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한국중세사학회> 한국중세사연구> 고려초 수도 개경의 도시 공간 구성과 변화

KCI등재

고려초 수도 개경의 도시 공간 구성과 변화

Construction of Urban Space and Change of the Gaegyeong, the Capital in the early Goryeo Dynasty

전경숙 ( Jeon Gyung-sook )
  • : 한국중세사학회
  • : 한국중세사연구 59권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 11월
  • : 101-128(28pages)
한국중세사연구

DOI

10.35863/JKMH.59.4


목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 태조대 ‘諸佛護衛’ 도시로서의 개경
Ⅲ. 광종대 皇都지향의 도시 공간 정비
Ⅳ. 성종대 유교적 통치 공간으로서의 개경
Ⅴ. 현종대 개경의 도시 복구와 변화
Ⅵ. 맺음말

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The capital, where the king is located, is equipped with all the facilities and organizations necessary for the operation of the nation, including the royal family. The urban space of the capital reflects the monarchy’s governing ideology, a view of nature, people’s thoughts, living conditions at the time, and external influences. This study aims at arranging the process of the change of the capital of Goryeo to take shape of the city and examining the principles of national operation reflected in the spatial structure of the city at each period of Goryeo.
Taejo founded Goryeo and established palaces, administrative facilities, and military organizations in Gaegyeong. In addition, Taejo built many temples in Gaegyeong, hoping that Goryeo as a fledgling nation could enjoy eternal development under the protection of Buddha. This reflects the characteristics of Gaegyeong as a city of “Jebulhowui”(諸佛護衛).
During Gwangjong’s reign, he pursued a strong kingship and even an emperor’s right, thus concentrating on maintaining space as an emperor’s city. During this period, Bongeunsa and Bulilsa were founded to establish the legitimacy of kingship and the sacred authority of monarchy. Later, the king purged statesmen of merit to establish absolute authority and distinguished Gaegyeong as ‘the capital of the emperor’ and Seogyeong as ‘the capital of the West.’ As a result, Gaegyeong has established a solid position as the capital.
During the reign of Seongjong, the attempt to fit Gaegyeong’s urban structure with Zhouli’s(周禮) urban system can be seen. This is an attempt to apply the principle of Confucian ritual system. As a result, the city was equipped with ceremonial spaces such as Jongmyo(Royal Shrine), Sajik(an altar to the State deities) and Wongu(the Roung Mound), while the political space and market were reorganized.
In Hyeonjong’s reign, urban facilities were damaged by the war with the Kitan(契丹), which led to extensive renovations. During this period, the Songak fortress was heavily armed and Jungbang was also installed to strengthen the defense and military power of Gaegyeong. As Naseong was established as a result of the 110-year-old Gaegyeong’s maintenance, Gaegyeong had a strong castle system surrounded by Gungseong- Hwangseong(Imperial Fortress)-Naseong.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-900-000679255

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 서양사
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1225-8970
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1994-2022
  • : 695


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KCI등재

1고려시대사 연구와 재이(災異) 사료의 활용

저자 : 채웅석 ( Chai Oong-Seok )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 11-57 (47 pages)

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In the premodern age, calamity referred to a natural phenomenon which was regarded as being abnormal from the viewpoint of knowledge at that time like solar eclipse or appearance of deformed animal as well as natural disasters. Calamity had great damage and had a great effect on politics. Because calamity was treated as a sensitive issue in justification of political authority, each dynasty was extremely worried about preparation plans and recorded the relevant facts.
Until now the academia has almost never reviewed overall research articles on calamity in the Goryeo Dynasty. However, there has been a rising interest on disasters as it realized the seriousness of natural climate change. Now, to raise the research level on calamity and expand the perspective of research, the features and limits of the historical records need to be exactly understood. Also results and issues of the precedent studies need to be systematically reviewed, and their problems need to be examined.
This thesis examined the current status and issues of the studies by dividing the fields into the historical feature of calamity records, the application of the theory of 'mutual resonance between Heaven and human beings', the anti-calamity measures of the centralized government, the change of the natural environment, the medical treatment of epidemics etc..
The points which need additional research in the future are as follows:First, when studying calamity, the limits of the historical records should be first recognized and criticized and corrected. Second, the theory of 'mutual resonance between Heaven and human beings' needs to be studied from the viewpoint of the theory of political culture, not just as the political ideas. Third, response to calamity needs to be studied from the viewpoint of pluralism and coexistence in the Goryeo Dynasty. Fourth, studies on the original texts which interpret calamity as prophecy and the political functions should be done. Fifth, a high level of DB of calamity should be built in a range of East Asia and efficient interdisciplinary research should be done based on it.

KCI등재

2한·중 재해 DB와 활용-12세기 고려사회의 재해와 그 영향-

저자 : 신안식 ( Shin An-sik )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 59-98 (40 pages)

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The records related to disasters in the traditional societies of East Asia (Korea and China) differed according to regions and times. In other words, not only quantitative differences, but also clear differences in perception and expression can be found. In this respect, limitations in the compatibility of data may be revealed or unreasonable interpretation may be caused. However, it is inevitably more important than anything else to compare contemporary data in the only way to overcome the quantitative limitations of data. Therefore, in this article, I am going to examine the trends of the disasters in Goryeo society in the 12th century, focusing on 『Goryeosa』, and compares them with the cases of 『Songsa』, 『Yosa』 and 『Geumsa』, which are materials from neighboring countries.
In the climatic environment of East Asia around the 12th century, the rate of disaster occurrence was higher than in other periods. Although it is necessary to compare and analyze the global or regional phenomena of these disasters, it should not be overlooked that the political and social situation in the 12th century of East Asia experienced a similar process.
In this article, I examined whether the major category of disasters into 10 medium categories and 27 small categories is necessary for future research. To confirm this, the characteristic elements of disaster search terms appearing in Sega(世家) and Ohaengji(五行志) of 『Goryeosa』, Bongi(本紀) and Ohaengji of 『Songsa』, Bongi of 『Yosa』, and Bongi and Ohaengji of 『Geumsa』 were compared with each dynasty. As a result, '01Sujae(水災), 02Hanjae(旱災), 04Hwajae(火災), 05Jijae(地災), 09Jilbyong(疾病), 10Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Goryeosa』, '01Sujae(水災), 02Hanjae(旱災), 10Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Songsa』, '01Sujae(水災), 10 Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Yosa』, '01Sujae(水災), 02Hanjae(旱災), 06Pungjae(風災), 07Chungjae(蟲災), 10Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Geumsa』 were confirmed to be prominent. And what effect the climate environment had on actual society was examined along with the elements of social change in the 12th century.
Whether it is appropriate to supplement the data limitations of 『Goryeosa』 through literature data from neighboring countries, which differs in geography or climate from the Korean Peninsula, is a matter to be considered continuously. However, we must not forget that comparing disasters that occurred at a time when contemporary social problems were shared can be another foundation for understanding contemporary society.

KCI등재

3기우제 관련 색인어를 통해 본 조선초기 용신신앙과 기우제의 변화

저자 : 최봉준 ( Choi Bong-jun )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 99-132 (34 pages)

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Index words reflect the nature of historical records. The securement and utilization of high-quality index words could be the key elements that decide the successful construction of DB. It is possible to observe changes in the type and frequency of index words in each period of time. The close observation of the frequency of index words can examine the characteristics and change process of each time. The praying for rain to cope with drought repeated every year was not only directly related to farmers' survival, but also related to the maintenance of state and society, so every possible means and method such as Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and folk belief were mobilized. And the characteristics of the times were also reflected into this.
In the pre-modern society, the researches on praying for rain have been actively conducted by surrounding studies such as science of religion and folklore rather than historical studies. The changes in index words showed that the praying for rain went through huge changes in the process of changes from ancient society to medieval society, and there were such changes in the Goryeo Dynasty and the early Joseon Dynasty. Through the changes in index words related to praying for rain during the Goryeo Dynasty and the early Joseon Dynasty, the changes in praying for rain could be shown as follows.
Just as China, Goryeo already held praying for rain using the earth dragon and drawing an image of a dragon. However, the praying for rain to the earth dragon exposed the dragon and shaman to the hot sunlight, and also performed rites like keeping away from the main hall(避正殿) and moving marketplace(徙市). The Buddhist monk and shaman participated in praying for rain of the Goryeo Dynasty, which shows the shamanistic nature.
After founding the Joseon Dynasty, the praying for rain from the Song Dynasty was actively accepted. After the King Taejong, the praying for rain involving lizards(蜥蜴祈雨) from the Song Dynasty was accepted for the first time. The praying for rain to the earth dragon(土龍祈雨) and praying for rain by drawing an image of a dragon(畫龍祈雨) were modified by accepting the Song's ritual process. However, the praying for rain to the earth dragon and praying for rain by drawing an image of a dragon were held differently from the Song's ancestral rites, and the shamanistic ritual such as keeping away from the mail hall or sinking tiger head in the river(沈虎頭) was fully carried out. Even though this aims to realize the royal politics through Neo- Confucianism, it could be understood as reflecting the cultural specificity of the Joseon Dynasty.

KCI등재

4고려시대 '역병(疫病)'과 자연재해-한·중 재해 기록 분석을 중심으로-

저자 : 이승민 ( Lee Seung-min )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 133-170 (38 pages)

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Until now, the study of famine and plague of traditional society have been understood with the case analysis and the historical meanings. This study is to comprehend and summarize epidemics during the Goryeo Dynasty by referring to natural disaster records organized based on literature resources of Korea and China on top of the existing research accomplishments. Ohaengji is a literature resource that covers natural calamities according to ohaeng (the Five Elements). The understanding of the natural calamities by the Five Elements is the basis to explain a view of nature of traditional society. 『Goryeosa』 narrates natural calamities of 'Soil' with the influence of the publication of 『Yuansi』. 'Soil' is a natural calamity related to soil that includes all disorders that vegetation and crops can't ripen, which leads to famine and the spread of epidemic. Compared to 『Songsi』, it presents the cause and the cause-and-effect relationship between soil, famine and epidemic more clearly. Epidemics are separately narrated in Sikhwaji, Yeji and Hyeongbeobji according to Jinhyul, ritual, and Hyeongjeong in addition to Ohaengji, and the record of plague are in Jiriji.
The occurrence of natural disasters and epidemics have tended to be explained as environmental causes even if they didn't cause directly. This study compares natural disasters of Chinese Dynasty and Goryeo Dynasty, and covers the correlation between unusual weather and epidemics of Song·Yo·Geum based on the periods of occurrence of epidemics. There was climate similarity of locust damages in Goryeo, Song and Yo caused by the temperature humid climate during the 11th century, which affected the occurrence of pestilence in both Goryeo and Song. The resources of early and late 12th century show cases of same natural disasters in Goryeo, Song and Yo·Geum, along with famine in Goryeo, and in Song, many people died and had property damaged due to flood damage, which indicates each area had flood, drought, famine and epidemic altogether, or alternately.

KCI등재

5고려 태조~목종대 왕실의 편제-왕실 남성의 '태자(太子)'·'군(君)' 칭호를 중심으로-

저자 : 황향주 ( Hwang Hyang-ju )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-207 (35 pages)

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This dissertation aims at investigating the organization and legislative status of the royal family (wangshil, 王室) in the period of the early Goryeo dynasty before the Chinese nobility system (bongjakje, 封爵制) was adjusted according to the sociocultural foundation of the Goryeo society and brought to a conclusion as the Goryeo nobility system. After the establishment of the dynasty, the Goryeo court gave the official titles Jeongyun (正胤), Donggung (東宮), and Taeja (太子) to the destined heir to the throne and granted further potential aspirants an official title in the form of 'royal Palace Name (宮院名) + Gun (君, Lord).' This Gun title, based upon the name of the Queen Mother or one's own Palace Name, is presumed to be related to a traditional Korean culture of 'geononymy (宅號)' that listed men in relation to women (wife and mother). This culture of geononymy can be seen as the remains of a cognatic social structure and a marital custom of matrilocality.
In the biographies of the royal family in the History of Goryeo, most of the male members of the early royal family are listed as '○○Taeja (太子)' or '○○Daewang (大王)', which are not official titles but posthumous epithets. The system of posthumous conferment of Taeja and Daewang titles seems to have been established at least in Gyeongjong's times. This system derived from that of the prosperous period of the Dang dynasty. In Gyeongjong's reign, 'Gaenyeonggun (開寧君)', a new title completely different from before and not based on the Palace Name, appeared. In Gyeongjong's reign, attempts to adjust the political system between Goryeo and China, which had been initiated under Gwangjong's reign, continued. Gyeongjong tried to complete the royal organization for the deceased and alive members of the royal family.

KCI등재

6고려시대 남경 궁궐의 위치 비정

저자 : 오동선 ( Oh Dong-sun ) , 김동희 ( Kim Dong-hee )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 209-236 (28 pages)

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The purpose of this article is to determine the location of the Goryeo Dynasty Namgyung Palace in an archaeological manner. Although there is no disagreement in research on the location of Namgyung in Seoul, it is true that there is a lack of advanced research on the location of Namgyung Palace. From the literature, there is a high possibility that the location of Namgyung Palace is adjacent to Gyungbokgung, and archaeological data corresponding thereto have been secured, but there is no research on the location of Namgyung Palace by overseeing individual data.
To this end, Namgyung Palace made it clear that there were no more areas than Geyongbokgung, the number of Ilwhimoonmacsae representing Goryeo Dynamics, in the Han River basin in Seoul.
Inside Geyongbokgung, the excavations of Ilwhimoonmacsae were concentrated in Heungbokjeon Hall, which allowed the location of Namgyung Palace to be further narrowed to the northern Amisan area corresponding to the Joseon the former part back garden. Furthermore, comparing the location characteristics of Goryeo royal Palace, Namgyung Palace was presumed to be between the current Hyangwonjeong Pavilion and Cheongwadaae Sangchunjae. In other words, Namgyung's palace during the Goryeo Dynasty includes parts of the present Cheongwadae from the north of Amisan in Gyongbokkung.

KCI등재

7고려 공민왕대의 공신 책봉

저자 : 김회윤 ( Kim Hoe-yun )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 237-283 (47 pages)

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King Gongmin of Goryeo collectively appointed 415 meritorious people as contributors. And 62 people were given names of contributors.
The first group was 37 contributors who followed the Yuan Dynasty in the first year of King Gongmin's reign. King Gongmin was worried about changing the throne from the beginning of his throne. He appointed his subjects who knew well about the Yuan Dynasty's imperial family and government as meritorious subjects. It was to strengthen their power.
The second group is the 20 people who executed Gi-cheol in the 8th year of King Gongmin. King Gongmin tried to stabilize relations with Yuan after executing Ki-cheol, who was close to Yuan Dynasty. Because of this, the leaders were not rewarded. In the 8th year of King Gongmin's reign, when Honggeonjeok tried to invade, King Gongmin appointed them as contributors. It was because they were forming a military command.
The third and fourth are 358 people who defeated the suppression of Heungwangsa Temple and the invasion of the first and second Hong Geon-jeok in the 12th year of King Gongmin. When the Yuan decided to depose King Gongmin, the purpose was to secure loyal forces.
The 62 contributing names are organized into five types.(Linked to the above four groups, Contributed to overcoming a national crisis, Show loyalty, Doing something special, Powerful man.)

KCI등재

8고려 우왕 원년 교서의 내용과 의미

저자 : 김지영 ( Kim Ji-young )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 285-322 (38 pages)

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King Wu overcame his controversial legitimacy and took the throne relatively quickly. He announced that he was the rightful successor by distributing the enthronement letter, and three months later, in the first year of King Wu(1375), he collected convenience measures from officials and distributed them as a single letter(便民事宜). Most figures who would have had a decisive influence on the Pyeonminsaui were appointed as contributors to King Gongmin, and they were in the highest position in bureaucracy early on and regained their position after the collapse of Sindon(辛旽). In addition, many central scholarly officials actively participated in the Joseon Dynasty, which explains the continuous policy stance.
Among the 14 articles of Pyeonminsaui, the presentation of the five performance assessments of local bureaucrats, the installation of Sangpyeongjeyonggo(常平濟用庫), and the prohibition of operating Gahodunjeon(家戶屯田) can be seen as a solution reflecting the situation of Goryeo society at the time. Since these problems were also seen in early Joseon, the Confucian scholars who worked at the time and after the founding of the Joseon Dynasty had common goals.

KCI등재

9이색의 『목은문고』에 수록된 대원제국 역사 관련 기록 분석

저자 : 권용철 ( Kwon Yong-cheol )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 323-354 (32 pages)

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In this paper, the contents related to the Yuan Empire recorded in the Mokeunmoongo(牧隱文藁) were extracted and analyzed. Lee Saek passed the Yuan empire's civil examination and was able to interact with the officials of the Yuan empire early on due to his father Lee Gok. So, he also passed the Yuan empire's civil examination like his father. After passing the examination, Lee Saek did not serve as an official of the empire for a long time and returned to Goryeo immediately, but he knew the situation of the empire better than anyone else in that era. Therefore, his records have historical value not only in the history of the late Goryeo dynasty but also in the study of the history of the Yuan empire.
Mokeunmoongo records the political situation of the Yuan empire and the aspects of various bureaucrats. Although the contents do not mention every detail of the situation, there are many clues that are not confirmed in the Chinese materials. Since this can be said to be an important historical material necessary for studying the history of the late Goryeo dynasty and the Yuan empire, the historical value of the Mokeunmoongo increases further as a new perspective is secured. Therefore, it is natural that it is necessary to steadily discover the materials that can be used in Mokeunmoongo from various perspectives and topics in the future.

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KCI등재

1고려의 수도 개경의 역사적 위상

저자 : 안병우 ( Ahn Byung-woo )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 11-43 (33 pages)

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Upon enthronement, Taejo faced a serial political uncertainties such as rebellion and regional breakaway. In order to cope with these internal insecurities and furthermore to consolidate his power, Taejo decided to move the capital to Gaegyeong. As a candidate for the capital, Gaeseong was favorable to him in many ways;First of all, it, being his base area, had preserved Baleocham wall which he had controled of. And it had kept the infrastructure of the capital which Gungye had built. These conditions firstly enabled him to save time and labor needed in building a city, and secondly exempted him from the burden of immigrating population.
Before the outer wall was built, the Gaegyeong City was composed of palatial city and imperial city. On the site of the Baleocham wall, the Gaegyeong City was built in a way the palatial city was added inside it. This way, unlike Changan and Luoyang, Gaegyeong City had a shape of the imperial city enclosing the palatial city. And a nothern wall running from the east to the west was introduced in the middle of the imperial city to protect the government offices and the palatial city positioned in the southern part of the imperial city.
The place of the palace was the northern part of the imperial city when the City was finally completed of the dual city system, the palatial city and the imperial city. Therefore, the shape of the City, similar to that of Changan. But place of the palace was center of Baleocham wall, so it was more akin to those of Zhouli or Kaifeng. Against the original plan, however, the building of the outer wall during the reign of Hyeonjong made the palatial city located at the northwest. And Gwanghwamun, the main gate of the City was designed to face the east. Given these, the City is a case which denies the application of the Chinese city styles. If forced to categorize it, it might be more appropriate to call it the Gaegyeong style.
The structure, landscape and function of the City had been changed in the course of time. In the wake of the introduction of Confucianism, the Buddhism based City was forced to accomodate Confucian academies. This, together with Guyodang, the Daoist facility built in the time of Taejo, created a favorable situation for pluralistic religions and thoughts for the City.

KCI등재

2고려 건국의 기반과 개경 천도의 배경

저자 : 박종진 ( Park Jong-jin )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 45-71 (27 pages)

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The ancestors of Wang Geon(王建) settled in Songak-gun(松嶽郡) area in the late Silla Dynasty and developed as a local power family(豪族). Wang Ryung(王隆), the father of WangGeon, obeyed Gung Ye(弓裔) and WangGeon also appeared on the stage of history. At the time, Wang Ryung's the sphere of influence did not greatly deviate the whole Songak-gun. After WangRyung started to obey GungYe, WangGeon grew up while receiving the trust of GongYe. The regionally based core of WangGeon at the time of Goryeo foundation was Songak-gun and the surrounding Gaeseong-gun(開 城郡), and Naju(羅州) was also an important regional base. In addition, WangGeon also had some regional foundations throughout the country, including Cheorwon(鐵圓), which is the capital of Taebong(泰封). However, it is hard to say that the power of WangGeon at the time of Goryeo foundation overpowered the power of Gung Ye. The basis of Wang Geon at the time of foundation cannot be determined with maritime powers.
Taejo(太祖) moved the capital for political stability shortly after foundation. The reason for transfer of capital to Gaegyeong(開京) was because it was the base of the Wang Geon power and because it was once the capital during the Gung Ye period, the facilities that were created at the time were available for use. Taejo transferred the capital to Songak(松嶽) was not because it was a great location based on the theory of PungSu(風水地理說). The theory of PungSu was emphasized during the process of justifying the status of capital change after transfer of the capital. After the transfer of the capital, it became the center of Goryeo's national operation. Afterwards, as the territory of Goryeo expanded, it was generally located in the center of Goryeo territory. Accordingly, it was possible to operate the country more efficiently than the precious dynasty.

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3고려 개경의 축성(築城)과 도시 영역의 변화

저자 : 신안식 ( Shin An-sik )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 73-99 (27 pages)

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This study is to examine the change of the urban area by the geographical category and the castle construction of the Goryeo Dynasty.
The understanding on the geographical category of Gaegyeong is connected to the geographical category of 'Gaeju', set up when moved the capital to Gaegyeong in 919 (2nd year of King Taejo). At the time, Gaeju was understood in the same concept with Gaegyeong, and the geographical category of Gaegyeong was comprehend by classified the terms such as 'Donae Sung-Dong Sung-Seo Sung-Nam Sung-Buk Dong-Gyo Seo-Gyo Nam-Gyo Buk-Gyo'. As a result, Gaegyeong [Gaeju] region was divided generally as 'Donae' including 'Gyo'. The geographical demarcation of Gaegyeong was changed newly and made more clear by the constructed the Outer Castle[Naseong] in 1029 (20th years of King Hyunjong).
The castle of Gaegyeong was operated under the system of Royal Castle[Gungseong] and Imperial Castle[Hwangseong] after the capital moved, and it would have been built based on the operating system of Later Goguryeo. The category of Royal Castle and Imperial Castle was the area of the palace and administration facilities. The category of Imperial Castle was divided into the category of Baleochamgseong at the time of King Gungye before Naseong construction, and then it seemed to reduced to the lower half since Naseong was constructed. The construction of Naseong was delayed by the Khitan's invasions in 1010 (1st year of King Hyunjong) and 1018 (9th year of King Hyunjong) since Naseong construction was discussed at first. It was actively promoted by Kang Gam-chan's suggestion, and then only completed in 1029 (20th year of King Hyunjong). The completion of Naseong made the regional classification clearly as 'Donae and Gyo' from inside and outside of the castle which had been ambiguous all the while.
The castle system, eventually, completed over about 100 years since the capital moved to Gaegyeong, was the completion of the National Capital City system that led to 'Donae-Gyo-Gyeonggi'. It was the foundation on maintaining the status of Gaegyeong even in the 'Multi-Capitals System' consisting of Gaegyeong Seogyeong Donggyeong Namgyeong.

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4고려초 수도 개경의 도시 공간 구성과 변화

저자 : 전경숙 ( Jeon Gyung-sook )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 101-128 (28 pages)

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The capital, where the king is located, is equipped with all the facilities and organizations necessary for the operation of the nation, including the royal family. The urban space of the capital reflects the monarchy's governing ideology, a view of nature, people's thoughts, living conditions at the time, and external influences. This study aims at arranging the process of the change of the capital of Goryeo to take shape of the city and examining the principles of national operation reflected in the spatial structure of the city at each period of Goryeo.
Taejo founded Goryeo and established palaces, administrative facilities, and military organizations in Gaegyeong. In addition, Taejo built many temples in Gaegyeong, hoping that Goryeo as a fledgling nation could enjoy eternal development under the protection of Buddha. This reflects the characteristics of Gaegyeong as a city of “Jebulhowui”(諸佛護衛).
During Gwangjong's reign, he pursued a strong kingship and even an emperor's right, thus concentrating on maintaining space as an emperor's city. During this period, Bongeunsa and Bulilsa were founded to establish the legitimacy of kingship and the sacred authority of monarchy. Later, the king purged statesmen of merit to establish absolute authority and distinguished Gaegyeong as 'the capital of the emperor' and Seogyeong as 'the capital of the West.' As a result, Gaegyeong has established a solid position as the capital.
During the reign of Seongjong, the attempt to fit Gaegyeong's urban structure with Zhouli's(周禮) urban system can be seen. This is an attempt to apply the principle of Confucian ritual system. As a result, the city was equipped with ceremonial spaces such as Jongmyo(Royal Shrine), Sajik(an altar to the State deities) and Wongu(the Roung Mound), while the political space and market were reorganized.
In Hyeonjong's reign, urban facilities were damaged by the war with the Kitan(契丹), which led to extensive renovations. During this period, the Songak fortress was heavily armed and Jungbang was also installed to strengthen the defense and military power of Gaegyeong. As Naseong was established as a result of the 110-year-old Gaegyeong's maintenance, Gaegyeong had a strong castle system surrounded by Gungseong- Hwangseong(Imperial Fortress)-Naseong.

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5고려전기 수도 개경 사원의 성립과 기능

저자 : 한기문 ( Han Ki-moon )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 129-165 (37 pages)

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In earlier Goryeo Gaigyeong was the center of King's power and authority as the Capital. I study its character on the establishing process of the temples founded in making Gaigyeong as Capital and built by the Kings. On this basis I explore Gaigyeong temples' function as Buddhist regular ritual places remaking King's religious prestige visually.
Taijo constructed ten temples in defining Gaigyeong as Capital. There were many in his palace-wall. It seems to be the succession of Naeweon-Institution in Taibong's Capital Cheolwueon. After that 15 temples were made and near the half of 51 ones in 『Goryeodogyeong』. Each from Guwangjong to Injong built one or two. Bureaucrats founded their temple-shrine.
Gaigyeong had the function of showing King's religious aura. Wanggeon threw away King Gungyeo's Mireugbul Image. As Buddha pupil he made 25 temples for many believes, denomination-balance and Samhangongsin-memorial. After Hyeonjong Buddha prestige was added to the King's. Through Buddhist rituals King's authority was renewed in each year. He had the status of Buddha Guardian by seeing Buddha teeth, Buddha bone in Naeweondang. In each June King had he kept the status of altruistic Bodhisattva through accepting Bosal-act in inner palace. In these rituals he displayed his appearance as adoring sutra and respecting monks.
By Goryeo Kings' founding their temple shrine in Gaigyeong, opening Buddhist rituals, Guksa-Wangsa-having-memory, and enforcing monk-examination, They played religious authority and monk-administration power.

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6고려 강도의 건설과 공간구성

저자 : 이희인 ( Lee Hee-in )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 167-198 (32 pages)

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Gangdo was the only city in Goryeo Dynasty to officially replace the Gaegyeong. In Ganghwa island, critical facilities of capital city that royal palace, castle wall, royal tombs, temples and royal ancestral shrine etc had been constructed after “Ganghwacheondo” in 1232. However, it has become very difficult to uncover the spatial structure of Gangdo in today. In this study, I attempt to reconstruct the spatial structure of Gangdo, focusing on the location of the royal palace and the system of the castle.
According to recent archaeological data and geographical spaces of Ganghwa-eup, it is considered that the palace of Gangdo was located in the southwestern part of the “Goryeogung Palace Site”. This area where Gwancheong-ri 657 site and 687-1 site were excavated.
Many researchers argue that the Outer Castle Wall was constructed along the east coastline to defend an invasion from the mainland. Gangdo was also surrounded by the Middle Castle Wall until recently. However, based on archeological and geological evidence, it is considered that the castle system of Gangdo consisted of three castles: Outer Castle(capital castle), Middle Castle, Castle of Palace. Comparing Gangdo with Gaegyeong, the castle system of Gangdo is almost equal to Gaegyeong.
Meanwhile, the location and arrangement of the main facilities of Gangdo is similar to the Gaegyeong. It means that Gangdo was constructed after Gaegyeong in the large scale.
However, it is difficult to confirm that these views are true. Because the evidence is still not enough to support the hypothesis. Although many time is required, it is very important to accumulate archaeological evidence to reconstruct the spatial structure of the capital Gangdo.

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712세기 전반(前半) 왕제(王弟)의 정치 동향

저자 : 장상주 ( Jang Sang-ju )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 203-237 (35 pages)

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Xian of Zhou was a child or if there is no son to the effects of considerations are of king Taejo wangie and ascended the throne. Refind Jeongjong since hyejong to succession to the throne is a son even though the throne is wangie a good example.
Simple king's brother, not by the heir to the throne as follows : is wangie the increased political equation. But exceptionnally young son, seonjongdae the throne.
Finally, the throne, hegemony and confrontation. Gyerimgong and his grandson, yoon hansanhu I enthrone someone else is conflict of interest and to be on the throne.
But gyerimgong is to remove ijaui and ascended the throne.
King Sukjong's abnormal succession to the throne was antagonized by the King's younger brothers, and the number of Buyeogong su and the imitation of the Tao teung tong tang's a revolt has occurred.
12th century like this which in particular, by of the first half trends The trends of uijongdae igyanghu his is(Myeongjong of) military and in conjunction with the political forces to take part in a military coup by judged to be.

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8이규보를 통해 본 고려 관인의 경제생활 -선물 수수를 중심으로-

저자 : 오치훈 ( Oh Chi-hoon )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 239-268 (30 pages)

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We looked at the economic life of an official in the Goryeo Dynasty through the examples of gifts recorded in the book “Donggukyisanggukjip(『東國李相國集』)” by Lee Gyu-Bo(李奎報: 1168-1241). The gifts he received are confirmed 53 cases in about 50 years from 1193 to his death in 1241. Broken down by a certain time frame, there were 14 cases during the 17 years before taking office(1190-1207), 13 cases during the 30 years since taking office(1207-1237), and 26 cases during the four years since retirement(1237-1241). Time and frequency of gifts indicate that gifts have been concentrated since retirement.
As gifts, there were various items such as alcohol and fruits, rice, fisheries products, meat, vegetables, ice, medicine, heating supplies and clothing, and in terms of the ratio, food items consumed on a daily basis account for 72 percent. Among the groceries, fruits and alcohol were the most abundant, especially alcohol, which Lee Gyu-Bo liked very much.
Lee received gifts mainly from officials and monks, who often had only temporary exchanges, but also maintained a special relationship with each other. Gifts at the time are made public and customary, making it difficult to distinguish them from favors or bribes. In severe cases, the demand for gifts can also be seen, which is different from today's exchange of gifts.
Meanwhile, Lee was able to exchange gifts on Ganghwa(江華島) because logistics transportation was possible due to the development of the distribution economy. Various items were being transported from the provinces to Ganghwado Island, which served as an aid to the economic life of government officials such as Lee Gyu-Bo.

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914세기 전반 고려 사경발원문의 내용과 특징

저자 : 신은제 ( Shin Eun-jae )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 59권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 269-305 (37 pages)

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This article was written to analyze the contents and features of the prayers for the transcription of Buddhist scriptures text in the first half of 14th century. In particular, I'd like to analyze the political intentions of the prayers.
There are a total of 17 manuscripts from King Chungrye(忠烈王) to King Chungjung (忠定王), which almost completely convey the contents and supporters. Analyzing these manuscripts, it is possible to find out what time of year is being concentrated, what is the contents of, and how the political situation at the time is affecting them.
There are many prayers for the transcription of Buddhist scriptures text in the reign of King Chungsuk(1314~1339), and the scriptures are mainly composed of Saddharma-Pundarika and Avatamsaka sutra. However, while Saddharma-Pundarika's transcriptions were taken throughout the entire period, Avatamsaka sutra's one were mainly converged in the late King Chungsuk(忠肅王). On the other hand, the contents of the prayer shows a strong influence of the Bohyeonhaengwonpum in Avatamsaka sutra, similar to the prayer of Bokjang.
The most notable points in the analysis of prayers, are the presence of the praying of the emperors of Yuan Dynasty and the kings of Goryeo Dynasty, and their political significance. The praying for the long life of emperor of the Yuan Dynasty were concentrated on the reign of King Chungsun(忠宣王). It was the result of his intention to place Goryeo Dynasty to the system of Tribute-Installation. In the meantime, the prayers who were the officals in the court of Yuan Dynasty, only blessed the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. In contrast, the officials of Goryeo Dynasty only blessed the kings of Goryeo. Those who blessed, were largely king's close associates. However, as the king's power decreased in Goryeo Dynasty, the prayers for the king gradually decreased. Therefore, in the prayers for the transcription of Buddhist scriptures text, there was a deeply inherent political relationship between the prayers and a emperor or king.

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