing the changing voices in these volumes, this paper demonstrates the way in which Williams develops herself as a political commentator on the French Revolution.

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4Henry Neville's Critique of Patriarchal Monarchy and Its Republican Predicaments in The Isle of Pines

저자 : Sungho Lee

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 17권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 87-123 (37 pages)

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Henry Neville's The Isle of Pines (1668) starts with the story of George Pine, a castaway in an uncharted island in the Pacific Ocean, who establishes his tribal kingdom through his polygamous relationship with four other female survivors. To transmute himself from a biological father into a patriarch-monarch, George establishes formalized moral systems. George, an advocate of the divine right of kings, derives the foundation of his regal authority from God's law, and continues to depend on the same law for the ongoing prosperity of his kingdom. The Pines' kingdom, however, gradually falls into pieces after George's demise. The island is torn by years of tribal feuds and domestic strifes until the rule of law, whether it be God's law that sanctions George the first father's kingship or a human statute his successor puts in place, no longer holds. By transforming George's utopian dream into a floundering patriarchal system, Neville seems to provide a biting satire on Charles II's restoration regime. As a salutary warning against a deepening crisis of patriarchal succession, Isle presents Neville's republican anti-patriarchalism as a burlesques on the sacred account about the patriarchal genesis of national origin. Neville's caricature, however, loses its critical edges when it becomes an oblique criticism. Instead of directly confronting the fundamental limitations of absolute monarchy, the author ascribes them to the moral failings of the insurgent mulatto tribe named Phills, whose racial alterity is regarded as engendering the nation's moral degradation. With his exclusive racial logic, Neville betrays an anti-liberal bias that contradicts his republican beliefs; he demonizes the biracial Phills as enemies of the state who must be subjected to draconian penal codes and coercive authority.

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5Hidden Mothers in Wordsworth's Immortality Ode

저자 : Yangsook Shin

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 17권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 125-164 (40 pages)

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This paper addresses the recurring critical issue of the Immortality Ode: the contradiction between the first eight stanzas and the last three in terms of tone and assertion. Unlike many critics who, despite the contradiction, still try to find unity between the two parts, this paper offers a biographical explanation in suggesting the poem as a two-part structure. The first part is argued to have been written at the time of the guilt-ridden and not necessarily autonomous decision about the poet's future spouse between Annette and Mary. Under the circumstances, the poet's latent psychological protestation or regret takes the form of exalting childhood. The second part, on the other hand, was written when the poet was psychologically stable because he had come to some sort of understanding with Annette, now settled comfortably to his new married life. As such, the poet, no longer resisting his life as a man, exalts his memory of both beautiful and sad moments of his past life whose true or “philosophic” meaning is finally understood. Thus, the second part of the poem becomes the focus of the Ode as a devotional expression of a lost and hence all the more unforgettable young days of “splendor” and “glory,” with beauty and resonance unparalleled in literary history.

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