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이화사학연구소> 이화사학연구> 서구(Abendland)의 아토피아적 위치 - 유럽, 서양, 제국 사이에서 -

KCI등재

서구(Abendland)의 아토피아적 위치 - 유럽, 서양, 제국 사이에서 -

The Location of Abendland as an Atopia - Between Europe, the West and Empire -

박혜정 ( Park Hye-jeong )
  • : 이화사학연구소
  • : 이화사학연구 59권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 12월
  • : 323-358(36pages)
이화사학연구

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 서구와 유럽
Ⅲ. 서구와 서양: 서구 개념의 반서양 반근대주의
Ⅳ. 다시 서구와 유럽: 중부유럽(Mitteleuropa)과 제국
Ⅴ. 결론: 서구의 아토피아적 위치
참고문헌
Abstract

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Abendland is a slippery word which is s andwiched between Europe and the West. It is especially difficult to understand the historical connotation of Abendland, because it is a counterfactual legend which takes the Charlemagne Empire as the spatial reference and the foundation of its political ideal. Furthermore, Abendland is not, differently from Europe and the West, in use any more and completely replaced by these two words. For this reason, this paper takes Europe, the West and empire as the entrance and try to have an access to the atopia-like location of Abendland.
This paper highlighted two locations of Abendland which jammed in Europe and the West. One location of Abendland we can point to is the vision of Europe as a unity. Europe came in common use in a political sense, after the integrated Christian world of the Middle Age started falling apart since the Reformation and the French Revolution. However, Europe could not completely replace Abendland as long as the latter still could inspire the Christian unity and integration of Europe.
The other location of Abendland can be summarized by the slogan of ‘Europe as the third power.’ This slogan itself was a representation of the long-preserved tradition of German cultural criticism, which culminated in Anti-Western critiques after the World War I. Over a dramatic detour, Abendland movement contributed to settling the Degaulist vision of a strong Europe as the main stream of Europen integration movement against the America-friendly federalist vision for the United States of Europe.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-900-000550919

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 동양사
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1229-4683
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1966-2021
  • : 656


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110~11세기 중국(中國)과 한국(韓國)의 불탑(佛塔) 내 봉안 『보협인경(寶篋印經)』 재고

저자 : 이승혜 ( Lee Seunghye )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-42 (42 pages)

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Buddhism was a vehicle, which connected many states that thrived on the Chinese continent and the Korean peninsula in the tenth and eleventh centuries. A short text, entitled Sūtra of the Dhāraṇī of the Precious Casket Seal of the Concealed Complete-body Relics of the Essence of All Tathāgatas, provides us a window to look into the material and devotional culture of Buddhism developed into diverse forms across East Asian continent. It was transmitted from South Asia to China and translated into Chinese by the Indian monk Amoghavajra in the early eighth century. It was circulated and put into practice in Chang'an and in the region of Mount Wutai where Amoghvajra was active but it seems not to have been known in the Jiangnan region until the beginning of the tenth century. It gained wide popularity in the Jiangnan region only after the last king of Wuyue Kingdom reproduced it three times on a massive scale in the late tenth century. The printing project and dissemination of the xylograph copies spurred a widespread circulation of the text and renewed interest in the cult of textual relics across the Chinese continent and Korean peninsula beyond political borders in the tenth and eleventh centuries. This study re-examines historical implications of the Wuyue “re-discovery” of this text, while closely looking at material forms of this text from Wuyue, Northern Song, Koryŏ, and Khitan that constituted a multi-centered yet closely connected Buddhist cultural sphere in this time. For example, although the patron of the earliest Koryŏ edition of the sūtra dated it by using the Khitan reign name, the overall composition of the xylograph including the frontispiece points to the first Wuyue edition of the text as its prototype. This alone is enough to show the multivalence of cultural exchanges apart from the tributary system or official envoys.

KCI등재

2고려와 거란의 보살계 문화 - 보살팔계(菩薩八戒)를 중심으로 -

저자 : 박광연 ( Kwang Youn Park )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 43-74 (32 pages)

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From the early Goryeo Dynasty, people offer received 'Eight precepts(八戒)' or memorized 八戒文 just before they died. There is no similar case in Silla. In the process of tracing the origins of the 'Eight precepts' culture, which began in the early Goryeo, I find that it had a lot to do with the '大乘八關齋戒儀', found in the wooden pagoda in Ying County of the Khitan, than other Buddhist scriptures or literature. This article explains the Bodhisattva precepts(菩薩戒) culture of Goryeo and Khitan by comparing the cases related to the eight precepts in cemetery name and collections of Goryeo and the Khitan '大乘八關齋戒儀' since the 11th century.
In the 21st century, there has been an active movement to understand the pluralistic international order, away from the attitude of understanding the international order and culture of East Asia centered on relations with China. In particular, it seems that the Buddhist culture of the early Goryeo period was greatly influenced by the Khitan, which maintained a tribute-referral relationship for quite a long time with Goryeo. However, due to the lack of data, it was difficult to show specific cases. This article is meaningful in that it explains the influence of the Buddhist culture of Goryeo and Khitan with specific examples of literature.

KCI등재

3고려-거란 밀교 교류의 양상과 특징 - 『범서총지집(梵書摠持集)』을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김수연 ( Sooyoun Kim )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 75-111 (37 pages)

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Goryeo had exchanges with Khitan across various areas including politics, economy, society, and culture. There were also abundant exchanges between them in Buddhist ideas and culture. This study set out to put away the influences of Liao in order on Goryeo's Esoteric Buddhism and Dharani Faith and thus investigate the nature of Goryeo's Esoteric Buddhism.
The biggest influence of Khitan on Goryeo's Buddhist community came from the acceptance of Khitan's complete collection of Buddhist sutras. The impacts of Liao Buddhism were also found in Uicheon[義天]'s Gyojang-chongrok[敎藏總錄], whose order of content reflects the perceptions of scriptures in Goryeo's Buddhist community represented by Uicheon. The location of the parts about Mahavairocana Tantra[大日經] in his book indicates that he considered it as one of the fundamental scriptures of Buddhist ideas. It seems that he was influenced by Khitan Buddhism that argued that Exoteric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism had something in common.
Beomseo-chongji-jip[梵書摠持集] published during Goryeo is one of the artifacts representing Goryeo's Dharani Faith. It is a collection of Dharani of hundreds of kinds, and there are seven versions of the collection or more today. In Beomseo-chongji-jip published in the fifth year of King Gojong[高宗]'s reign, the preface cites from works of Khitan's Buddhist monks such as Yanmi-chao[演密鈔] and Chengfo-xinyao-ji[成佛心要集]. Furthermore, it contains Dharani translated by Cixian[慈賢], a Khitan Buddhist monk in the 11th century. These findings confirm Goryeo's direct exchanges with Khitan in Dharani Faith. In addition, Beomseo-chongji-jip published in the fifth year of King Gojong's reign includes Dharanis reflecting the Buddhist prayer procedure in “Cundi Dharani” of Chengfo-xinyao-ji. This Buddhist prayer procedure is still used in Cheonsu-gyeong[千手經]. There is the context of transmission from Chengfo-xinyao-ji through Beomseo-chongji-jip to current Cheonsu-gyeong.
Dharanis about the seven Buddhas of the past, which were a huge vogue in Liao but left no traces of faith in Goryeo, were not found in any versions of Beomseo-chongji-jip. There was no trace of “Pajiok-jineon(om karadeya sbaha),” which became a vogue at the end of Goryeo. This materials offers clues to estimate when this Dharani was introduced. The Dharani of the Eight Bodhisattvas was not found in the versions of Beomseo-chongji-jip published in the 12th century, but the version published in the fifth year of King Gojong's reign contains it. These findings suggest that interest in the Eight Bodhisattvas was aroused from the late 12th century to the early 13th century that was between the two versions. These cases indicate that Goryeo accepted the Esoteric Buddhism and Dharani Faith trends of Khitan's Buddhist community selectively.

KCI등재

4'버려진 돌'에서 '모퉁이 돌'로 ― 한국의 박에스더(金點童, 1877~1910)와 중국의 캉청(康成, 1873~1930) 비교 ―

저자 : 공혜정 ( Kong Hyejung Grace )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-162 (50 pages)

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This study conducts a comparative historical research on two pioneering female physicians in Korea and China who learned and practiced Western medicine in the United States at the birth of modern medicine and subsequently treated women and children in their native countries: Esther Kim Pak (金點童, 1877~1910) in Korea and Ida Kahn (康成, Kang Cheng, 1873~1930) in China. Pak and Kahn were assisted and supported in obtaining medical education in the United States by two American female missionaries serving for the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society (WFMS): Rosetta Sherwood Hall (1865~1951) in Korea and Gertrude Howe (1847~1928) in China. The existing scholarship on these two pioneering female physicians and their missionary guardians has not taken a comparative perspective. Thus, the individual lives of these physicians as well as their medical and religious efforts with the WFMS are investigated from a comparative perspective in this study. In doing so, this study shows that Western culture and Christianity introduced by the WFMS missionaries in Korea and China allowed both Pak and Kahn to become “New Women” by overcoming conventional social and cultural norms that have discouraged women from becoming doctors.
Both Hall and Howe came from religiously conservative but socially progressive families. Influenced by the Decaconess Movement and inspired by medical missionary work in India, they chose to pursue overseas mission work, that is, “Woman Work for Woman.” Right after Hall and Howe arrived in Korea and China respectively, they developed lifelong family-like relationships and Christian sisterhood with Pak and Kahn.
Similarly, both Pak and Kahn came from the lower class and were educated in Christian schools established and managed by American missionary women. As they changed their native names by anglicizing or choosing a baptismal name, they were also accustomed to Western culture and Christianity. With help and support of WFMS missionaries (primarily Hall and Howe), both studied medicine in the United States. While both Hall and Pak were widowed and lost their children, Howe and Kahn were single and adopted children from illness. After returning to their home countries as medical missionaries for the WFMS, Pak and Kahn practiced medicine for women and children. By investigating two pioneering female physicians in Korea and China, this study contributes to the history of medicine, women's history, and the history of Christianity in Korea and China.

KCI등재

5보구여관간호원양성소 간호원들의 근대 경험과 역량 증진

저자 : 이방원 ( Lee Bang-weon )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 163-199 (37 pages)

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This paper traces the growth of student nurses and graduate nurses at the Nurses' Training school of Po Ku Nyo Kwan, the first nurses' training school in Korea. Specifically, these nurses grew as professional women by participating in, and hosting curriculum, nursing, and other events in addition to forming organizations. This research focuses on identifying the meaning of these activities at the Nurses' Training School of Po Ku Nyo Kwan from the perspectives of both women and medical professionals. The research period was limited to about ten years from the establishment of the Nurses' Training School of Po Ku Nyo Kwan in 1903 to its relocation to Dongdaemun (the East Gate) in 1912.
Student nurses at the Nurses' Training school of Po Ku Nyo Kwan grew into experts in the unfamiliar field of “nursing” throughout the curriculum. In addition to nursing outpatients, inpatients, and out-call patients at Po Ku Nyo Kwan, students also served as visiting nurses at foreigners' and Koreans' homes and missionary hospitals across the country, including Severance Hospital. Student nurses at Po Ku Nyo Kwan actively participated in the social events, tours of Japanese hospitals, and year-end and New Year's events. They also cared for wounded soldiers during the disbandment of the Korean Armed Forces by Japan in 1907. After graduation, these nurses worked at Po Ku Nyo Kwan in Seoul, Koang Hyoe Nyo Won in Pyengyang, and the Seoul nursing home for foreigners as chief nurses or in nurses' training schools (including Po Ku Nyo Kwan) as teachers or superintendents. It is exceptional that Lee Grace served a nurse as well as a physician after obtaining her 'Uisaeng (醫生)' license on May 27, 1914.
Moreover, nurses at Po Ku Nyo Kwan organized the Severance Hospital Nurses' Association in June 1910 with students at the Nurses' Training School of Severance Hospital, who shared their experiences and perceptions through close interaction; the association conducted various activities to foster nurses' qualities and abilities. Subsequently, in June 1911, graduate nurses from the two nurses' training schools gathered to form the Severance Hospital Nurses' Alumnae Association.
Thus, nurses at the Nurses' Training School of Po Ku Nyo Kwan promoted their capabilities through “modern experiences” both on and off campus that were not able to ordinary women at the time. As such, they were at the center of treating women's health, both mental and physical, by performing their capabilities in the space where they were needed.

KCI등재

6해외여선교회(WFMS)의 서울지역 의료사업 - 동대문 부인병원을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김영수 ( Youngsoo Kim )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 201-228 (28 pages)

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This research aims to illuminate the establishment of Dongdaemun Women's Hospital (East Gate Hospital) in Seoul. This facility was one of the achievements of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society's (WFMS) medical missionary work, and it became the leading women's medical institution in modern Korea. This article discusses important dates and roles of the WFMS and Dongdaemun Women's Hospital using information from the annual reports of the Korea Woman's Conference (KWC). Specially, to clarify the process involved in the hospital's establishment and its historical meaning in the progress of women's medicine, this research examines the official establishment dates and activities of Dongdaemun Women's Hospital, Baldwin Dispensary, and Lillian Harris Memorial Hospital, and the relationships among the three medical institutions. The results show that the establishment of Lillian Harris Memorial Hospital did not immediately terminate the Baldwin Dispensary, the preexisting institution; hence, this research argues that the latter was not simply integrated into the former. Furthermore, in analyzing the hospital's recognizable practices in obstetrics and gynecological diseases and contemporaries' acknowledgment of these activities, this study offers an explanation for why the additional word “women” was included in the official Korean name of the hospital.

KCI등재

79세기 신라 왕경의 비로자나불상

저자 : 임영애 ( Lim Young-ae )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 229-263 (35 pages)

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Until now, little attention has been paid to the Vairocana Buddha Image, which would have been enshrined in Buddhist temples of the late Silla's capital. This is because most of the Vairocana Buddha Images with a clear date of production seem to be concentrated in the provinces not capital, and research has been conducted around them. Also, one of the reasons is that among the Vairocana Buddha Images in Buddhist temples of Silla's capital, the only notable statue is the gilt-bronze Virocana seated Buddha of Bulguksa temple, Gyeongju and that there was no other prominent statue. However, with due consideration on it, the number of the Vairocana Buddha Images enshrined in Buddhist temples of the late Silla's capital is not quite small. Currently, there are approximately 25 statues of Virocana Buddha, of which eight gilt-bronze Buddha statues and the rest are stone Buddha statues. It is mainly concentrated in the middle of the 9th century, especially in the mid and late of the 9th century, and it was considered to be related to King Aejang's ban on the creation of temples in 806 and the prohibition of King Heungdeok in 834. The prohibition in 834 might also have had to do with floods, heavy snow, and droughts that occurred almost every year until just before.
There were only 3-4 Buddhist temples newly built in the capital of Silla in the 9th century, and except for the Changrimsa temple, Buddhist temples were also small because individuals turned their houses into temples for charity. However, it did not mean that the Buddhist power of this period was shrunken, so more important Buddhist projects were carried out, and the ceremony was mainly held former royal family's Buddhist temples the of royal family. In particular, the largest number of Buddhist projects (佛事) took place around the time of king Gyeongmun's accession in 861. Gilt bronze Vairocana Buddha Images were prepared for the royal family's Buddhist temples such as Bulguksa temple, Yeongmyosa temple. A seated stone statue of Virocana Buddha was prepared and enshrined at Changrimsa temple and Bunhwangsa temple. From the facts, it can be concluded that mainly Vairocana Buddha Images were prepared and enshrined at temples capital in the mid and late 9th century. This study attempts to suggest the possibility the Virocana Buddaha Images were popular not only in the provinces but also in the capital in the 9th century.

KCI등재

8한국전쟁기 미군이 노획한 '북한노획문서'의 구성과 특징

저자 : 정병준 ( Jung Byung Joon )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 265-306 (42 pages)

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The Captured North Korean Documents is in the custody of Record Group 242, National Archives Collection of Foreign Records Seized, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The first batch of files which was declassified and open to the public in 1977 is known as so-called “The Old Captured Korean Documents” while in the early 1990s the second batch of files was released and known as “The New Captured Korean Documents” to the researchers.
The Captured North Korean Documents were captured in Korea peninsular during the Korean War. It was translated into English and cataloged by the Korean elites such as Oh Chon-suk, minister of education of the U. S. Military Government in Korea, and Chang Ri-wook, president of Seoul National University who studied in the U. S. The important documents of “The New Captured Korean Documents” were selectively chosen and translated in the Enemy Documents series of the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section (ATIS), the Military Intelligence Service, Far Eastern Command. The structure of “Captured North Korean Documents” is very complicated and it is required for researchers to read the finding aids and descriptions in the National Institute of Korean Studies and the National Library of Korea.

KCI등재

9명(明) 선덕(宣德)·정통연간(正統年間)의 세량(稅糧) 감면과 재정(財政) 상황

저자 : 서인범 ( In-beom Seo )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 307-358 (52 pages)

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Was one of the factors behind the implementation of the juanna system(捐納制) in the mid-Ming period was a financial shortage? I analyzed the measures for the tax reduction in the era of Xuande and Zhentong when disasters began to occur frequently to prove my hypothesis. I tried to show the proportion of tax reductions and exemptions in each region and how much it accounted for the total finance of Ming dynasty. Ultimately, I attempted to show the trend of the finance in Ming dynasty.
The targets of tax reductions were lands of government and civilians and lands cultivated by soldiers. Taxes on government-owned land were reduced by three-tenths approximately. Taxes on civilian-owned land and land for soldiers were reduced by two-tenths to five-tenths approximately. However, tax reductions were differed depending on the time, region, and size of the disaster.
In the total tax revenues from the north territories to the territories of Huanan(華南) and Xinan(西南), the reduction rate accounted for 20 to 30 percent in general. It is the reduction of the so-called “two-tenths to three-tenths” written in the Annals of the Ming Dynasty.
Also, it is true that there have been cases of reduction of five-tenths or more. In particular, the territory of Jiang Huai(江淮) was known as one of the most heavy taxes supported the finances of Ming dynasty. Approximately it accounted for 38% of the total budget. The disaster in the area immediately dealt a heavy blow to the finances of the Ming dynasty.
I analyzed how much the proportion of tax reductions accounted for Ming's finances. The tax reduction of seventh year of Xuande accounted for 8.8 percent of total tax revenue. The tax reduction of fifth year of Zhentong accounted for 11 percent of it.
In particular, a huge amount of money was appropriated for military forces to strengthen the Beijing defense system or the peripheral defense system. It was due to the affair in which the emperor was taken prisoner in the 14th year of Zhentong. Since the second half of the reign of Zhentong, financial pressure has intensified.

KCI등재

101930년대 양개도(楊開道)의 향촌건설방안과 '중국(中國) 향약제도(鄕約制度)' 연구

저자 : 최은진 ( Choi Eun Jin )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 359-391 (33 pages)

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In this article I focus on the mechanism of action between the intellectuals and the modern knowledge imported from the West which is inherent in the study of Chinese township regulations, maintaining the same perspective as the previous studies suggesting that Yang Kai Dao's research on township regulations is a part of rural sociology research.
Yang Kai Dao argued the rural autonomy should be established to solve the plights in rural areas. While he contemplated the function of rural institutions through which rural autonomy could have been realized, His focus of research extended to the Chinese township regulations system. His study on the Chinese township regulations was to examine the rural autonomy in China historically from the perspective of rural governance. He analyzed the township regulations in terms of the modern organizational theory and pointed out civil administration over the bureaucracy as the essence. He highly appreciated the civilian character led by the intellectual elite of the Lushi township regulations, so it was inevitable that he criticized their corruption. By referring to the process in which Liang Shuming's rural construction movement was put into practice, he contemplated how to apply township regulations and insisted that organizations should be combined so as not to stay in theory. He believed that through education and the conscious efforts of the community it was possible to instill awareness of civil rights in farmers. He also believed that and rural leaders who play important roles in self-governing rural organizations should also have modern knowledge and a basic understanding on rural autonomy.
Throughout his research on township, I couldless that he thought the modern learning from the West was needed for rural autonomy. Thus, it was validated that the mechanism for spreading modern knowledge through the rural village construction movement was functioning in Yang Kai Dao's village construction plan.

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1주미조선공사관 참찬관 알렌(Horace N. Allen)의 활동

저자 : 김희연 ( Kim Hee-yeon )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 1-43 (43 pages)

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The Korean Government appointed Horace N. Allen as a foreign secretary of the Korean Legation in Washington, led by Pak Chung Yang(朴定陽), Minister to Washington in 1888. Allen accompanied the Korean mission with two objectives: he took the embassy to go to the United States and presented them to the president of the U.S.; he also assisted the negotiation for a loan of two million dollars. 
This article mainly focuses on the activities of Allen for raising the loan and developing of the mines. Under Korea's commission, he could open up the negotiation with American capitalists, with the help of varied circle of acquaintances. He also came into close relations with officials in the Korean Legation, thereby making himself as a nucleus between Korea and U.S. This experience helped to his career later on. 
Various documents in the Allen Papers show his active response to the media manipulation by the Chinese. To break off American loan to Korea, Chinese newspapers splashed over financial difficulties of Korean government and spread rumors on Korea. This article aims to explore Allen's response to the media manipulation and selection of mining engineer to Korea. He tried to correct distorted views towards Korea, faithfully defending her interest. In the meantime, Allen also sought for personal interest during his stay in Washington and suggested Koreans to conclude a contract with American concession seekers, which could be seen as a prototype for 'concession hunting' later on.

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2동양합동광업회사의 운산금광 운영과 광산도시 북진의 지역사회

저자 : 박범 ( Park Beom )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 45-92 (48 pages)

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O.C.M.C.(Oriental consolidated mining company) who managed Unsan gold mine was the third existence, neither Japanese empire nor colonial Joseon, until Japanese occupation through opening time of a port. From an angle of Korean history, how does American management of Unsa gold mine be evaluated? Except for securing of gold mine of imperial country, right pillage, it's still strange to evaluate historical meaning of gold mine's rights. Especially, the answer for what Unsan gold mine is for Joseon people was not suggested yet until Unsan gold mine was sold to Japanese company in 1939 through Japanese colonial era. 
Unsan was the mine who made so many benefits. Rights passed in the period of Korean Empire were continued in Japanese colonial era as they were. American company that is the 3rd empire country excavated so many golds with very low salary and very high technology in Unsan gold mine. The purpose of American company was very high benefits. Interests of empire companies were neither Japanese empire nor colonial Joseon. 
The change of colonial Joseon society shown by Unsan gold mine was appearance of mien city Bukjin. In the development of regional society, the subject was colonial Joseon people. Due to the American companies, diverse Joseon people were gathered to Bukjin. As a result passed rights of Unsan gold mine, very high benefits were given to Americans after colonial era and for Joseon people, there was a formation of mine city who enjoys trickle down effects of benefits.

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3알렌이 포착한 기회의 나라, 대한제국

저자 : 장영숙 ( Jang Young-sook )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 93-127 (35 pages)

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Allen had worked in Korea for 21 years in a very close relationship with the royal family. He was regarded as a member of Korean royal family rather than U.S. Diplomat by surrounding people. For such a reason, his recognition and evaluation on the Korean Empire can be regarded as relatively concrete and accurate. His view on the emperor was negative. He used words as weakness, indecision, corruption, irresponsibility, and stubborn person for representing emperor's personality and character as a man of supreme power. 
As for government officials of the Korean Empire, he commented on 97 persons including Lee Young-Ik, Seo Jae-Phil, Lee Wan-Yong, and the family of Min. He regarded Lee Yong-Ik as a figure of corruption 'who should have never been appointed'. For Seo Jae-Phil who was an American citizen, Allen showed generous attitude to protect him praising his independence movement. For Lee Wan-Yong, on the other hand, Allen changed his attitude situatinally. Sometimes he criticized Lee and evaluated him as a figure of 'excellent judgment and courage.' Allen's basic view on the officials of the Korean Empire was that they are genius of changing their image and opportunistists. 
Relatively, he evaluated the subjugated people as naïve, diligent, hard-working and patient. He also commented that their diligence led to high enthusiasm for education, and they adopted quickly to the new environment and good workers. Allen also criticized that Japan carried out oppressive and uncivilized ruling without considering Korean's high cultural sense and intelligent superiority. Such evaluation and recognition seem to have been expressed from Allen's negative view on Japan as well as from his pity on Korean's heartbreaking circumstance. 
Allen recognized the Korean Empire as a country of opportunity from which infinite rights could be created. Actually, Allen was involved in various kinds of rights such as gold mine, railroad, streetcar, electricity, telephone and water supply. For becoming U.S. Minister and maintaining U.S. Ministry as a person adhering to the royal family, Allen connected and mediated Emperor Gojong and American businessmen. Allen strived for the benefits of America and Americans, and regarded the Korean Empire as a rights market of America in negotiatians of rights.

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4고려대장경본(高麗大藏經本) 『석마하연론(釋摩訶衍論)』의 저본(底本) 연구

저자 : 김영미 ( Kim Young-mi )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 129-158 (30 pages)

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Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna(Shi moheyan lun 釋摩訶衍 論) was included in the second edition of the Goryeo Canon following the Liao(Khitan) Canon. In this aspect, this paper examines several wooden-printed versions of Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna and the implication of the text in the Goryeo Canon.
Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna in the Goryeo Canon shows differences from the version in the Liao Canon based on the Fangshan shijing(房山石經) edition, with regard to the content and transcription of the spell. Therefore, two wooden-printed versions in the Goryeo and Liao Canon are not same each other. By comparing the texts in the Goryeo, Liao and Yan(燕) editions, fragmentarily quoted in the Note of Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna(釋摩訶衍論記) by Puguan(普觀) of the Southern Song dynasty, it is also found that the Liao edition is the Fangshan shijing edition and the Goryeo edition is different from the one in the Goryeo Canon.
In addition, the one in the Goryeo Canon is the most similar to the one in the Yan edition, but they are not identical. It is resulted from the comparison between the excerpts of the commentary on Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna by a Buddhist monk of Khitan and the text in the Goryeo Canon. Considering that Dàozong(道宗, 在位 1055-1101) wrote the introduction(引文) on Comprehensive Profound Extracts of Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna(釋摩訶衍論通玄鈔) by Zhifu(志福) and mentioned its collation, there was a newly printed version in Khitan, based on the collation. Fawu(法悟) also would contain emperor's interpretation on Praising Profound Commentary of Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna(釋摩訶衍論贊玄疏), discussing on the new version with Dàozong. From this point of view, it is assumed that the text Fawu referred to was a newly printed Yan edition and it was different from the one in the Liao Canon which Zhifu referred to. After the texts written by Buddhist monks of Khitan and the Yan edition were introduced to Goryeo, Double-proofread Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna(重校釋摩訶衍論) was collated by Uicheon(義天, 1055-1101). Therefore, it is suggested that Double-proofread Explanation of the Treatise on Mahāyāna was included in the second edition of the Goryeo Canon.

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5고려시대의 普濟寺(演福寺)와 佛事 성격 변화

저자 : 김수연 ( Kim Soo-youn )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 159-194 (36 pages)

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This paper examines how a temple space has changed with the times, through Buddhist events held at Bojae-sa(普濟寺, = Yeonbok-sa演福寺) Temple in the Goryeo Dynasty. Bojae-sa(Yeonbok-s a) Temple was located in the middle of Gaeseong (開城) province and was one of ten temples that King Taejo(太祖) held after his foundation. Before the period of Yuan(元)'s intervention, this temple was the place where the king often visited. And it was one of the central temples of Zen, where many Zen monks stayed. Damseon-beobhoe(談禪法會, Zen meeting) was held in every three years. Obaek-nahan-jae(五百羅漢齋, Five hundred Arhat Ritual) or rain calling rituals were held when disaster struck the country. There is no clear record, but it is highly likely that the Suryuk-jae(水陸齋, Ritual for the Beings of Water and Land) was held because there was the building named Suryuk-dang(水陸堂). The size of the temple was so large that it was nicknamed Dae-sa(大寺, Big temple) at the end of Goryeo Dynasty, and repairs and renovations were made several times. However, in the period of Yuan's intervention, the nature of such Bojae-sa(Yeonbok-s a) Temple changed greatly. Before the period of Yuan's intervention, rituals were held to pray for the victory of foreign invaders including Mongol, but from the time of King Chungnyeol(忠烈王)'s reign, the rite was held to pray for the longevity of Khubilai khan of the Yuan Dynasty. Afterwards, this temple then increased its affinity with the imperial family of the Yuan Dynasty and became the window into which the high culture of the Yuan Dynasty came in. During the reign of King Gongmin(恭愍王), the character of Yeonbok-sa Temple changed once again. It was recognized as an important temple of feng shui. The renovation of the Yeonbok-sa pagoda, which was attacked by the Confucian scholars as inappropriate, was also carried out because of its feng shui importance. Yeonbok-sa Temple has long been mentioned as a representative temple and landmark in Gaegyeong(開京).

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6'가족계획' 담론과 여성 '몸'에 대한 인식 변화 - 1950~60년대 『여원』을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김수자 ( Kim Soo-ja )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 195-224 (30 pages)

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One of the “national projects” that have greatly influenced the lives and perceptions of Korean women since the 945 Liberation is the family planning project led by the May 16 military government in 1961. However, it was only in the mid-1950s that family planning discourse was discussed in relation to women's “bodies.”
One of the key elements of family planning discourse in the mid-1950s was that womens' bodies should be protected from reckless abortion by “Mom's Health” and “Maternal and Child health.”
It was raised in connection with the basic elements of 'female right advocacy'. Family planning discourse has begun to form “new” perceptions not only of women's “bodies,” but also of the number of existing children, the family economy, views om children, childbirth and child rearing. As women's articles on women's bodies appeared, there was a movement to demand the realization of women's legal status by discussing the patriarchal family structure and consciousness and the revision of family law.
However, in 1961, when the Park Chung-Hee administration adopted the family planning project as a national policy, the core content of the family planning project was the birth control and the control through birth control. The state actively intervened and controlled women's bodies responsible for childbirth. The Park Chung Hee government looked at the increasing “population” as a barrier to economic development and carried out the family planning project. The population was identified as a deterrent to the “national modernization” through economic development. Therefore, women's bodies at this time were controlled by birth control and contraception rather than childbirth and rearing.
During this period, the family planning project was carried out as a pan-national movement to control conception and birth. The most widely adopted methods of birth control were artificial abortion and abortion.
As women's articles about women's bodies appeared, the patriarchal family structure and consciousness and the revision of family law were discussed and the actualization of women's legal status was insisted and disclaimed. However, as the family-planning project proceeds in a state-led manner, it is linked to the improvement of the status of women in the family. It is attempted to overcome the ideology of preffering a son, which is judged to be an obstacle to population decline, even if it is not based on feminist perspective for the success of the project. It was to include women in the policy to achieve the goals of the policy, and to consider to change the structure of the large family system so that the family planning project could be “conveniently carried out.” However, this policy has obvious limitations. Family planning did not take place from the feminist point of view, and women's status improvement and family structure were not discussed from that view, too.

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71960년대 북한의 베트남전 지원과 공군 심리전 전문가 파병 - 새로 발굴한 베트남 자료를 중심으로 -

저자 : 도미엔 ( Do Thanh Thao Mien )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 225-263 (39 pages)

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Deeply focusing on the new materials that are collected from Vietnam, this paper unveils the process of supporting the war efforts in Vietnam by the DPRK Government in the 1960s. It then reexamines the existing literature regarding this issue, while at the same time presenting a more multi-dimensional take on the topic. North Korean assistance for North Vietnam during this war consists of noteworthy features.
The DPRK Government provided the largest possible support for Hanoi in the year 1965, dispatching human resources such as air forces and psychological warfare personnel to Vietnam following American bombings of the Northern part of the country. However, North Vietnam tried its best to limit the presence or participation of foreign troops in their country to avoid an internationalization of the war. Hanoi, as a result, emphasized that North Korean air forces were sent to Vietnam to gain “practical combat experience.” On the contrary, Pyongyang strongly insisted that the purpose of dispatching air forces was to support Hanoi, as if it was an “international obligation” in the joint struggle against the Americans. In particular, North Korea in 1965 assisted North Vietnam beyond the original request of up to 4 million Rubles as a proof of its fulfillment of “international obligation.” At the end of the 1960s, nevertheless, Pyongyang drastically reduced its support for Hanoi, signaling a downturn in North Korea-North Vietnam relations.

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8거란의 통치사상 - 유학을 중심으로 -

저자 : 박지훈 ( Park Ji-hun )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 265-296 (32 pages)

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The Liao(遼) Dynasty(916~1125), established by Khitay, a nomadic tribe, was largely based on the military force. In search of a proper way to govern, Confucianism was spread by Khitan sovereign rulers. Confucianism had a considerable effect on maintaining the reign, expanding territory and stabilizing domestic situations.
Research by Chinese scholars generally insist that China is an unified, multi-racial nation throughout history, and that era of Song-Liao had great contribution on the history of multi races. On such 'union of races' point of view, Hanhua(漢化), being assimilated into Han, is emphasized. Adopting Confucianism by Khitan is regarded as a process of Hanhua.
This paper aims to study the cause of using Confucianism on ruling of Liao, on an objective view. It also tries to look into the adaptation process-on perspective of governor's pursuing of Confucianism, education and state examination system, and civil reformation, respectively. Early rulers started taking the Confucianism, which had great advance in Sheng zong(聖宗) and Xing zong(興宗) period. In the days of Dao zong(道宗), Confucianism was fully flourished. Despite Liao Dynasty had embraced the Confucianism of Han zu, its sovereign ideology and policy had a shield to protect the traits of Khitan. It is seen on “Ruling by custom” policy, which is for protecting Khitan ethnicity, that Confucianism had been adopted independently.
It is considered natural that adopting Chinese ideology and governing methods, since nomadic tribal system and philosophy is not sufficient to establish a dynasty and maintain its public order. Especially it is inevitable to rule the Han's residence area. However, it is not proper to conclude that they are assimilated to Han tribe, which is discrete from recent Chinese literature.

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9메이지 초기 서양사상 수용의 방법론 - 후쿠자와 유키치의 '분한'을 중심으로 -

저자 : 강태윤 ( Kang Tae-youn )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 297-321 (25 pages)

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In terms of the acceptance method of Western thought in Japan, 'Bungen' was used as a tool to explain other concepts in Fukuzawa's works, not just a simple translation of itself. It was used for the Western realignment of the existing concept. Also it is revealed that the aspect of self-control of 'Bungen' is contained in early thought of Fukuzawa, which have so far been mostly dealt with “open” aspects such as freedom, equality and independence. Fukuzawa's methodology of reshaping the acceptance of modern Western ideas by identifying them as “the degree of self-control” is unique and notable, in terms of translation methodology and in his early thought.

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10서구(Abendland)의 아토피아적 위치 - 유럽, 서양, 제국 사이에서 -

저자 : 박혜정 ( Park Hye-jeong )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 323-358 (36 pages)

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Abendland is a slippery word which is s andwiched between Europe and the West. It is especially difficult to understand the historical connotation of Abendland, because it is a counterfactual legend which takes the Charlemagne Empire as the spatial reference and the foundation of its political ideal. Furthermore, Abendland is not, differently from Europe and the West, in use any more and completely replaced by these two words. For this reason, this paper takes Europe, the West and empire as the entrance and try to have an access to the atopia-like location of Abendland.
This paper highlighted two locations of Abendland which jammed in Europe and the West. One location of Abendland we can point to is the vision of Europe as a unity. Europe came in common use in a political sense, after the integrated Christian world of the Middle Age started falling apart since the Reformation and the French Revolution. However, Europe could not completely replace Abendland as long as the latter still could inspire the Christian unity and integration of Europe.
The other location of Abendland can be summarized by the slogan of 'Europe as the third power.' This slogan itself was a representation of the long-preserved tradition of German cultural criticism, which culminated in Anti-Western critiques after the World War I. Over a dramatic detour, Abendland movement contributed to settling the Degaulist vision of a strong Europe as the main stream of Europen integration movement against the America-friendly federalist vision for the United States of Europe.

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