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한국응용약물학회> Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지)> S1P1 Regulates M1/M2 Polarization toward Brain Injury after Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

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S1P1 Regulates M1/M2 Polarization toward Brain Injury after Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

Bhakta Prasad Gaire , Young Joo Bae , Ji Woong Choi
  • : 한국응용약물학회
  • : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권6호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 11월
  • : 522-529(8pages)
Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
REFERENCES

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M1/M2 polarization of immune cells including microglia has been well characterized. It mediates detrimental or beneficial roles in neuroinflammatory disorders including cerebral ischemia. We have previously found that sphingosine 1-phospate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1) in post-ischemic brain following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) can trigger microglial activation, leading to brain damage. Although the link between S1P1 and microglial activation as a pathogenesis in cerebral ischemia had been clearly demonstrated, whether the pathogenic role of S1P1 is associated with its regulation of M1/M2 polarization remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether S1P1 was associated with regulation of M1/M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. Suppressing S1P1 activity with its functional antagonist, AUY954 (5 mg/kg, p.o.), attenuated mRNA upregulation of M1 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain at 1 day and 3 days after tMCAO challenge. Similarly, suppressing S1P1 activity with AUY954 administration inhibited M1-polarizatioin-relevant NF-κB activation in post-ischemic brain. Particularly, NF-κB activation was observed in activated microglia of post-ischemic brain and markedly attenuated by AUY954, indicating that M1 polarization through S1P1 in post-ischemic brain mainly occurred in activated microglia. Suppressing S1P1 activity with AUY954 also increased mRNA expression levels of M2 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain, further indicating that S1P1 could also influence M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. Finally, suppressing S1P1 activity decreased phosphorylation of M1-relevant ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPKs, but increased phosphorylation of M2-relevant Akt, all of which were downstream pathways following S1P1 activation. Overall, these results revealed S1P1-regulated M1/M2 polarization toward brain damage as a pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2021-500-000230712

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 약화학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1976-9148
  • : 2005-4483
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1993-2022
  • : 1801


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1Strategies for Manipulating T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

저자 : Hyang-mi Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 299-308 (10 pages)

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T cells are attractive targets for the development of immunotherapy to treat cancer due to their biological features, capacity of cytotoxicity, and antigen-specific binding of receptors. Novel strategies that can modulate T cell functions or receptor reactivity provide effective therapies, including checkpoint inhibitor, bispecific antibody, and adoptive transfer of T cells transduced with tumor antigen-specific receptors. T cell-based therapies have presented successful pre-clinical/clinical outcomes despite their common immune-related adverse effects. Ongoing studies will allow us to advance current T cell therapies and develop innovative personalized T cell therapies. This review summarizes immunotherapeutic approaches with a focus on T cells. Anti-cancer T cell therapies are also discussed regarding their biological perspectives, efficacy, toxicity, challenges, and opportunities.

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2Metabolic Bone Diseases and New Drug Developments

저자 : Vijayakumar Natesan , Sung-jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 309-319 (11 pages)

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Metabolic bone diseases are serious health issues worldwide, since several million individuals over the age of 50 are at risk of bone damage and should be worried about their bone health. One in every two women and one in every four men will break a bone during their lifetime due to a metabolic bone disease. Early detection, raising bone health awareness, and maintaining a balanced healthy diet may reduce the risk of skeletal fractures caused by metabolic bone diseases. This review compiles information on the most common metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, and fluorosis disease) seen in the global population, including their symptoms, mechanisms, and causes, as well as discussing their prevention and the development of new drugs for treatment. A large amount of research literature suggests that balanced nutrition and balanced periodic supplementation of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D can improve re-absorption and the regrowth of bones, and inhibit the formation of skeletal fractures, except in the case of hereditary bone diseases. Meanwhile, new and improved drug formulations, such as raloxifene, teriparatide, sclerostin, denosumab, and abaloparatide, have been successfully developed and administered as treatments for metabolic bone diseases, while others (romososumab and odanacatib) are in various stages of clinical trials.

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3Behavioral Deficits in Adolescent Mice after Sub-Chronic Administration of NMDA during Early Stage of Postnatal Development

저자 : Keremkleroo Jym Adil , Chilly Gay Remonde , Edson Luck Gonzales , Kyung-jun Boo , Kyong Ja Kwon , Dong Hyun Kim , Hee Jin Kim , Jae Hoon Cheong , Chan Young Shin , Se Jin Jeon

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 320-327 (8 pages)

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Neurodevelopmental disorders are complex conditions that pose difficulty in the modulation of proper motor, sensory and cognitive function due to dysregulated neuronal development. Previous studies have reported that an imbalance in the excitation/ inhibition (E/I) in the brain regulated by glutamatergic and/or GABAergic neurotransmission can cause neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric behavioral deficits such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). NMDA acts as an agonist at the NMDA receptor and imitates the action of the glutamate on that receptor. NMDA however, unlike glutamate, only binds to and regulates the NMDA receptor subtypes and not the other glutamate receptors. This study seeks to determine whether NMDA administration in mice i.e., over-activation of the NMDA system would result in long-lasting behavioral deficits in the adolescent mice. Both gender mice were treated with NMDA or saline at early postnatal developmental period with significant synaptogenesis and synaptic maturation. On postnatal day 28, various behavioral experiments were conducted to assess and identify behavioral characteristics. NMDAtreated mice show social deficits, and repetitive behavior in both gender mice at adolescent periods. However, only the male mice but not female mice showed increased locomotor activity. This study implies that neonatal exposure to NMDA may illicit behavioral features similar to ASD. This study also confirms the validity of the E/I imbalance theory of ASD and that NMDA injection can be used as a pharmacologic model for ASD. Future studies may explore the mechanism behind the gender difference in locomotor activity as well as the human relevance and therapeutic significance of the present findings.

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4Repeated Morphine Administration Increases TRPV1 mRNA Expression and Autoradiographic Binding at Supraspinal Sites in the Pain Pathway

저자 : Thi-lien Nguyen , Yun-son Nam , Seok-yong Lee , Choon-gon Jang

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 328-333 (6 pages)

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Repeated morphine administration induces tolerance to its analgesic effects. A previous study reported that repeated morphine treatment activates transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) expression in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglion, and spinal cord, contributing to morphine tolerance. In the present study, we analyzed TRPV1 expression and binding sites in supraspinal pain pathways in morphine-tolerant mice. The TRPV1 mRNA levels and binding sites were remarkably increased in the cortex and thalamus of these animals. Our data provide additional insights into the effects of morphine on TRPV1 in the brain and suggest that changes in the expression of, and binding to TRPV1 in the brain are involved in morphine tolerance.

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5Peroxiredoxin 6 Overexpression Induces Anxiolytic and Depression-Like Behaviors by Regulating the Serotonergic Pathway in Mice

저자 : Sun Mi Gu , Eunhye Yu , Young Eun Kim , Seong Shoon Yoon , Dohyun Lee , Jin Tae Hong , Jaesuk Yun

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 334-339 (6 pages)

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Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a bifunctional protein with both glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase activity. Recently, we reported that PRDX6 plays an important role in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. However, the relationship between PRDX6 function and emotional behavior remains elusive. In the present study, we examined depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in PRDX6-overexpressing transgenic (PRDX6-Tg) mice using the forced swim test, tail suspension test, open field paradigm, and elevated plus-maze. PRDX6-Tg mice exhibited depression-like behaviors and low anxiety. In particular, female PRDX6-Tg mice exhibited anxiolytic behavior in the open field test. Furthermore, the serotonin content in the cortex and 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head twitch response were both reduced in PRDX6-Tg mice. Interestingly, levels of dopa decarboxylase expression in the cortex were decreased in male PRDX6-Tg mice but not in female mice. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of PRDX6 in 5-HT synthesis and suggest that PRDX6 overexpression can induce depression-like behaviors via downregulation of the serotonergic neuronal system.

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6PRR16/Largen Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through the Interaction with ABI2 Leading to the Activation of ABL1 Kinase

저자 : Gyeoung Jin Kang , Jung Ho Park , Hyun Ji Kim , Eun Ji Kim , Boram Kim , Hyun Jung Byun , Lu Yu , Tuan Minh Nguyen , Thi Ha Nguyen , Kyung Sung Kim , Hiệu Phùng Huy , Mostafizur Rahman , Ye Hyeon Kim ,

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 340-347 (8 pages)

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Advanced or metastatic breast cancer affects multiple organs and is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Cancer metastasis is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal metastasis (EMT). However, the specific signals that induce and regulate EMT in carcinoma cells remain unclear. PRR16/Largen is a cell size regulator that is independent of mTOR and Hippo signalling pathways. However, little is known about the role PRR16 plays in the EMT process. We found that the expression of PRR16 was increased in mesenchymal breast cancer cell lines. PRR16 overexpression induced EMT in MCF7 breast cancer cells and enhances migration and invasion. To determine how PRR16 induces EMT, the binding proteins for PRR16 were screened, revealing that PRR16 binds to Abl interactor 2 (ABI2). We then investigated whether ABI2 is involved in EMT. Gene silencing of ABI2 induces EMT, leading to enhanced migration and invasion. ABI2 is a gene that codes for a protein that interacts with ABL proto-oncogene 1 (ABL1) kinase. Therefore, we investigated whether the change in ABI2 expression affected the activation of ABL1 kinase. The knockdown of ABI2 and PRR16 overexpression increased the phosphorylation of Y412 in ABL1 kinase. Our results suggest that PRR16 may be involved in EMT by binding to ABI2 and interfering with its inhibition of ABL1 kinase. This indicates that ABL1 kinase inhibitors may be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of PRR16-related breast cancer.

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7Benzyl Isothiocyanate-Induced Cytotoxicity via the Inhibition of Autophagy and Lysosomal Function in AGS Cells

저자 : Wah Wah Po , Won Seok Choi , Tin Myo Khing , Ji-yun Lee , Jong Hyuk Lee , Joon Seok Bang , Young Sil Min , Ji Hoon Jeong , Uy Dong Sohn

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 348-359 (12 pages)

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Gastric adenocarcinoma is among the top causes of cancer-related death and is one of the most commonly diagnosed carcinomas worldwide. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) has been reported to inhibit the gastric cancer metastasis. In our previous study, BITC induced apoptosis in AGS cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of BITC on autophagy mechanism in AGS cells. First, the AGS cells were treated with 5, 10, or 15 μM BITC for 24 h, followed by an analysis of the autophagy mechanism. The expression level of autophagy proteins involved in different steps of autophagy, such as LC3B, p62/SQSTM1, Atg5-Atg12, Beclin1, p-mTOR/mTOR ratio, and class III PI3K was measured in the BITC-treated cells. Lysosomal function was investigated using cathepsin activity and Bafilomycin A1, an autophagy degradation stage inhibitor. Methods including qPCR, western blotting, and immunocytochemistry were employed to detect the protein expression levels. Acridine orange staining and omnicathepsin assay were conducted to analyze the lysosomal function. siRNA transfection was performed to knock down the LC3B gene. BITC reduced the level of autophagy protein such as Beclin 1, class III PI3K, and Atg5-Atg12. BITC also induced lysosomal dysfunction which was shown as reducing cathepsin activity, protein level of cathepsin, and enlargement of acidic vesicle. Overall, the results showed that the BITC-induced AGS cell death mechanism also comprises the inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy at both initiation and degradation steps.

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8Characterization of KRC-108 as a TrkA Kinase Inhibitor with Anti-Tumor Effects

저자 : Hyo Jeong Lee , Yeongyu Moon , Jungil Choi , Jeong Doo Heo , Sekwang Kim , Hari Krishna Nallapaneni , Young-won Chin , Jongkook Lee , Sun-young Han

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 360-367 (8 pages)

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Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) protein is a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by the NTRK1 gene. TrkA signaling mediates the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neurons and other cells following stimulation by its ligand, the nerve growth factor. Chromosomal rearrangements of the NTRK1 gene result in the generation of TrkA fusion protein, which is known to cause deregulation of TrkA signaling. Targeting TrkA activity represents a promising strategy for the treatment of cancers that harbor the TrkA fusion protein. In this study, we evaluated the TrkA-inhibitory activity of the benzoxazole compound KRC-108. KRC-108 inhibited TrkA activity in an in vitro kinase assay, and suppressed the growth of KM12C colon cancer cells harboring an NTRK1 gene fusion. KRC-108 treatment induced cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and autophagy. KRC-108 suppressed the phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules of TrkA, including Akt, phospholipase Cγ, and ERK1/2. Furthermore, KRC-108 exhibited antitumor activity in vivo in a KM12C cell xenograft model. These results indicate that KRC-108 may be a promising therapeutic agent for Trk fusion-positive cancers.

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9High Levels of Hyaluronic Acid Synthase-2 Mediate NRF2-Driven Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer Cells

저자 : Bo-hyun Choi , Ingeun Ryoo , Kyeong Hwa Sim , Hyeon-jin Ahn , Youn Ju Lee , Mi-kyoung Kwak

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 368-379 (12 pages)

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Hyaluronic acid (HA), a ligand of CD44, accumulates in some types of tumors and is responsible for tumor progression. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NRF2) regulates cytoprotective genes and drug transporters, which promotes therapy resistance in tumors. Previously, we showed that high levels of CD44 are associated with NRF2 activation in cancer stem like-cells. Herein, we demonstrate that HA production was increased in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer MCF7 cells (MCF7-DR) via the upregulation of HA synthase-2 (HAS2). HA incubation increased NRF2, aldo-keto reductase 1C1 (AKR1C1), and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) levels. Silencing of HAS2 or CD44 suppressed NRF2 signaling in MCF7-DR, which was accompanied by increased doxorubicin sensitivity. The treatment with a HAS2 inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), decreased NRF2, AKR1C1, and MDR1 levels in MCF7-DR. Subsequently, 4-MU treatment inhibited sphere formation and doxorubicin resistance in MCF7-DR. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data analysis across 32 types of tumors indicates the amplification of HAS2 gene is a common genetic alteration and is negatively correlated with the overall survival rate. In addition, high HAS2 mRNA levels are associated with increased NRF2 signaling and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Collectively, these indicate that HAS2 elevation contributes to chemoresistance and sphere formation capacity of drug-resistant MCF7 cells by activating CD44/ NRF2 signaling, suggesting a potential benefit of HAS2 inhibition.

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10Snail Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation via Its Interaction with the BIRC3

저자 : Seung Bae Rho , Hyun-jung Byun , Boh-ram Kim , Chang Hoon Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 380-388 (9 pages)

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Snail is implicated in tumour growth and metastasis and is up-regulated in various human tumours. Although the role of Snails in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is particularly important in cancer metastasis, is well known, how they regulate tumour growth is poorly described. In this study, the possible molecular mechanisms of Snail in tumour growth were explored. Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat-containing protein 3 (BIRC3), a co-activator of cell proliferation during tumourigenesis, was identified as a Snail-binding protein via a yeast two-hybrid system. Since BIRC3 is important for cell survival, the effect of BIRC3 binding partner Snail on cell survival was investigated in ovarian cancer cell lines. Results revealed that Bax expression was activated, while the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins were markedly decreased by small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for Snail (siSnail). siSnail, the binding partner of siBIRC3, activated the tumour suppressor function of p53 by promoting p53 protein stability. Conversely, BIRC3 could interact with Snail, for this reason, the possibility of BIRC3 involvement in EMT was investigated. BIRC3 overexpression resulted in a decreased expression of the epithelial marker and an increased expression of the mesenchymal markers. siSnail or siBIRC3 reduced the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. These results provide evidence that Snail promotes cell proliferation by interacting with BIRC3 and that BIRC3 might be involved in EMT via binding to Snail in ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, our results suggested the novel relevance of BIRC3, the binding partner of Snail, in ovarian cancer development.

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1Natural Products as Sources of Novel Drug Candidates for the Pharmacological Management of Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review

저자 : Young-hoon Kang , Hyun Jae Lee , Choong Jae Lee , Jin-sung Park

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 503-513 (11 pages)

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Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative articular disorder. Formation of bone spurs, synovial inflammation, loss of cartilage, and underlying bone restructuring have been reported to be the main pathologic characteristics of osteoarthritis symptoms. The onset and progression of osteoarthritis are attributed to various inflammatory cytokines in joint tissues and fluids that are produced by chondrocytes and/or interact with chondrocytes, as well as to low-grade inflammation in intra-articular tissues. Disruption of the equilibrium between the synthesis and degradation of the cartilage of the joint is the major cause of osteoarthritis. Hence, developing a promising pharmacological tool to restore the equilibrium between the synthesis and degradation of osteoarthritic joint cartilage can be a useful strategy for effectively managing osteoarthritis. In this review, we provide an overview of the research results pertaining to the search for a novel candidate agent for osteoarthritis management via restoration of the equilibrium between cartilage synthesis and degradation. We especially focused on investigations of medicinal plants and natural products derived from them to shed light on the potential pharmacotherapy of osteoarthritis.

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2Role of Helix 8 in Dopamine Receptor Signaling

저자 : Han-sol Yang , Ningning Sun , Xiaodi Zhao , Hee Ryung Kim , Hyun-ju Park , Kyeong-man Kim , Ka Young Chung

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 514-521 (8 pages)

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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane receptors whose agonist-induced dynamic conformational changes trigger heterotrimeric G protein activation, followed by GRK-mediated phosphorylation and arrestin-mediated desensitization. Cytosolic regions of GPCRs have been studied extensively because they are direct contact sites with G proteins, GRKs, and arrestins. Among various cytosolic regions, the role of helix 8 is least understood, although a few studies have suggested that it is involved in G protein activation, receptor localization, and/or internalization. In the present study, we investigated the role of helix 8 in dopamine receptor signaling focusing on dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). D1R couples exclusively to Gs, whereas D2R couples exclusively to Gi. Bioinformatic analysis implied that the sequences of helix 8 may affect GPCR-G protein coupling selectivity; therefore, we evaluated if swapping helix 8 between D1R and D2R changed G protein selectivity. Our results suggest that helix 8 is not involved in D1R-Gs or D2R-Gi coupling selectivity. Instead, we observed that D1R with D2R helix 8 or D1R with an increased number of hydrophobic residues in helix 8 relative to wild-type showed diminished β-arrestin-mediated desensitization, resulting in increased Gs signaling.

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3S1P1 Regulates M1/M2 Polarization toward Brain Injury after Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

저자 : Bhakta Prasad Gaire , Young Joo Bae , Ji Woong Choi

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 522-529 (8 pages)

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M1/M2 polarization of immune cells including microglia has been well characterized. It mediates detrimental or beneficial roles in neuroinflammatory disorders including cerebral ischemia. We have previously found that sphingosine 1-phospate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1) in post-ischemic brain following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) can trigger microglial activation, leading to brain damage. Although the link between S1P1 and microglial activation as a pathogenesis in cerebral ischemia had been clearly demonstrated, whether the pathogenic role of S1P1 is associated with its regulation of M1/M2 polarization remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether S1P1 was associated with regulation of M1/M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. Suppressing S1P1 activity with its functional antagonist, AUY954 (5 mg/kg, p.o.), attenuated mRNA upregulation of M1 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain at 1 day and 3 days after tMCAO challenge. Similarly, suppressing S1P1 activity with AUY954 administration inhibited M1-polarizatioin-relevant NF-κB activation in post-ischemic brain. Particularly, NF-κB activation was observed in activated microglia of post-ischemic brain and markedly attenuated by AUY954, indicating that M1 polarization through S1P1 in post-ischemic brain mainly occurred in activated microglia. Suppressing S1P1 activity with AUY954 also increased mRNA expression levels of M2 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain, further indicating that S1P1 could also influence M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. Finally, suppressing S1P1 activity decreased phosphorylation of M1-relevant ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPKs, but increased phosphorylation of M2-relevant Akt, all of which were downstream pathways following S1P1 activation. Overall, these results revealed S1P1-regulated M1/M2 polarization toward brain damage as a pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia.

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4Etoposide Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cellular Senescence in Primary Cultured Rat Astrocytes

저자 : Minji Bang , Do Gyeong Kim , Edson Luck Gonzales , Kyoung Ja Kwon , Chan Young Shin

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 530-539 (10 pages)

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Brain aging is an inevitable process characterized by structural and functional changes and is a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. Most brain aging studies are focused on neurons and less on astrocytes which are the most abundant cells in the brain known to be in charge of various functions including the maintenance of brain physical formation, ion homeostasis, and secretion of various extracellular matrix proteins. Altered mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitophagy or mitochondrial damages are causative factors of mitochondrial dysfunction, which is linked to age-related disorders. Etoposide is an anti-cancer reagent which can induce DNA stress and cellular senescence of cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether etoposide induces senescence and functional alterations in cultured rat astrocytes. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity was used as a cellular senescence marker. The results indicated that etoposide-treated astrocytes showed cellular senescence phenotypes including increased SA-β-gal-positive cells number, increased nuclear size and increased senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASP) such as IL-6. We also observed a decreased expression of cell cycle markers, including Phospho- Histone H3/Histone H3 and CDK2, and dysregulation of cellular functions based on wound-healing, neuronal protection, and phagocytosis assays. Finally, mitochondrial dysfunction was noted through the determination of mitochondrial membrane potential using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) and the measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR). These data suggest that etoposide can induce cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes which may have implications in brain aging and neurodegenerative conditions.

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5Alyssin and Iberin in Cruciferous Vegetables Exert Anticancer Activity in HepG2 by Increasing Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species and Tubulin Depolymerization

저자 : Piman Pocasap , Natthida Weerapreeyakul , Kanjana Thumanu

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 540-552 (13 pages)

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To determine the chemopreventive potential of alyssin and iberin, the in vitro anticancer activities and molecular targets of isothiocyanates (ITCs) were measured and compared to sulforaphane in hepatocellular carcinoma cell HepG2. The SR-FTIR spectra observed a similar pattern vis-à-vis the biomolecular alteration amongst the ITCs-treated cells suggesting a similar mode of action. All of the ITCs in this study cause cancer cell death through both apoptosis and necrosis in concentration dependent manner (20-80 µM). We found no interactions of any of the ITCs studied with DNA. Notwithstanding, all of the ITCs studied increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressed tubulin polymerization, which led to cell-cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phase. Alyssin possessed the most potent anticancer ability; possibly due to its ability to increase intracellular ROS rather than tubulin depolymerization. Nevertheless, the structural influence of alkyl chain length on anticancer capabilities of ITCs remains inconclusive. The results of this study indicate an optional, potent ITC (viz., alyssin) because of its underlying mechanisms against hepatic cancer. As a consequence, further selection and development of effective chemotherapeutic ITCs is recommended.

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6Rab25 Deficiency Perturbs Epidermal Differentiation and Skin Barrier Function in Mice

저자 : Haengdueng Jeong , Kyung-min Lim , James R Goldenring , Ki Taek Nam

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 553-561 (9 pages)

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Rab25, a member of the Rab11 small GTPase family, is central to achieving cellular polarity in epithelial tissues. Rab25 is highly expressed in epithelial cells of various tissues including breast, vagina, cervix, the gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Rab25 plays key roles in tumorigenesis, mainly by regulating epithelial differentiation and proliferation. However, its role in skin physiology is relatively unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Rab25 knock-out (KO) mice show a skin barrier dysfunction with high trans-epidermal water loss and low cutaneous hydration. To examine this observation, we investigated the histology and epidermal differentiation markers of the skin in Rab25 KO mice. Rab25 KO increased cell proliferation at the basal layer of epidermis, whereas the supra-basal layer remained unaffected. Ceramide, which is a critical lipid component for skin barrier function, was not altered by Rab25 KO in its distribution or amount, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Notably, levels of epidermal differentiation markers, including loricrin, involucrin, and keratins (5, 14, 1, and 10) increased prominently in Rab25 KO mice. In line with this, depletion of Rab25 with single hairpin RNA increased the expression of differentiation markers in a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Transcriptomic analysis of the skin revealed increased expression of genes associated with skin development, epidermal development, and keratinocyte differentiation in Rab25 KO mice. Collectively, these results suggested that Rab25 is involved in the regulation of epidermal differentiation and proliferation.

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7Niacinamide Protects Skin Cells from Oxidative Stress Induced by Particulate Matter

저자 : Ao Xuan Zhen , Mei Jing Piao , Kyoung Ah Kang , Pincha Devage Sameera Madushan Fernando , Hee Kyoung Kang , Young Sang Koh , Joo Mi Yi , Jin Won Hyun

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 562-569 (8 pages)

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Niacinamide (NIA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. Moreover, NIA displays antioxidant effects and helps repair damaged DNA. Recent studies showed that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing disruption of DNA, lipids, and protein, mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the protective effects of NIA on PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in human HaCaT keratinocytes. We found that NIA could inhibit the ROS generation induced by PM2.5, as well block the PM2.5-induced oxidation of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Furthermore, NIA alleviated PM2.5-induced accumulation of cellular Ca2+, which caused cell membrane depolarization and apoptosis, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Collectively, the findings show that NIA can protect keratinocytes from PM2.5-induced oxidative stress and cell damage.

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8Particulate Matter-Induced Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Regulates Autophagy in Keratinocytes

저자 : Hye Sung Jang , Ji Eun Lee , Cheol Hwan Myung , Jong Il Park , Chan Song Jo , Jae Sung Hwang

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 570-576 (7 pages)

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Particulate matter (PM), which refers to the mixture of particles present in the air, can have harmful effects. Damage to cells by PM, including disruption of organelles and proteins, can trigger autophagy, and the relationship between autophagy and PM has been well studied. However, the cellular regulators of PM-induced autophagy have not been well characterized, especially in keratinocytes. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is expressed in the epidermis and is activated by PM. In this study, we investigated the role of the AhR in PM-induced autophagy in HaCaT cells. Our results showed that PM led to AhR activation in keratinocytes. Activation of the AhR-target gene CYP1A1 by PM was reduced by co-treatment with α-naphthoflavone (α-NF), an AhR inhibitor. We also evaluated activation of the autophagy pathway in PM-treated keratinocytes. In HaCaT cells, treatment with PM treatment led to the induction of microtubules-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3) and p62/SQSTM1, which are essential components of the autophagy pathway. To study the role of the AhR in mediating PM-induced autophagy, we treated cells with α-NF or used an siRNA against AhR. Expression of LC3-∥ induced by PM was decreased in a dose dependent manner by α-NF. Furthermore, knockdown of AhR with siAhR diminished PM-induced expression of LC3-∥ and p62. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of the AhR decreases PM-induced autophagy. We confirmed these results using the autophagy-inhibitors BAF and 3-MA. Taken together, our results indicate that exposure to PM induces autophagy via the AhR in HaCaT keratinocytes.

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9Functional Characterization of Pharmcogenetic Variants of Human Cytochrome P450 2C9 in Korean Populations

저자 : Myung-a Cho , Jihoon G Yoon , Vitchan Kim , Harim Kim , Rowoon Lee , Min Goo Lee , Donghak Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 577-583 (7 pages)

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Human cytochrome P450 2C9 is a highly polymorphic enzyme that is required for drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we studied eleven P450 2C9 genetic variants―including three novel variants F69S, L310V, and Q324X―that were clinically identified in Korean patients. P450 2C9 variant enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli and their bicistronic membrane fractions were prepared The CO-binding spectra were obtained for nine enzyme variants, indicating P450 holoenzymes, but not for the M02 (L90P) variant. The M11 (Q324X) variant could not be expressed due to an early nonsense mutation. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to measure the catalytic activities of the P450 2C9 variants, using diclofenac as a substrate. Steady-state kinetic analysis revealed that the catalytic efficiency of all nine P450 2C9 variants was lower than that of the wild type P450 2C9 enzyme. The M05 (R150L) and M06 (P279T) variants showed high kcat values; however, their Km values were also high. As the M01 (F69S), M03 (R124Q), M04 (R125H), M08 (I359L), M09 (I359T), and M10 (A477T) variants exhibited higher Km and lower kcat values than that of the wild type enzyme, their catalytic efficiency decreased by approximately 50-fold compared to the wild type enzyme. Furthermore, the novel variant M07 (L310V) showed lower kcat and Km values than the wild type enzyme, which resulted in its decreased (80%) catalytic efficiency. The X-ray crystal structure of P450 2C9 revealed the presence of mutations in the residues surrounding the substrate-binding cavity. Functional characterization of these genetic variants can help understand the pharmacogenetic outcomes.

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10Sleep Promoting Effect of Luteolin in Mice via Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors

저자 : Tae-ho Kim , Raly James Custodio , Jae Hoon Cheong , Hee Jin Kim , Yi-sook Jung

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 27권 6호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 584-590 (7 pages)

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Luteolin, a widespread flavonoid, has been known to have neuroprotective activity against various neurologic diseases such as epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is available regarding the hypnotic effect of luteolin. In this study, we evaluated the hypnotic effect of luteolin and its underlying mechanism. In pentobarbital-induced sleeping mice model, luteolin (1, and 3 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased sleep latency and increased the total sleep time. Through electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recording, we demonstrated that luteolin increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time and decreased wake time. To evaluate the underlying mechanism, we examined the effects of various pharmacological antagonists on the hypnotic effect of luteolin. The hypnotic effect of 3 mg/kg of luteolin was not affected by flumazenil, a GABAA receptorbenzodiazepine (GABAAR-BDZ) binding site antagonist, and bicuculine, a GABAAR-GABA binding site antagonist. On the other hand, the hypnotic effect of 3 mg/kg of luteolin was almost completely blocked by caffeine, an antagonist for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptor (A1R and A2AR), 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), an A1R antagonist, and SCH-58261, an A2AR antagonist. From the binding affinity assay, we have found that luteolin significantly binds to not only A1R but also A2AR with IC50 of 1.19, 0.84 µg/kg, respectively. However, luteolin did not bind to either BDZ-receptor or GABAAR. From these results, it has been suggested that luteolin has hypnotic efficacy through A1R and A2AR binding.

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