이 논문은 1912년 일제가 도입한 <墓地火葬場埋葬及火葬取締規則>, 즉 <묘지규칙>이 식민지 조선, 특히 경성에서 제도화되어가는 과정을 1919년 규칙 개정전인 1910년대를 중심으로 살펴본다. 새로운 제도가 도입되어 기존의 제도가 변화 혹은 승계되는 양상을 추적하기 위해 조선시대 묘제를 간단히 살펴보고, 1912년 <묘지규칙>이 기존의 묘제를 어떠한 방식으로 변화시켰는지에 초점을 맞춘다. 조선시대에는 묘지가 산 자와 죽은 자의 연대를 도모하거나 토지사유의 수단이었다면, 1912년 발포된 새로운 제도인 <묘지규칙>은 관념과 문화를 배제하고, 묘지를 통한 산 자와 죽은 자의 해체를 시도했으며, 묘지의 물리적 토지이용만을 핵심 기제로 설정했다. 이러한 제도변화를 위해 일제는 다양한 전략을 구사하고, 조선인들의 경험은 신체 처벌로까지 이어졌다.
This article explores the process of the ‘invented tradition’ of the mortuary system in the 1910s especially before the March First Independent Movement in 1919 in colonial Seoul. Since the Japanese colonial government legislated the burial rule in 1912, the new regulation brought the institutional change in colonial Korea. Using the analytical framework of ‘historical institutionalism’, this paper compares the mortuary system before and after the burial rule. The gravesite in Joseon Korea was analysed in respect of institutions, consciousness, and spatial practice of land use. Institutionally, the gravesite was deeply bound up with the Confucian ideology of Joseon Korea as such, Joseon Korea officially legalised regulations on graves and gravesites that served to reinforce the state’s legitimacy through the ancestor veneration linked with the hierarchical system of the ruling class. Koreans’ consciousness on gravesites was based on the notion of continuation of the natural life cycle of life and death and as such their consciousness on gravesites was deeply associated with ‘religious’ belief such as fengshui. However, at the same time, gravesites were often functioned as the means of owning forest lands, especially by the elites.
The traditional institution faced challenges under the Japanese colonial rule, especially when the 1912 burial rule was enacted. The 1912 burial rule prohibited the private gravesites reinforced using the public cemeteries designated by the (regional) governments. This article suggests that the 1912 burial rule mainly targeted the pervasive land use of gravesites. There were three processes to institutionalise the 1912 burial rule in colonial Seoul in the 1910s. First, it imposed usage fee for gravesites in public cemeteries, which showed the distinction between the ownership and the possessory rights over the gravesites. By imposing usage fees, the colonial government clarified that the gravesites were no longer under the ownership of the bereavements but under the government ownership. Secondly, the colonial government often took the traditional public cemetery as state assets by land-sale to Japanese elites in Seoul. Third, the colonial government consistently issued bulletins and supplementary documents regarding the 1912 burial rules to clarify its ambiguity to both Japanese and Koreans. While the colonial government tried to persuade Koreans through the compilation of subsequent manuals and user guides, they also mobilised the force of surveillance and punishment such as summary judgment and floggings to conduct the Koreans’ traditional conduct. Through the institutional change, the 1912 burial rule became another ‘invented tradition’ of the mortuary system in Korea.
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