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한국중세사학회> 한국중세사연구> 『고려도경』에 보이는 고려의 의식주

KCI등재

『고려도경』에 보이는 고려의 의식주

Goryeo’s the Necessities of Life in “Goryeodogyeong”

윤성재 ( Yun Sung-jae )
  • : 한국중세사학회
  • : 한국중세사연구 55권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2018년 11월
  • : 115-140(26pages)
한국중세사연구

DOI

10.35863/JKMH.55.4


목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 고려도경에 보이는 의생활
Ⅲ. 고려도경에 보이는 식생활
Ⅳ. 고려도경에 보이는 주거생활
Ⅴ. 맺음말

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초록 보기

Goryeodogyeong is an invaluable resource for understanding the 12th century Goryeo society. This book is a very useful resource to understand the lives of the people of Goryeo Dynasty who do not tell other records.
SeoGeung(徐兢) was identified the daily work clothes of the Goryeo people were black hooded to white moshi. Public dressings such as King clothes, customs, and court uniforms were different. From King, however, he had similar attire to farmers and merchants, and even to Taoist masters of Taoism. Women were similar, wearing a white jacket with a yellow skirt, and their ladies wearing a Mongsu(蒙首).
Goryeo’s dietary life in Goryeodogyeong includes not only the daily food and banquet food that SeoGeung(徐兢) has eaten, but also the old record of the local products, what he heard about others. So it was mentioned the grain and aquatic products produced in Goryeo and showed interest in the food made at the banquet and the wine made from nonglutinous rice. Especially the people with poor economic power had a lot of aquatic products, and regardless of Buddhism, the senior officials were eating enough to rot their meat. On the other hand, It didn`t know how the specific daily food is prepared, but it can be seen that the side dishes such as “doduk[沙蔘]”, which is provided daily by the office, were raised and served three meals a day.
There are few contents because it is hard to know about general residential life. However, the people of Goryeo dug out the ground to make the ondol[火坑], lay on it, and the bed usually made of clay. Laying the straw mat on the floor or elaborately woven was laid on the bed.
It was only a month after the prosecutor came to Goryeo, and since he entered the office, he had only half a dozen articles. So, the situation that he described in his own eyes was only the palaces, gateways, Temple, and the office in the open space except for the sea route.
Goryeodogyeong provided valuable data on the everyday life of Goryeo Dynasty, and it was of great value as a material to show understanding of China’s consideration at that time.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-900-000180215

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 서양사
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1225-8970
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1994-2022
  • : 695


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KCI등재

1고려시대사 연구와 재이(災異) 사료의 활용

저자 : 채웅석 ( Chai Oong-Seok )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 11-57 (47 pages)

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In the premodern age, calamity referred to a natural phenomenon which was regarded as being abnormal from the viewpoint of knowledge at that time like solar eclipse or appearance of deformed animal as well as natural disasters. Calamity had great damage and had a great effect on politics. Because calamity was treated as a sensitive issue in justification of political authority, each dynasty was extremely worried about preparation plans and recorded the relevant facts.
Until now the academia has almost never reviewed overall research articles on calamity in the Goryeo Dynasty. However, there has been a rising interest on disasters as it realized the seriousness of natural climate change. Now, to raise the research level on calamity and expand the perspective of research, the features and limits of the historical records need to be exactly understood. Also results and issues of the precedent studies need to be systematically reviewed, and their problems need to be examined.
This thesis examined the current status and issues of the studies by dividing the fields into the historical feature of calamity records, the application of the theory of 'mutual resonance between Heaven and human beings', the anti-calamity measures of the centralized government, the change of the natural environment, the medical treatment of epidemics etc..
The points which need additional research in the future are as follows:First, when studying calamity, the limits of the historical records should be first recognized and criticized and corrected. Second, the theory of 'mutual resonance between Heaven and human beings' needs to be studied from the viewpoint of the theory of political culture, not just as the political ideas. Third, response to calamity needs to be studied from the viewpoint of pluralism and coexistence in the Goryeo Dynasty. Fourth, studies on the original texts which interpret calamity as prophecy and the political functions should be done. Fifth, a high level of DB of calamity should be built in a range of East Asia and efficient interdisciplinary research should be done based on it.

KCI등재

2한·중 재해 DB와 활용-12세기 고려사회의 재해와 그 영향-

저자 : 신안식 ( Shin An-sik )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 59-98 (40 pages)

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The records related to disasters in the traditional societies of East Asia (Korea and China) differed according to regions and times. In other words, not only quantitative differences, but also clear differences in perception and expression can be found. In this respect, limitations in the compatibility of data may be revealed or unreasonable interpretation may be caused. However, it is inevitably more important than anything else to compare contemporary data in the only way to overcome the quantitative limitations of data. Therefore, in this article, I am going to examine the trends of the disasters in Goryeo society in the 12th century, focusing on 『Goryeosa』, and compares them with the cases of 『Songsa』, 『Yosa』 and 『Geumsa』, which are materials from neighboring countries.
In the climatic environment of East Asia around the 12th century, the rate of disaster occurrence was higher than in other periods. Although it is necessary to compare and analyze the global or regional phenomena of these disasters, it should not be overlooked that the political and social situation in the 12th century of East Asia experienced a similar process.
In this article, I examined whether the major category of disasters into 10 medium categories and 27 small categories is necessary for future research. To confirm this, the characteristic elements of disaster search terms appearing in Sega(世家) and Ohaengji(五行志) of 『Goryeosa』, Bongi(本紀) and Ohaengji of 『Songsa』, Bongi of 『Yosa』, and Bongi and Ohaengji of 『Geumsa』 were compared with each dynasty. As a result, '01Sujae(水災), 02Hanjae(旱災), 04Hwajae(火災), 05Jijae(地災), 09Jilbyong(疾病), 10Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Goryeosa』, '01Sujae(水災), 02Hanjae(旱災), 10Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Songsa』, '01Sujae(水災), 10 Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Yosa』, '01Sujae(水災), 02Hanjae(旱災), 06Pungjae(風災), 07Chungjae(蟲災), 10Hungnyeon(凶年)' in 『Geumsa』 were confirmed to be prominent. And what effect the climate environment had on actual society was examined along with the elements of social change in the 12th century.
Whether it is appropriate to supplement the data limitations of 『Goryeosa』 through literature data from neighboring countries, which differs in geography or climate from the Korean Peninsula, is a matter to be considered continuously. However, we must not forget that comparing disasters that occurred at a time when contemporary social problems were shared can be another foundation for understanding contemporary society.

KCI등재

3기우제 관련 색인어를 통해 본 조선초기 용신신앙과 기우제의 변화

저자 : 최봉준 ( Choi Bong-jun )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 99-132 (34 pages)

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Index words reflect the nature of historical records. The securement and utilization of high-quality index words could be the key elements that decide the successful construction of DB. It is possible to observe changes in the type and frequency of index words in each period of time. The close observation of the frequency of index words can examine the characteristics and change process of each time. The praying for rain to cope with drought repeated every year was not only directly related to farmers' survival, but also related to the maintenance of state and society, so every possible means and method such as Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and folk belief were mobilized. And the characteristics of the times were also reflected into this.
In the pre-modern society, the researches on praying for rain have been actively conducted by surrounding studies such as science of religion and folklore rather than historical studies. The changes in index words showed that the praying for rain went through huge changes in the process of changes from ancient society to medieval society, and there were such changes in the Goryeo Dynasty and the early Joseon Dynasty. Through the changes in index words related to praying for rain during the Goryeo Dynasty and the early Joseon Dynasty, the changes in praying for rain could be shown as follows.
Just as China, Goryeo already held praying for rain using the earth dragon and drawing an image of a dragon. However, the praying for rain to the earth dragon exposed the dragon and shaman to the hot sunlight, and also performed rites like keeping away from the main hall(避正殿) and moving marketplace(徙市). The Buddhist monk and shaman participated in praying for rain of the Goryeo Dynasty, which shows the shamanistic nature.
After founding the Joseon Dynasty, the praying for rain from the Song Dynasty was actively accepted. After the King Taejong, the praying for rain involving lizards(蜥蜴祈雨) from the Song Dynasty was accepted for the first time. The praying for rain to the earth dragon(土龍祈雨) and praying for rain by drawing an image of a dragon(畫龍祈雨) were modified by accepting the Song's ritual process. However, the praying for rain to the earth dragon and praying for rain by drawing an image of a dragon were held differently from the Song's ancestral rites, and the shamanistic ritual such as keeping away from the mail hall or sinking tiger head in the river(沈虎頭) was fully carried out. Even though this aims to realize the royal politics through Neo- Confucianism, it could be understood as reflecting the cultural specificity of the Joseon Dynasty.

KCI등재

4고려시대 '역병(疫病)'과 자연재해-한·중 재해 기록 분석을 중심으로-

저자 : 이승민 ( Lee Seung-min )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 133-170 (38 pages)

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Until now, the study of famine and plague of traditional society have been understood with the case analysis and the historical meanings. This study is to comprehend and summarize epidemics during the Goryeo Dynasty by referring to natural disaster records organized based on literature resources of Korea and China on top of the existing research accomplishments. Ohaengji is a literature resource that covers natural calamities according to ohaeng (the Five Elements). The understanding of the natural calamities by the Five Elements is the basis to explain a view of nature of traditional society. 『Goryeosa』 narrates natural calamities of 'Soil' with the influence of the publication of 『Yuansi』. 'Soil' is a natural calamity related to soil that includes all disorders that vegetation and crops can't ripen, which leads to famine and the spread of epidemic. Compared to 『Songsi』, it presents the cause and the cause-and-effect relationship between soil, famine and epidemic more clearly. Epidemics are separately narrated in Sikhwaji, Yeji and Hyeongbeobji according to Jinhyul, ritual, and Hyeongjeong in addition to Ohaengji, and the record of plague are in Jiriji.
The occurrence of natural disasters and epidemics have tended to be explained as environmental causes even if they didn't cause directly. This study compares natural disasters of Chinese Dynasty and Goryeo Dynasty, and covers the correlation between unusual weather and epidemics of Song·Yo·Geum based on the periods of occurrence of epidemics. There was climate similarity of locust damages in Goryeo, Song and Yo caused by the temperature humid climate during the 11th century, which affected the occurrence of pestilence in both Goryeo and Song. The resources of early and late 12th century show cases of same natural disasters in Goryeo, Song and Yo·Geum, along with famine in Goryeo, and in Song, many people died and had property damaged due to flood damage, which indicates each area had flood, drought, famine and epidemic altogether, or alternately.

KCI등재

5고려 태조~목종대 왕실의 편제-왕실 남성의 '태자(太子)'·'군(君)' 칭호를 중심으로-

저자 : 황향주 ( Hwang Hyang-ju )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-207 (35 pages)

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This dissertation aims at investigating the organization and legislative status of the royal family (wangshil, 王室) in the period of the early Goryeo dynasty before the Chinese nobility system (bongjakje, 封爵制) was adjusted according to the sociocultural foundation of the Goryeo society and brought to a conclusion as the Goryeo nobility system. After the establishment of the dynasty, the Goryeo court gave the official titles Jeongyun (正胤), Donggung (東宮), and Taeja (太子) to the destined heir to the throne and granted further potential aspirants an official title in the form of 'royal Palace Name (宮院名) + Gun (君, Lord).' This Gun title, based upon the name of the Queen Mother or one's own Palace Name, is presumed to be related to a traditional Korean culture of 'geononymy (宅號)' that listed men in relation to women (wife and mother). This culture of geononymy can be seen as the remains of a cognatic social structure and a marital custom of matrilocality.
In the biographies of the royal family in the History of Goryeo, most of the male members of the early royal family are listed as '○○Taeja (太子)' or '○○Daewang (大王)', which are not official titles but posthumous epithets. The system of posthumous conferment of Taeja and Daewang titles seems to have been established at least in Gyeongjong's times. This system derived from that of the prosperous period of the Dang dynasty. In Gyeongjong's reign, 'Gaenyeonggun (開寧君)', a new title completely different from before and not based on the Palace Name, appeared. In Gyeongjong's reign, attempts to adjust the political system between Goryeo and China, which had been initiated under Gwangjong's reign, continued. Gyeongjong tried to complete the royal organization for the deceased and alive members of the royal family.

KCI등재

6고려시대 남경 궁궐의 위치 비정

저자 : 오동선 ( Oh Dong-sun ) , 김동희 ( Kim Dong-hee )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 209-236 (28 pages)

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The purpose of this article is to determine the location of the Goryeo Dynasty Namgyung Palace in an archaeological manner. Although there is no disagreement in research on the location of Namgyung in Seoul, it is true that there is a lack of advanced research on the location of Namgyung Palace. From the literature, there is a high possibility that the location of Namgyung Palace is adjacent to Gyungbokgung, and archaeological data corresponding thereto have been secured, but there is no research on the location of Namgyung Palace by overseeing individual data.
To this end, Namgyung Palace made it clear that there were no more areas than Geyongbokgung, the number of Ilwhimoonmacsae representing Goryeo Dynamics, in the Han River basin in Seoul.
Inside Geyongbokgung, the excavations of Ilwhimoonmacsae were concentrated in Heungbokjeon Hall, which allowed the location of Namgyung Palace to be further narrowed to the northern Amisan area corresponding to the Joseon the former part back garden. Furthermore, comparing the location characteristics of Goryeo royal Palace, Namgyung Palace was presumed to be between the current Hyangwonjeong Pavilion and Cheongwadaae Sangchunjae. In other words, Namgyung's palace during the Goryeo Dynasty includes parts of the present Cheongwadae from the north of Amisan in Gyongbokkung.

KCI등재

7고려 공민왕대의 공신 책봉

저자 : 김회윤 ( Kim Hoe-yun )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 237-283 (47 pages)

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King Gongmin of Goryeo collectively appointed 415 meritorious people as contributors. And 62 people were given names of contributors.
The first group was 37 contributors who followed the Yuan Dynasty in the first year of King Gongmin's reign. King Gongmin was worried about changing the throne from the beginning of his throne. He appointed his subjects who knew well about the Yuan Dynasty's imperial family and government as meritorious subjects. It was to strengthen their power.
The second group is the 20 people who executed Gi-cheol in the 8th year of King Gongmin. King Gongmin tried to stabilize relations with Yuan after executing Ki-cheol, who was close to Yuan Dynasty. Because of this, the leaders were not rewarded. In the 8th year of King Gongmin's reign, when Honggeonjeok tried to invade, King Gongmin appointed them as contributors. It was because they were forming a military command.
The third and fourth are 358 people who defeated the suppression of Heungwangsa Temple and the invasion of the first and second Hong Geon-jeok in the 12th year of King Gongmin. When the Yuan decided to depose King Gongmin, the purpose was to secure loyal forces.
The 62 contributing names are organized into five types.(Linked to the above four groups, Contributed to overcoming a national crisis, Show loyalty, Doing something special, Powerful man.)

KCI등재

8고려 우왕 원년 교서의 내용과 의미

저자 : 김지영 ( Kim Ji-young )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 285-322 (38 pages)

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King Wu overcame his controversial legitimacy and took the throne relatively quickly. He announced that he was the rightful successor by distributing the enthronement letter, and three months later, in the first year of King Wu(1375), he collected convenience measures from officials and distributed them as a single letter(便民事宜). Most figures who would have had a decisive influence on the Pyeonminsaui were appointed as contributors to King Gongmin, and they were in the highest position in bureaucracy early on and regained their position after the collapse of Sindon(辛旽). In addition, many central scholarly officials actively participated in the Joseon Dynasty, which explains the continuous policy stance.
Among the 14 articles of Pyeonminsaui, the presentation of the five performance assessments of local bureaucrats, the installation of Sangpyeongjeyonggo(常平濟用庫), and the prohibition of operating Gahodunjeon(家戶屯田) can be seen as a solution reflecting the situation of Goryeo society at the time. Since these problems were also seen in early Joseon, the Confucian scholars who worked at the time and after the founding of the Joseon Dynasty had common goals.

KCI등재

9이색의 『목은문고』에 수록된 대원제국 역사 관련 기록 분석

저자 : 권용철 ( Kwon Yong-cheol )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 71권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 323-354 (32 pages)

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In this paper, the contents related to the Yuan Empire recorded in the Mokeunmoongo(牧隱文藁) were extracted and analyzed. Lee Saek passed the Yuan empire's civil examination and was able to interact with the officials of the Yuan empire early on due to his father Lee Gok. So, he also passed the Yuan empire's civil examination like his father. After passing the examination, Lee Saek did not serve as an official of the empire for a long time and returned to Goryeo immediately, but he knew the situation of the empire better than anyone else in that era. Therefore, his records have historical value not only in the history of the late Goryeo dynasty but also in the study of the history of the Yuan empire.
Mokeunmoongo records the political situation of the Yuan empire and the aspects of various bureaucrats. Although the contents do not mention every detail of the situation, there are many clues that are not confirmed in the Chinese materials. Since this can be said to be an important historical material necessary for studying the history of the late Goryeo dynasty and the Yuan empire, the historical value of the Mokeunmoongo increases further as a new perspective is secured. Therefore, it is natural that it is necessary to steadily discover the materials that can be used in Mokeunmoongo from various perspectives and topics in the future.

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112세기 초의 동아시아 국제정세와 신주(神舟)의 고려 항로

저자 : 문경호 ( Mun Gyung-ho )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 11-46 (36 pages)

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East Asia in the 12th century was where the international order was going through a huge change with the decline of the Khitans and the rise of the Khitan, the continuous decline of Song Dynasty owing to the financial ruin and Emperor Huizong's incompetence, and the change in Goryeo's foreign policy that came after the aristocratic clan took power. When the fall of the Khitans appeared in the offing, the Song Dynasty tried to bring the Khitan to their knees by attracting the Jin Dynasty. When Fang La Rebellion occurred, however, the plan was foiled. After it quelled the rebellion, the Song Dynasty managed to attack the Liao Dynasty only to endanger itself by being defeated. For lack of anything better, the Song Dynasty asked the Jin Dynasty for help, which repelled the Liao Dynasty as requested and demanded a vast amount of annual tribute from the Song Dynasty.
Under such circumstances, the Song Dynasty sent a large diplomatic mission to Goryeo to cinch the latter's support with a view to overpowering the Jin Dynasty. The dynasty built two Shenzhou ships to transport its messengers. The Shenzhou ships were roughly the Fuchuan warships (jack-up barges) constructed in Fujian Province. They are presumed to have been large vessels with a tonnage of about 465 tons that were about 43.26m long, about 12.98m high, and about 10.82m wide.
Meanwhile, China and the Korean Peninsula were trading both through coastal and ocean-crossing route even before the founding of the Song Dynasty. After the rise of the Khitans in the north, however, the ocean-crossing route came to supplant the coastal route. The use route goes through Dinghai-Gageodo-Heuksando-Seonyudo-Mado in Taean-Yeongheungdo-Ganghwa Strait-Byeokrando. While some of its sectors remain controversial, the ships are presumed to have traveled on the open seas following the smoke sent up for communication purpose from the coastal regions between Heuksando and Seonyudo, and passed through the route similar to Goryeo's offshore transport route for government taxation to arrive to Byeokrando.

KCI등재

2이방인 서긍이 본 황도(皇都) 개경(開京)과 실상

저자 : 정은정 ( Jeong Eun-jeong )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 47-76 (30 pages)

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Sinocentrism, barbarianism, emptiness, and desolation were key concepts in the depiction of Gaegyeong in Seo Geung's Goryeodogyeong. As Seo Geung, the Chinese delegate to Goryeo, visited and took a look at the palace, residential areas, and marketplaces, it was the cultural similarity between Goryeo and China that he found the most important factor in his understanding of the city.
He admitted that city walls and Confucian inheritances deserved appreciation not long after he came to Gaegyeong. What especially captured his attention was the first hexagram(乾卦) of the Book of Changes(周易) posted on the Gwangwha gate, ceremonies and protocol(儀制令), and morning palace meetings (朝會制) which took place on a regular basis. For him they revealed the authority of the Goryeo monarchy. His description of the city tells the way in which the Chinese elite who was a representative of Northern Sung viewed his diplomatic counterpart who was expected to establish a favourable alliance with China.
On the other hand, his description of economic life illustrated how residents maintained the savage lifestyle. He saw marketplaces as blinding their poor living conditions and denigrated that Goryeo had not adopted a monetary system using metal coinage. Religious temples were also regarded as signs of barbarianism as he thought that Goryeo had not fully accepted Chinese culture and remained uncivilised.
Desolation was another term used to describe the rural area around the city in his work. As he was not able to take a clear look at the area, his illustration of the suburbs resulted in the lack of inaccuracy and imprecision. This would have been because he understood Gaegyeong in such a way that he thought of Kaifeng, the capital of Northern Sung, where experienced radical climate changes so he saw the similar scenery. It is more likely that this made him focus upon desolation and loneliness other than positive aspects of the country.
Twelfth-century Gaegyeong experienced various civil works which demanded a huge amount of resources like charcoal and roof tiles. A series of works caused deforestation and desolation of the landscape. In this century the population of the city increased due to the progress of construction projects. His use of the term, desolation, reflects the significant changes in the appearance of the city.

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3『고려도경』에 비친 고려인들

저자 : 김병인 ( Kim Byoung-in )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 77-114 (38 pages)

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This study reviewed Seo Geung's view and presupposition of Goryeo, who was the writer of 『GoryeoDogyeong』. For the review, 'the people who Seog Geung encountered' can be classified into three types, and the study examined how his 'view and presupposition' was applied in his recognizing and estimating them. The results are as follows;
Seo Geung shows his 'view and presupposition' in 『Goryeo-Dogyeong』. First, According to him, Goryeo was called DongYi of Four Yi (meaning Four barbarian tribes on the borders), but they were somewhat civilized by edification of China and the Song Emperor's favor, and he added distinguished figures and splendid culture or civilized products of Goryeo were not ordinary, but specially prepared for the Chinese envoy. Second, though Goryeo was regarded to have Chinese custom based on Sino-centrism, they were still caught in their barbarian custom because of the nature of 'Four Yi'. Third, he put a low estimate on not only the personality and physique of Goryeo people, but also Goryeo territory and politic, social, and economic condition. The key words of his 'view and presupposition' were 'edification by Gija', 'Chinese custom', and 'Song Emperor's favor', which means that 『GoryeoDogyeong』 was a product of Seo Geung's arbitrary interpretation of Goryeo through the three codes.
The people Seo Geung encountered in Goryeo can be classified into;first 'those whom he met in person', second 'indirect encounter he saw as an observer', and third 'those whom he recognized with his prejudice according to the social class or status, or through what he read or heard'. Seo Geung applied his 'view and presupposition' to them. For example, he described representative five persons he met in person as 'Confucian look and as accepted Chinese civilized products'. For those whom he encountered as an observer, he described as inferior with barbarian evil customs. And lastly for those whom he recognized with his prejudice, he insisted mechanically that 'unlike other barbarian tribes, Goryeo shows proper attire and the proprieties, which results from long edification by China'.

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4『고려도경』에 보이는 고려의 의식주

저자 : 윤성재 ( Yun Sung-jae )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 115-140 (26 pages)

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Goryeodogyeong is an invaluable resource for understanding the 12th century Goryeo society. This book is a very useful resource to understand the lives of the people of Goryeo Dynasty who do not tell other records.
SeoGeung(徐兢) was identified the daily work clothes of the Goryeo people were black hooded to white moshi. Public dressings such as King clothes, customs, and court uniforms were different. From King, however, he had similar attire to farmers and merchants, and even to Taoist masters of Taoism. Women were similar, wearing a white jacket with a yellow skirt, and their ladies wearing a Mongsu(蒙首).
Goryeo's dietary life in Goryeodogyeong includes not only the daily food and banquet food that SeoGeung(徐兢) has eaten, but also the old record of the local products, what he heard about others. So it was mentioned the grain and aquatic products produced in Goryeo and showed interest in the food made at the banquet and the wine made from nonglutinous rice. Especially the people with poor economic power had a lot of aquatic products, and regardless of Buddhism, the senior officials were eating enough to rot their meat. On the other hand, It didn`t know how the specific daily food is prepared, but it can be seen that the side dishes such as “doduk[沙蔘]”, which is provided daily by the office, were raised and served three meals a day.
There are few contents because it is hard to know about general residential life. However, the people of Goryeo dug out the ground to make the ondol[火坑], lay on it, and the bed usually made of clay. Laying the straw mat on the floor or elaborately woven was laid on the bed.
It was only a month after the prosecutor came to Goryeo, and since he entered the office, he had only half a dozen articles. So, the situation that he described in his own eyes was only the palaces, gateways, Temple, and the office in the open space except for the sea route.
Goryeodogyeong provided valuable data on the everyday life of Goryeo Dynasty, and it was of great value as a material to show understanding of China's consideration at that time.

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5『고려도경』에 보이는 고려시대 공예의 양상과 특징

저자 : 최응천 ( Choi Eung Chon )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 141-174 (34 pages)

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『Gaolitujing』's craft-related record prepared by Xu Jing(徐兢1091~1153) are small in volume but it carries various crafts such as najeonchilgi(螺鈿漆器 lacquerware inlaid with mother-of-pearl), textile crafts, and woodworking. Particularly in the field of metal crafts, it mentioned comparatively in detail the forms and applications. The lacquerware inlaid with mother-of-pearl is fragmentary, but through what is written 'exquisite and precious(細密可貴)', in 1123, the level of mother-of-pearl work in Goryeo was estimated to have been exported to foreign countries by demonstrating the highest level of technology using daemobokchae(玳瑁伏彩). In the textile arts, it can be seen that embroidery paintings are embroidered on 'flower and animal paintings', in which tent and a vivid energy are drawn using embroidery. It also reveals the use of red coloring in royal and noble woodwork, along with a tray-table. To categorize the metal crafts sector by its use and form, it is found that various types of incense burners were used and that among them, many of the antique-shaped Chinese Bronzes(倣古銅器) such as Poshan(博山) Incense Burner were produced. The sugakhwaro(獸脚火爐) brazier can be compared with real materials, which is helpful in a chronicle. In reference to gwangmyeongdae(光明臺), it is supposed that Gwangmyeongdae was widely produced in the Goryeo period in 1123, and that light fixtures(燈火具) such as candles were used at that time. The sacred water-pot(水甁) is currently believed to be a bronze kettle built in the Goryeo period, and banjan(盤盞) can be compared with the silver-plated takjan(托盞) housed by the National Museum of Korea. Juhap(酒榼) described as a liquor cask, the detail is in line with the pottery kettle of the Boston Museum of Art is noted. On the other hand, it is found that Goryeo seban(洗盤), whose name has been unclear so far, is clearly described separately.
In Gaolitujing, the arts of Buddhist metal crafts are only about kundika(淨甁), a big bell(巨鐘) at Bojesa temple(普濟寺), flagpole(幢竿), and vajra(金剛杵). However, Jeongbyeong is very detailed in its explanation in comparison with other crafts and gives valuable help to the chronicle of Jeongbyeong in Goryeo. Before 1346, when Yeonboksa temple bell[演福寺鐘] took place, it it revealed that there was a big beel decorated with Bicheonsang at Bojesa, the original temple. At the top of gilt-bronze Danggan rising in the ground of Heungguksa temple(興國寺) was decorated with phoenix, and it can be a record to restore Goryeo Danggan through the record of wearing a silk banner in the mouth. Especially, the name is confirmed to be also called 'pole of banner(幡竿)'. The mention of gold-plated Geumgangjeo kept by royal monks(王師) reveals the fact that Geumgangjeo was used as a bringing of Buddhist monks from an early age.
According to the record as shown in Xu Jing's Gaolitujing, it is fragmentary material that was written in the Chinese official's position with disappearance of Dobon(圖本Artist's Sketches), but it is more meaningful than any literature in that it can reveal Goryeo craft art at the time of 1123, which may disappear or cannot be restored now.

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6『고려도경(高麗圖經)』의 '정기제도(定器制度)'와 청자

저자 : 장남원 ( Jang Namwon )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 175-201 (27 pages)

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This study examined diverse views on the meaning of 'Dingqi zhidu(定器制度)' mentioned in 『Gaolitujing(高麗圖经)』, and examined the contents of Goryeo celadon and Chinese ceramics mentioned in the records. Although I think that 'Dingqi' means 'Ding ware', it means that Goryeo had secretly followed China in the explanation of it, and in the following sentence, Goryeo thought that the new product of Lu ware and Yue ware It is said that it is not appropriate to determine its meaning because it is said to be similar to a celadon of the Royal kiln style. This is because, in addition to the Ding ware, there are a variety of pottery making techniques and molding elements, such as Yue ware, Lu ware, Jingdezhen ware and Yaozhou ware, at the same time, among the artifacts that were actually made in the Gangjin kiln in the early 12th century. Therefore, I think 'Dingqi zhidu' means ceramics making method and style which was generally done in China at that time. In the context of the maintenance of new objects that Goryeo had intended, the various chapters and their products, such as the Ding ware, which could affect the early 12th century consideration, such as Northern Song Royal Kiln, Lu ware, Yue ware I would like to open up the possibility of being affected. From a macroscopic point of view, the celadon in Goryeo in the first half of the 12th century shows that China has reached a stage of rebuilding itself in terms of qualitative level and formative quality of ceramics. In addition, Goryeo enters the culture that can produce celadons officially This is because it proves that.

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7고구려 계승, '고려(高麗)'의 경계(境界) 인식

저자 : 신안식 ( Shin An-sik )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 205-235 (31 pages)

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This research investigated the awareness on the 'boundary' of Goryeo focusing on the awareness on succession of Goguryeo and northern territory awareness.
Succession awareness of Goryeo on Goguryeo revealed distinction from the surrounding powers that stood against concentration of regional power by claiming legitimacy of dynasty in the confusion of Namalryeocho. Since its foundation, Goryeo implemented 'Yanggyeongje' by installing Seogyeong in Pyeongyang simultaneously with relocation of capital city to Gaegyeong. 'Yanggyeongje' of Gaegyeong Seogyeong connected foundation of Goryeo and succession awareness of Goguryeo. Seogyeong, an axis of Yanggyeongje, greatly influenced northern territory awareness simultaneously with succession awareness of Goguryeo on Goryeo. This point was a background to overcome the first war with Khitan, on the other hand, it was a cause of territorial conflict with surrounding nations.
Territory awareness of Goryeo included the territory of unified Silla and old Goguryeo, and northern Yalu river was the center of outside 'boundary' awareness of Goryeo. The situation of northern region of early Goryeo was an opportunity to actively progress northern policy that Goryeo aimed for, however there was a possibility to create a territorial conflict with northern people. Active construction of fortress against northern region since foundation of Goryeo was a basis to extend northern territory awareness of Goryeo. 'Yanggyeje' was an institutional device to maintain this, and this acted as a local system equal to military system and 5 Doje to protect capital Gaegyeong from northern region.
Northern 'territory' awareness of Goryeo was gradually extended to Yalu river through construction of fortress that began from the early Goryeo. Conflict with northern people was involved in the process. Goryeo and Khitan constructed fortress respectively in 'Gangdong' and 'Gangseo' mainly with Yalu river through reinforcement negotiation during the 1st invasion of Khitan. At this time, territorial division between 'Gangdong and Gangseo' at the boundary with Yalu river became more reinforced while overcoming the 2nd·3rd war with Khitan. As the result, 'Goryeo-Jangseong' was constructed in 1033(King Deokjong 2nd year), and Goryeo Cheonhagwan of 'Hwanae Hwawe' was established based on this. Division of Goryeo and foreign people into 'Hwanae Hwawe' was an extended territory awareness from the territorial boundary division of 'Gangdong Gangseo' based on Yalu river, previously.
In conclusion, awareness of Goryeo on northern 'boundary' secured identity of territory awareness through Goguryeo succession awareness, and was firmly established based on territorial division into 'Gangdong Gangseo' and establishment of Cheonhagwan of 'Hwanae·Hwawe'.

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8고려 건국기의 삼한일통의식(三韓一統意識)과 '해동천하(海東天下)' 인식

저자 : 윤경진 ( Yoon Kyeong Jin )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 237-283 (47 pages)

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Examined in this article is the historical meaning of the very notion of “the Three Han units are one(三韓一統意識),” and the concept of “Another universe on the East side of the Sea(海東天下),” which both prevailed during the Goryeo period. The existence of these notion and concept are traced through stone epitaphs and other similar sources of historical information, produced at the end of the Unified Shilla period and in early years of Goryeo. These notion and concept were all formed during the ending days of Shilla, but were established as formal ideological beliefs for the state by the people of Goryeo. Shilla only considered itself as Jinhan(辰韓), one of the Three Hans, but Goryeo identified itself as the Three Hans as a whole.
Shilla considered the establishment of another universe engulfing all regions in the Eastern side of the Sea(海東諸國) as the way to bind all Three Hans together, so memories and legacies cultivated by entities that had ever existed upon the East side of the Sea were conceptually absorbed into the Shilla culture and Shilla mind. So did even the memories and legacy of the Four Gun(四郡) units, as Shilla connected itself with the Hyeonto-gun(玄菟, 兎郡) unit, which had usually been associated with Goguryeo in the past.
Goryeo too inherited Shilla's such perception of the 'East side of the Sea(海東),' and established a universe of its own. The Goryeo-version of this “Universe on the East side of the Sea(海東天下)” was of course conceived as part of the Sino-centric world order(中華天下), but at the same time it was considered to have retained its own unique identity that differentiated itself from the Chinese universe. The Goryeo king considered itself as an Emperor(天子) in its own right, and the Goryeo people even defined China as a 'Universe on the West[海西],' compared to themselves on the East.

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9고려의 문화의식과 토풍(土風)·화풍(華風)의 관계

저자 : 김윤정 ( Kim Yun Jung )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 285-317 (33 pages)

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This research attempts to reveal the process of how Goryeo categorized its own culture by examining the acceptance of Chinese culture under the complex foreign relations. For this purpose, I particularly pay attention to the relationship between “Chinese culture[hwap'ung 華風]” and “Goryeo traditional culture[t'op'ung 土風]”.
A clear distinction between Chinese culture and Goryeo traditional culture had existed since the founding of the dynasty, which had been presented in injunctions by King T'aejo. During the King Sungjong's reign, the Confucian culture was accepted more actively from China. However, when the dynasty was in crisis by Khitan invasion, Chinese culture was rejected and people argued to adhere to the traditional culture. This was happened exactly same at the late Goryeo dynasty. Goryeo was guaranteed of using their own culture when they first started diplomatic relations with Mongol, and then reiterated this argument in the threat of the sovereignty of Goryeo dynasty.
The reason why the traditional culture and the Chinese culture were kept in such a tense relationship is due to that Goryeo was oriented to Chinese culture. In particular, the clothing culture emphasized that the tradition must be adhered to, but since the founding of the dynasty, the official uniform system of Goryeo had all been referenced to Chinese culture-Tang and Sung system-. Mongolian costumes were also tabooed in late Goryeo period because of the change of “the owner of Central China”, but some of them were still transmitted to the Choson Dynasty and became a part of traditional culture of Korea.
Consequently, this research explains that while Goryeo stably formulated their cultural identity amidst national crises, its cultural boundaries were not fixed. Goryeo's cultural formation was a dynamic process that was reformulated endlessly, corresponding to the changes of the times as well as to the changes in the diplomatic relations. In other words, this research suggests that “Goryeo culture” cannot be defined in a dichotomous manner as being either equivalent or contentious to “foreign culture” rather, through the interaction with foreign cultures, new Goryeo customs were reformulated. The process of conflicts and harmonies between Chinese culture and traditional culture in the Goryeo society is symbolic of how Goryeo's cultural identity was ceaselessly reformulated in accordance with the periodic changes.

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10고려시대 국가의례의 설행(設行)과 통합의식(統合意識)

저자 : 韓政洙 ( Han Jung-soo )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 55권 0호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 319-360 (42 pages)

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This study dealt with the integration mechanism and the integration consciousness found in the hosting of state rituals in the Goryeo Dynasty. As a result, the following contents were summarized:
The state rituals of the Goryeo Dynasty were basically based on the understanding of Confucian ceremonies and attempted the grace or protection of Buddha while ritualizing a diversity of Buddhist faith. And they offered the prayer for the Taoist divinity by practicing the wedding ceremony largely in the king and royal family. And they reflected the elements of Seonrang and folk beliefs in the events of the royal family. Like this, it was found that the rituals of the Goryeo Dynasty took the character that the basic principles of Gongbulraksin(供佛樂神) and Gunshindongrak(君臣同樂) mentioned by King Taejo of the Goryeo Dynasty became divided and the rituals of Samgyo(three religions), Seonrang and folk beliefs became combined with the ceremonies of the royal family and the state. At the same time, the Goryeo Dynasty established the honoring of the King Taejo and the unification of the Three Kingdoms as one of its ruling principle and built up the phase of Shiwang(時王). And in this process, it attempted to host a diversity of rituals for purposes of defending the country, praying for fortune and praying that fortune might come but misfortunes might be expelled. Jungdongpalguanhoe, the representative state ritual, took a character of Cheonhaye(天下禮) armed with the element said to be the Cheonjaeuije of the Goryeo Dynasty, through which the royal family of the Goryeo Dynasty proceeded to reinforce the rituals of Haedongcheonja and Haedongcheonha with a focus on the honoring of the king Taejo.

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