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한국지구과학회> 한국지구과학회지> Case Studies of Mass Concentration Variation in the Central-Southern Korean Peninsula Caused by Synoptic Scale Transport of Dust Storms

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Case Studies of Mass Concentration Variation in the Central-Southern Korean Peninsula Caused by Synoptic Scale Transport of Dust Storms

Hak-sung Kim , Jae-hee Cho
  • : 한국지구과학회
  • : 한국지구과학회지 40권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 08월
  • : 414-427(14pages)
한국지구과학회지

DOI


목차

1. Introduction
2. Data and Analyzing Methods
3. Results and Discussions
4. Conclusions
References

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초록 보기

In East Asia, the long-range transport of dust storms originating from Mongolia and northern China affects airborne dust loadings over downwind areas in the southern Korean Peninsula. Since 1997, dust loading cases caused by dust storms have been observed using the thresholds of total suspended particles (TSP, ≥250 μg m-3 hr-1) and particulate matter less than 10 μg (PM10, ≥190 μg m-3 hr-1 ) in the central-southern Korean Peninsula. There were two dust loading cases that exceeded these thresholds in 2016 and three in 2017, which reflects the downward trend of the last twenty-one years in the central-southern Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, five other dust loading cases with mass concentrations lower than the thresholds were observed from 2016 to 2017. In the moderate dust loading cases exceeding the thresholds, a descending motion of cut-off lows below 45˚N and a southward trough at 500 hPa gpm isopleths intensified at the western ridge, and largely extended the surface high-pressure system over southeast China. Airborne dust loadings following pronounced north-westerlies in the forward side of the high-pressure system were transported to the surface of the central-southern Korean Peninsula. However, in slight dust loading cases lower than the thresholds, the restricted descending motion of cut-off lows over 45˚N and the southwestward trough at 500 hPa gpm isopleths intensified the zonal flow over the Korean Peninsula. Surface high- and low-pressure systems moved eastward from the source compared to moderate dust loading cases. Due to the zonal movement of dust storms traversing eastern China, slight dust loading cases were observed with relatively higher ratios of PM2.5/TSP and carbon monoxide (CO) in the central-southern Korean Peninsula.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2019-400-001379118

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 지질
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 1225-6692
  • : 2287-4518
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1979-2021
  • : 2167


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42권3호(2021년 06월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1연안 혼탁 해수에 적합한 위성 클로로필-a 농도 산출 알고리즘 개관과 전망

저자 : 박지은 ( Ji-eun Park ) , 박경애 ( Kyung-ae Park ) , 이지현 ( Ji-hyun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 247-263 (17 pages)

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최근의 기후변화는 연안에서 더욱 가속화되고 있어 연안에서의 해양 환경변화 감시의 중요성이 커지고 있다. 클로로필-a 농도는 해양 환경 변화의 중요한 지표 중 하나로 수십년 동안 여러 해색 위성을 통해 전구 해양 표층의 클로로필-a 농도가 산출되었으며 다양한 연구 분야에 활용되었다. 하지만 연안 해역의 탁한 해수는 외해의 맑은 해수와는 구별되는 구성 성분과 광학적 특성으로 인해 나타나는 심각한 오차 때문에 일반적으로 사용되는 전지구 대양을 위하여 만들어진 클로로필-a 농도 알고리즘은 연안 해역에 대입할 수 없다. 또한 연안 해역은 해역에 따라 성분과 특성이 크게 달라져 통일된 하나의 알고리즘을 제시하기 어렵다. 이러한 문제점을 극복하기 위하여 연안의 탁도가 높은 해역에서는 구성 성분과 광학적 변동 특성을 고려한 다양한 알고리즘들이 개발되어 사용되어 왔다. 클로로필-a 농도 산출 알고리즘은 크게 경험적 알고리즘, 반해석적 알고리즘, 기계학습을 활용한 알고리즘 등으로 나눌 수 있다. 해수의 반사 스펙트럼에 기반한 청색-녹색 밴드 비율이 기본적인 형태로 주로 사용된다. 반면 탁한 해수를 위해 개발된 알고리즘은 연안 해역에 존재하는 용존 유기물과 부유물의 영향을 상쇄시키기 위한 방식으로 녹색-적색 밴드 비율, 적색-근적외 밴드 비율, 고유한 광학적 특성 등을 사용한다. 탁한 해수에서의 신뢰성 있는 위성 클로로필-a 농도 산출은 미래의 연안 해역을 관리하고 연안 생태 변화를 감시하는데 필수적이다. 따라서 본 연구는 탁도가 높은 Case 2 해수에서 활용되어온 알고리즘들을 요약하고, 한반도 주변해역의 모니터링과 연구에 대한 문제점을 제시한다. 또한 다분광 및 초분광 센서의 개발로 더욱 정확하고 다양한 해색 환경을 이해할 수 있는 미래의 해색 위성에 대한 발전 전망도 제시한다.


Climate change has been accelerating in coastal waters recently; therefore, the importance of coastal environmental monitoring is also increasing. Chlorophyll-a concentration, an important marine variable, in the surface layer of the global ocean has been retrieved for decades through various ocean color satellites and utilized in various research fields. However, the commonly used chlorophyll-a concentration algorithm is only suitable for application in clear water and cannot be applied to turbid waters because significant errors are caused by differences in their distinct components and optical properties. In addition, designing a standard algorithm for coastal waters is difficult because of differences in various optical characteristics depending on the coastal area. To overcome this problem, various algorithms have been developed and used considering the components and the variations in the optical properties of coastal waters with high turbidity. Chlorophyll-a concentration retrieval algorithms can be categorized into empirical algorithms, semi-analytic algorithms, and machine learning algorithms. These algorithms mainly use the blue-green band ratio based on the reflective spectrum of sea water as the basic form. In constrast, algorithms developed for turbid water utilizes the greenred band ratio, the red-near-infrared band ratio, and the inherent optical properties to compensate for the effect of dissolved organisms and suspended sediments in coastal area. Reliable retrieval of satellite chlorophyll-a concentration from turbid waters is essential for monitoring the coastal environment and understanding changes in the marine ecosystem. Therefore, this study summarizes the pre-existing algorithms that have been utilized for monitoring turbid Case 2 water and presents the problems associated with the mornitoring and study of seas around the Korean Peninsula. We also summarize the prospective for future ocean color satellites, which can yield more accurate and diverse results regarding the ecological environment with the development of multi-spectral and hyperspectral sensors.

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2최근(2018-2020) 태풍의 이동속도와 한반도 주변의 총가강수량 변화

저자 : 김효정 ( Hyo Jeong Kim ) , 김다빈 ( Da Bin Kim ) , 정옥진 ( Ok Jin Jeong ) , 문윤섭 ( Yun Seob Moon )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 264-277 (14 pages)

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본 연구의 목적은 최근 발생한 태풍들의 이동속도와 관련하여 대기 중 총가강수량의 변화를 분석하는 것이다. 이 연구를 위해 미국기상위성연구소 및 기상청 천리안위성 2A호(GEO-KOMPSAT-2A)의 총가강수량 및 주야간 RGB 합성영상 자료뿐만 아니라 기상청의 기온, 강수량 및 풍속 등의 지상 관측 자료가 사용되었다. 기상청에서 제공하는 태풍 위치 및 이동속도를 활용하여, 2020년 태풍 바비, 마이삭, 하이선과 2019년 태풍 타파, 그리고 2018년 태풍 콩레이의 이동속도를 위도별 태풍 평균속도 통계자료와 비교하였다. 그 결과, 타파와 콩레이는 태풍의 위도별 평균속도와 유사하게 나타났으나 바비와 마이삭은 위도 약 25°N-30°N 구간에서 이동속도가 크게 감소하여 나타났다. 이는 대기 중의 수증기 띠가 전선의 형태로 바비와 마이삭 두 태풍의 전방에 위치하여 이들 태풍의 이동에 방해를 주었기 때문이었다. 즉 이동하는 태풍의 전방에 하층제트로 인해 발생한 수증기 띠가 전선을 형성할 경우, 이 전선과 태풍 사이에 위치하는 고기압 역은 더욱 발달하면서 열대야와 함께 블로킹 효과로 작용하여 태풍의 이동속도가 느리게 나타났다. 결과적으로 대기 중의 수증기가 많았던 바비와 마이삭의 경우, 1차로 하층제트를 따라 수증기 띠가 전선을 형성함으로 인한 집중호우가, 2차로 전선과 태풍 사이에 고기압 역의 하강기류로 인한 열대야 현상이, 그리고 3차로 태풍 자체의 육지 상륙에 의한 강풍과 폭우가 연달아 발생하였다.


This study analyzed the relationship between the total precipitable water vapor in the atmosphere and the moving speed of recent typhoons. This study used ground observation data of air temperature, precipitation, and wind speed from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) as well as total rainfall data and Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composite images from the U.S. Meteorological and Satellite Research Institute and the KMA's Cheollian Satellite 2A (GEO-KOMPSAT-2A). Using the typhoon location and moving speed data provided by the KMA, we compared the moving speeds of typhoon Bavi, Maysak, and Haishen from 2020, typhoon Tapah from 2019, and typhoon Kong-rey from 2018 with the average typhoon speed by latitude. Tapah and Kong-rey moved at average speed with changing latitude, while Bavi and Maysak showed a significant decrease in moving speed between approximately 25°N and 30°N. This is because a water vapor band in the atmosphere in front of these two typhoons induced frontogenesis and prevented their movement. In other words, when the water vapor band generated by the low-level jet causes frontogenesis in front of the moving typhoon, the high pressure area located between the site of frontogenesis and the typhoon develops further, inducing as a blocking effect. Together with the tropical night phenomenon, this slows the typhoon. Bavi and Maysak were accompanied by copious atmospheric water vapor; consequently, a water vapor band along the low-level jet induced frontogenesis. Then, the downdraft of the high pressure between the frontogenesis and the typhoon caused the tropical night phenomenon. Finally, strong winds and heavy rains occurred in succession once the typhoon landed.

KCI등재

32020년 동아시아지역에서 COVID-19 폐쇄로 인한 장거리 이동 PM10, NO2, O3 농도 변동성 분석

저자 : 김유경 ( Yu-kyung Kim ) , 조재희 ( Jae-hee Cho ) , 김학성 ( Hak-sung Kim )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 278-295 (18 pages)

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2020년 중국의 COVID-19 폐쇄는 한국의 풍상측에 위치한 중국의 대기오염 배출량을 감소시켰다. 몽골 북부로부터 중국 동부를 거쳐 한반도에 이르는 지역에서는 2020년 1~2월에 기온 아노말리가 양(+)으로 온난하였고, 2020년 1월에는 동서류 아노말리가 음(-)으로 정체적인 특징을 보였다. 2019년 12월~2020년 3월에 한국 중부 서쪽의 석모리와 파도리에서 중국 배출량 감소의 영향에 따라 PM10, NO2, O3 농도 변동이 나타났다. 파도리에서 PM10, O3 월평균 농도와 최근 4년의 월평균 농도의 비는 2019년 12월과 비교하여 중국의 COVID-19 폐쇄 이후인 2020년 1~3월에 각각 0.7~4.7%, 9.2~22.8%로 감소하였다. 2020년 1월 중국의 춘절 기간에는 석모리와 파도리에서 PM10, NO2, O3 농도가 최근 4년의 춘절 기간과 마찬가지로 감소하였다. 그러나 2020년 1월 평균 농도가 최근 4년 1월과 비교하여 감소한 것은 중국 춘절 전후의 기간에도 배출량이 감소하였던 것과 관련 있다. 2020년 1~3월 석모리의 PM10, NO2, O3 농도의 비(Ōs/M)는 각각 70.8~89.7%, 70.5~87.1%, 72.5~97.1%이었고, 파도리에서도 각각 79.6~93.5%, 67.7~84.9%, 83.7~94.6%로 추정 월평균(M)보다 월평균(Ōs)이 감소하였다. 2020년 1월에 몽골 북부로부터 중국 동부와 한반도에 이르는 지역의 온난화로 인한 광화학 반응으로 최근 4년과 비교하여 AOD가 높게 나타났으나 2020년 3월에는 풍상측인 중국에서 2차 에어로졸을 생성하는 전구물질 배출 감소로 최근 4년과 비교하여 낮은 AOD 분포를 보였던 것으로 분석되었다.


China's shutdown due to COVID-19 in 2020 reduced air pollutant emissions, which is located on the windward side of South Korea. The positive temperature anomaly and negative zonal wind anomaly from northern Mongolia to South Korea through eastern China presented warm and stationary air masses during January and February 2020. Decreased concentrations of PM10, NO2, and O3 were measured at Seokmo-ri and Pado-ri, located in the central-western region of South Korea, due to decreased emissions in China from January to March 2020. After China's shutdown from January to March 2020, in Pado-ri, the ratio of monthly average concentrations in that period with those of PM10 and O3 in the last four years decreased by approximately 0.7-4.7% and 9.2-22.8%, respectively. In January 2020, during the Lunar New Year holidays in China, concentrations of PM10, NO2, and O3 at Seokmo-ri and Pado-ri decreased just as much as it did during the same period in the last four years. However, average concentrations in January 2020 decreased before and after the Lunar New Year holidays in China when compared with those in January of the last four years. In Seokmori, ratios of actual and predicted values (Ō/M) for PM10, NO2, and O3 concentrations were calculated as 70.8 to 89.7%, 70.5 to 87.1%, and 72.5 to 97.1%, respectively, during January and March 2020. Moreover, those of Pado-ri were 79.6 to 93.5%, 67.7 to 84.9%, and 83.7 to 94.6%, respectively. In January 2020, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data showed a higher distribution than that of the last four years due to photochemical reactions in regions from northern Mongolia to eastern China and the Korean Peninsula. However, the decrease in AOD values compared with those of the last four years was attributed to the decrease in emissions of precursors that generate secondary aerosols in China during March 2020.

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4적도 해류계 분석 및 엘니뇨 시기의 변동에 관한 논의: 중등 교육 현장의 관련 오개념을 중심으로

저자 : 장유순 ( You-soon Chang )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 296-310 (15 pages)

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엘니뇨는 전지구적인 규모로 기후 변화를 유발하는 대표적인 해양-대기 상호작용 현상으로서 지구과학 분야에서 매우 중요한 교수-학습 소재로 사용되고 있다. 본 논고에서는 적도 해류계의 분포 특징 및 발생 역학에 관해 정리하였으며, 엘니뇨 시기의 적도 해류계 변동과 관련 오개념에 관해 조사하였다. 엘니뇨 시기에는 북적도해류, 남적도해류, 적도잠류들이 유의미하게 약화된다. 그러나 북적도반류는 중심축을 중심으로 남쪽 성분은 강화되고 북쪽 성분은 약화되면서 적도 쪽으로 남하하기 때문에 엘니뇨 시기의 북적도반류의 변동에 대해서는 일반화할 수 없다. 또한 서태평양에서는 북적도반류의 남하 폭이 커져 결과적으로 적도 서태평양에서는 동향류가 관측된다. 일부 대중 매체를 통한 과학 기사, 중등학교 평가 문항 뿐만 아니라 현직 교사들을 대상으로 한 설문 조사 결과 분석을 통해 엘니뇨 시기의 적도 해류계의 변동에 관한 개념이 통일되지 않았음을 확인하였다. 이는 기존에 사용되고 있는 엘니뇨 모식도의 부정확한 해석과 적도 해류 및 파동 역학에 관한 이해 부족과 연관된다고 유추할 수 있다.


El Niño is a typical ocean and atmospheric interaction phenomenon that causes climate variability on a global scale, so it has been used as a very important teaching and learning material in the field of earth science. This study summarized the distribution and dynamics of the equatorial current system. The variability of the equatorial current system during the El Niño period and the associated misconceptions were also investigated. The North Equatorial Current, South Equatorial Current, and Equatorial Under Current significantly weaken during El Niño years. However, the variability of the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) during the El Niño period cannot be generalized because the NECC shows southward movement with weakening in the northern area and strengthening in the southern area, along its central axis. In the western Pacific, the NECC is further south during El Niño years, and thus, it has an eastward flow in the equatorial western Pacific. Our analysis of a mass media science article, a secondary school exam, and a survey for incumbent teachers confirmed disparate ideas about the equatorial current system's variability during El Niño periods. This is likely due to inaccurate interpretations of the existing El Niño schematic diagram and insufficient understanding of the equatorial current and wave dynamics.

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5화성 지질공원 제부도 지질명소의 지질교육적 가치

저자 : 하수진 ( Sujin Ha ) , 채용운 ( Yong-un Chae ) , 강희철 ( Hee-cheol Kang ) , 김종선 ( Jong-sun Kim ) , 박정웅 ( Jeong-woong Park ) , 신승원 ( Seungwon Shin ) , 임현수 ( Hyoun Soo Lim ) , 조형성 ( Hyeongseong Cho )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 311-324 (14 pages)

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최근 화성시의 국가지질공원 인증 추진을 위해 10개의 지질명소가 개발되었으며, 이 중에서 제부도 지질명소는 다양한 지질·지형(경관)·생태유산이 분포하여 고정리, 우음도 지질명소와 함께 수도권 남부의 새로운 지구과학 교육 장소로 개발 잠재성이 크다. 이번 연구에서는 화성지질공원 제부도 지질명소의 야외조사를 통해 지질유산의 특징을 기재하고, 화성지질공원 내 다른 지질명소와의 비교·분석을 통해 지질교육 명소로서 개발 가능성을 평가하였다. 또한, 지질공원 및 지질명소에서의 현장교육이 현행 2015 개정 과학과 교육과정에서 강조하는 핵심개념과 교과역량 중심 교육에 실질적으로 미칠 수 있는 효과를 제부도 지질명소에 적용해 제시하였다. 제부도 지질명소에는 규암, 편암, 천매암 등 다양한 변성암류가 분포하며, 쇄설성암맥, 석영맥, 단층, 절리, 엽리, 편리 등의 지질구조들도 함께 관찰되어 지질다양성이 풍부하다. 또한, 해안가를 따라서는 역빈과 사빈, 해안사구, 갯벌 등 해안 퇴적지형과 연흔 등의 퇴적구조가 발달하고 있으며, 해식절벽, 해식동굴, 시스택 등의 해안침식지형과 함께 바다갈라짐 등 다양한 해안지형을 관찰할 수 있다. 제부도 지질명소는 기존에 현장교육에 활용되고 있는 화성지질공원의 고정리 공룡알화석산지 및 우음도 지질명소와 지질 및 지형학적으로 차별점을 가지므로 새로운 지질교육 현장으로서 충분한 가치를 지닌 것으로 판단된다. 아울러 제부도 지질명소에는 갯벌체험장과 같은 지질교육 및 지질관광 연계 콘텐츠가 풍부하고, 해안산책로, 전망대와 같은 탐방인프라 또한 잘 조성되어 있어 다채로운 교육프로그램 개발이 기대된다. 더 나아가 각 지질명소별 특성을 중심으로 최적화된 지질공원 교육을 수행함으로써 1) 학교에서 지질공원으로 학습 공간의 확장, 2) 구체적인 내용 요소의 이해도 향상과 핵심개념 사이의 연계, 3) 지구시스템 전반으로 교육 영역의 확대가 이루어질 수 있어 과학과 교육과정의 핵심역량인 사고력, 탐구력, 문제해결력을 향상시킬 수 있고, 지질공원 교육의 주체로 참여하는 경험을 통해 의사소통 능력 및 참여와 평생학습능력 강화에도 긍정적인 영향을 미칠 것으로 기대된다.


Recently, ten geosites have been considered in Hwaseong for endorsement as national geoparks, including the Jebudo, Gojeongri Dinosaur Egg Fossils, and Ueumdo geosites. The Jebudo geosite in the southern part of the Seoul metropolitan area has great potential for development as a new geoscience educational site because it has geological, geographical (landscape), and ecological significance. In this study, we described the geological characteristics through field surveys in the Jebudo geosite. We evaluated its potential as a geo-education site based on comparative analysis with other geosites in Hwaseong Geopark. In addition, we reviewed the practical effect of field education at geosites on the essential concepts and critical competence-oriented education emphasized in the current 2015 revised science curriculum. The Jebudo Geosite is geologically diverse, with various metamorphic rocks belonging to the Precambrian Seosan Group, such as quartzite, schist, and phyllite. Various geological structures, such as clastic dikes, faults, joints, foliation, and schistosity have also been recorded. Moreover, coastal geological features have been observed, including depositional landforms (gravel and sand beaches, dunes, and mudflats), sedimentary structures (ripples), erosional landforms (sea cliffs, sea caves, and sea stacks), and sea parting. The Jebudo geosite has considerable value as a new geo-education site with geological and geomorphological distinction from the Gojeongri Dinosaur Egg Fossils and Ueumdo geosites. The Jebudo geosite also has opportunities for geo-education and geo-tourism, such as mudflat experiences and infrastructures, such as coastal trails and viewing points. This geosite can help develop diverse geo-education programs that improve key competencies in the science curriculum, such as critical thinking, inquiry, and problem-solving. Furthermore, by conducting optimized geo-education focused on the characteristics of each geosite, the following can be established: (1) the expansion of learning space from school to geopark, (2) the improvement of understanding of specific content elements and linkage between essential concepts, and (3) the extension of the education scope throughout the earth system. There will be positive impacts on communication, participation, and lifelong learning skills through geopark education.

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6천문 유산을 활용한 천문학 교육 프로그램 개발 및 활용 가능성 탐색

저자 : 이지혜 ( Jihye Lee ) , 신동희 ( Donghee Shin )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 325-343 (19 pages)

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이 연구의 목적은 한국 천문 유산인 앙부일구와 고대 천문 기록을 활용한 과학 교육 프로그램을 개발하고, 시범 적용을 통해 활용 가능성을 탐색하는 것이다. 앙부일구와 고대 천문 기록의 TSK 구성적 특성, 과학 교육과정과의 연계성, NOS와의 연계성을 고려하여 앙부일구는 초등학생을 위한 핸즈온 활동으로, 고대 천문 기록은 중·고등학생을 위한 과학 탐구 활동으로 개발했다. 개발된 프로그램을 초등과 고등 집단에게 시범 적용하여 활용 가능성을 확인했다. 앙부일구 활동을 통해 학생들은 절기별 태양 운동에 대한 오개념을 수정하며 개념 지식을 정교화했고, 이후 천구 좌표계 개념과의 연계 가능성을 확인했다. 학생들은 앙부일구의 과학적 가치를 인식했으며, 과학·기술·사회 간 상호작용의 본성을 이해했다. 고대 천문 기록 활동에서 학생들은 귀납 및 연역적 탐구 방법을 경험했고, 다양한 정보와 전략을 활용했다. 활동을 통해 학생들은 TSK에 대한 과학적 이해와 태도를 발전시켰다.


This study aims to develop two science education programs using Angbuilgu and ancient astronomical data, are Korean astronomical heritage, and explore its educational possibility through the pilot application. Considering the TSK compositional characteristics of Angbuilgu and ancient astronomical data, linkage with science curriculum, and linkage with NOS, Angbuilgu was developed as a hands-on activity for elementary school students and ancient astronomical data as a science inquiry activity for middle and high school students. The educational availability of the developed program was confirmed by pilot application to elementary and high school groups. Through the Angbuilgu activity, the students refined their conceptual knowledge by correcting misconceptions about the solar motion by season and then confirmed the possibility of connection with the concept of the celestial coordinate system. Students recognized the scientific value of Angbuilgu and understood the nature of interactions STS. In the ancient astronomical data activity, students experienced inductive and deductive inquiry methods and utilized various information and strategies. Through the activities, students improved their scientific understanding and attitude towards TSK.

KCI등재

7컴퓨팅 사고를 반영한 교사연수 과정에서 나타난 교사의 인식 탐색

저자 : 황규진 ( Gyu Jin Hwang ) , 박영신 ( Young-shin Park )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 344-364 (21 pages)

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이 연구는 두 명의 초등교사가 컴퓨팅 사고를 어떻게 인식하고 이를 교육과정 재구성에 어떻게 반영하고 수업을 하게 되는지를 장기간의 걸친 교사연수과정을 통해 탐색한 것이다. 컴퓨팅 사고는 과학교육에 연계하는 새로운 교육정책 방향이기에 초등부터 나타나는 교사의 인식을 조사하고자 하였다. 교사와의 9번의 교사회의를 가졌으며 이는 매회 2시간 정도의 시간이 소요되었고, 그 시기에 교수하게 될 한 단원을 각자 인식아래 재구성을 하여 11차시의 수업과정안을 개발하였다. 자료수집은 9개월간에 걸쳐서 인터뷰, 교사회의, 수업과정안에서 수행되었으며, 이 자료는 수업 전후의 교사회의를 통한 논의, 수업과정안 등을 통해 수집되었으며, 컴퓨팅 사고를 인식하면서 나타난 초등교사의 컴퓨팅 사고의 인식은 다음과 같이 나타났다. 첫 번째, 과학교육의 목적인 과학적 소양의 정의가 확장되었음을 볼 수 있다. 즉 문제인식에서부터 창의적인 문제해결자를 양성하는 것이 과학적 소양이라고 인식하였다. 두 번째, 과학적 사고가 강조된 개념형성단계와 컴퓨팅 사고가 강조된 개념활용단계로 수업차시를 구분하였다. 세 번째, 컴퓨팅 사고는 인지적 사고과정이며, ICT는 기능적 도구라고 인식하였다. 네 번째, 컴퓨팅 사고 요소는 중복되어 반복적으로 나타나며, 순차적이지 않을 수 있다는 것이다. 마지막으로 컴퓨팅 사고의 활용을 통해 STEAM 교육을 활성화할 수 있다고 인식하고 있음을 보여주었다. 이 연구를 바탕으로 컴퓨팅 사고의 실천은 STEAM 교육의 활성화를 위한 도구로 사용될 수 있고 이를 위해서는 일회성이 아닌 지속적이고 전문적인 교사연수를 통해 컴퓨팅 사고 전문역량 강화를 할 수 있도록 해야 할 것이다.


The study explored how two elementary school teachers perceived computational thinking, reflected them into curriculum revision, and taught them in the classroom during longitudinal professional developed program (PDP) for nine months. Computational thinking is a new direction in educational policy-making including science education; therefore we planned to investigate participating teachers' perception of computational thinking to provide their fundamental understandings. Nine meetings, lasting about two hours each, were held with the participating teachers and they developed 11 lesson plans for one unit each, as they formed new understandings about computational thinking. Data were collected through PDP program while two teachers started perceiving computational thinking, revising their curriculum, and implementing it into their class for nine months. The results were as follows; first, elementary school teachers' perception of computational thinking was that the definition of scientific literacy as the purpose of science education was extended, i.e., it refers to scientific literacy to prepare students to be creative problem solvers. Second, STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) lessons were divided into two stages; concept formation stage where scientific thinking is emphasized, and concept application, where computational thinking is emphasized. Thirdly, computational thinking is a cognitive thinking process, and ICT (informational and communications technology) is a functional tool. Fourth, computational thinking components appear repeatedly and may not be sequential. Finally, STEAM education can be improved by utilizing computational thinking. Based on this study, we imply that STEAM education can be activated by computational thinking when teachers are equipped with competencies of understanding and implementing computational thinking within the systematic PDPs, which is very essential for newly policies.

KCI등재

8암석 판별 탐구에서 중학교 영재들의 과학적 관찰의 특징 탐색

저자 : 유은정 ( Eun-jeong Yu ) , 장선경 ( Sun Kyung Jang ) , 고선영 ( Sun Young Ko )

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 365-380 (16 pages)

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본 연구의 목적은 암석 판별 탐구에서 중학교 영재학생들의 과학적 관찰과 추론의 특징을 탐색하기 위함이었다. 이를 위하여 영재교육원에 다니는 19명의 중학교 1학년 학생들에게 과학 교과서에서 중요하게 다루는 화성암, 변성암, 퇴적암이 포함된 5가지 암석 샘플을 나누어 주고 각 암석의 형성과정, 종류, 이름 등을 유추해 보도록 하였다. 연구 결과, 학생들이 주로 주목하는 암석의 특징은 색, 조직, 구조로 나타났다. 전형적인 암석의 경우 기억에 의존하여 즉각적으로 암석 판별에 성공하나 관찰에 근거한 유의미한 추론이 이루어지지 못하는 반면, 판별에 어려움을 겪는 암석의 경우 관찰에 근거한 유의미한 추론 과정이 담화를 통해 드러나기도 하였다. 또한 유의미한 관찰 결과로부터 과학적 추론을 타당하게 구성하였으나 암석 판별에 실패한 경우도 나타났다. 본 연구 결과는 중학생들의 암석 판별 탐구 활동에서 학생들의 현 수준을 파악하고, 학교 현장에서 이루어지는 암석 판별 탐구가 학생들에게 과학적 관찰과 추론의 경험을 제공할 수 있도록 방안을 모색하고, 시사점을 제공하고자 한다.


This study aimed to explore the characteristics of scientific observation and reasoning of gifted middle-school students in rock identification. Five rock samples that are considered important as per science textbooks, including igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, were provided to 19 first-year middle-school students attending a gifted education center. Students were asked to infer the formation process, type, and name of each rock. The results showed that the characteristics of rocks that students primarily paid attention to included color, texture, and structure. Students immediately succeeded in identifying common rocks based on memory; however, meaningful inferences were not made. In case of rocks that students faced difficulty discriminating, significant reasoning processes were revealed through discourse. In addition, although scientific reasoning was properly constructed based on meaningful observations, there were cases wherein rock identification failed. These results will contribute to determining the current level of understanding of middle-school students in rock identification activities and finding ways to provide students with meaningful scientific observation and inference experiences through rock identification in the school field.

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1Overview of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Retrieval Algorithms from Multi-Satellite Data

저자 : Ji-eun Park , Kyung-ae Park , Young-je Park , Hee-jeong Han

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 315-328 (14 pages)

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Since the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS)/Nimbus-7 was launched in 1978, a variety of studies have been conducted to retrieve ocean color variables from multi-satellites. Several algorithms and formulations have been suggested for estimating ocean color variables based on multi band data at different wavelengths. Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration is one of the most important variables to understand low-level ecosystem in the ocean. To retrieve chl-a concentrations from the satellite observations, an appropriate algorithm depending on water properties is required for each satellite sensor. Most operational empirical algorithms in the global ocean have been developed based on the band-ratio approach, which has the disadvantage of being more adapted to the open ocean than to coastal areas. Alternative algorithms, including the semi-analytical approach, may complement the limits of band-ratio algorithms. As more sensors are planned by various space agencies to monitor the ocean surface, it is expected that continuous monitoring of oceanic ecosystems and environments should be conducted to contribute to the understanding of the oceanic biosphere and the impact of climate change. This study presents an overview of the past and present algorithms for the estimation of chl-a concentration based on multi-satellite data and also presents the prospects for ongoing and upcoming ocean color satellites.

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2Status of Korean Research Activity on Arctic Sea Ice Monitoring using KOMPSAT-series Satellite

저자 : Hyun-cheol Kim , Tae-byeong Chae

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 329-339 (11 pages)

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Arctic warming is a global issue. The sea ice in the Arctic plays a crucial role in the climate system. We thought that a recent abnormality in many countries in the northern hemisphere could be related to the effects of shrinking sea ice in the Arctic. Many research groups monitor sea ice in the Arctic for climate research. Satellite remote sensing is an integral part of Arctic sea ice research due to the Arctic's large size, making it difficult to observe with general research equipment, and its extreme environment that is difficult for humans to access. Along with monitoring recent weather changes, Korea scientists are conducting polar remote sensing using a Korean satellite series to actively cope with environmental changes in the Arctic. The Korean satellite series is known as KOMPSAT (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite, Korean name is Arirang) series, and it carries optical and imaging radar. Since the organization of the Satellite Remote Sensing and Cryosphere Information Center in Korea in 2016, Korean research on and monitoring of Arctic sea ice has accelerated rapidly. Moreover, a community of researchers studying Arctic sea ice by satellite remote sensing increased in Korea. In this article, we review advances in Korea's remote sensing research for the polar cryosphere over the last several years. In addition to satellite remote sensing, interdisciplinary studies are needed to resolve the current limitations on research on climate change.

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3Bringing Computational Thinking into Science Education

저자 : Young-shin Park , James Green

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 340-352 (13 pages)

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The purpose of science education is scientific literacy, which is extended in its meaning in the 21st century. Students must be equipped with the skills necessary to solve problems from the community beyond obtaining the knowledge from curiosity, which is called 'computational thinking'. In this paper, the authors tried to define computational thinking in science education from the view of scientific literacy in the 21st century; (1) computational thinking is an explicit skill shown in the two steps of abstracting the problems and automating solutions, (2) computational thinking consists of concrete components and practices which are observable and measurable, (3) computational thinking is a catalyst for STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) education, and (4) computational thinking is a cognitive process to be learned. More implication about the necessity of including computational thinking and its emphasis in implementing in science teaching and learning for the envisioned scientific literacy is added.

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4The Spatially Closed Universe

저자 : Chan-gyung Park

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 353-381 (29 pages)

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The general world model for homogeneous and isotropic universe has been proposed. For this purpose, we introduce a global and fiducial system of reference (world reference frame) constructed on a (4+1)-dimensional space-time, and assume that the universe is spatially a 3-dimensional hypersurface embedded in the 4-dimensional space. The simultaneity for the entire universe has been specified by the global time coordinate. We define the line element as the separation between two neighboring events on the expanding universe that are distinct in space and time, as viewed in the world reference frame. The information that determines the kinematics of the geometry of the universe such as size and expansion rate has been included in the new metric. The Einstein's field equations with the new metric imply that closed, flat, and open universes are filled with positive, zero, and negative energy, respectively. The curvature of the universe is determined by the sign of mean energy density. We have demonstrated that the flat universe is empty and stationary, equivalent to the Minkowski space-time, and that the universe with positive energy density is always spatially closed and finite. In the closed universe, the proper time of a comoving observer does not elapse uniformly as judged in the world reference frame, in which both cosmic expansion and time-varying light speeds cannot exceed the limiting speed of the special relativity. We have also reconstructed cosmic evolution histories of the closed world models that are consistent with recent astronomical observations, and derived useful formulas such as energy-momentum relation of particles, redshift, total energy in the universe, cosmic distance and time scales, and so forth. The notable feature of the spatially closed universe is that the universe started from a non-singular point in the sense that physical quantities have finite values at the initial time as judged in the world reference frame. It has also been shown that the inflation with positive acceleration at the earliest epoch is improbable.

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5Application of Vertical Grid-nesting to the Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity Forecast

저자 : Hyeon-ju Kim , Hyeong-bin Cheong , Chung-hui Lee

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 382-391 (10 pages)

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The impact of vertical grid-nesting on the tropical cyclone intensity and track forecast was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) version 3.8 and the initialization method of the Structure Adjustable Balanced Bogus Vortex (SABV). For a better resolution in the central part of the numerical domain, where the tropical cyclone of interest is located, a horizontal and vertical nesting technique was employed. Simulations of the tropical cyclone Sanba (16th in 2012) indicated that the vertical nesting had a weak impact on the cyclone intensity and little impact on the track forecast. Further experiments revealed that the performance of forecast was quite sensitive to the horizontal resolution, which is in agreement with previous studies. The improvement is due to the fact that horizontal resolution can improve forecasts not only on the tropical cyclone-scale but also for large-scale disturbances.

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6Impacts of Albedo and Wind Stress Changes due to Phytoplankton on Ocean Temperature in a Coupled Global Ocean-biogeochemistry Model

저자 : Hyun-chae Jung , Byung-kwon Moon

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 392-405 (14 pages)

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Biogeochemical processes play an important role in ocean environments and can affect the entire Earth's climate system. Using an ocean-biogeochemistry model (NEMO-TOPAZ), we investigated the effects of changes in albedo and wind stress caused by phytoplankton in the equatorial Pacific. The simulated ocean temperature showed a slight decrease when the solar reflectance of the regions where phytoplankton were present increased. Phytoplankton also decreased the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude by decreasing the influence of trade winds due to their biological enhancement of upper-ocean turbulent viscosity. Consequently, the cold sea surface temperature bias in the equatorial Pacific and overestimation of the ENSO amplitude were slightly reduced in our model simulations. Further sensitivity tests suggested the necessity of improving the phytoplankton-related equation and optimal coefficients. Our results highlight the effects of altered albedo and wind stress due to phytoplankton on the climate system.

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7Convective Cloud RGB Product and Its Application to Tropical Cyclone Analysis Using Geostationary Satellite Observation

저자 : Yuha Kim , Sungwook Hong

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 406-413 (8 pages)

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Red-Green-Blue (RGB) imagery techniques are useful for both forecasters and public users because they are intuitively understood, have advantageous visualization, and do not lose observational information. This study presents a novel RGB convective cloud product and its application to tropical cyclone analysis using Communication, Oceanography, and Meteorology (COMS) satellite observations. The RGB convective cloud product was developed using the brightness temperature differences between WV (6.75 μm) and IR1 (10.8 μm), and IR2 (12.0 μm) and IR1 (10.8 μm) as well as the brightness temperature in the IR1 bands of the COMS, with the threshold values estimated from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) radar observations and the EUMETSAT RGB recipe. To verify the accuracy of the convective cloud RGB product, the product was applied to the center positions analysis of two typhoons in 2013. Thus, the convective cloud RGB product threshold values were estimated for WV-IR1 (-20 K to 15 K), IR1 (210 K to 300 K), and IR1-IR2 (-4 K to 2 K). The product application in typhoon analysis shows relatively low bias and root mean square errors (RMSE)s of 23 and 28 km for DANAS in 2013, and 17 and 22 km for FRANCISCO in 2013, as compared to the best tracks data from the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Tokyo. Consequently, our proposed RGB convective cloud product has the advantages of high accuracy and excellent visualization for a variety of meteorological applications.

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8Case Studies of Mass Concentration Variation in the Central-Southern Korean Peninsula Caused by Synoptic Scale Transport of Dust Storms

저자 : Hak-sung Kim , Jae-hee Cho

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 414-427 (14 pages)

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In East Asia, the long-range transport of dust storms originating from Mongolia and northern China affects airborne dust loadings over downwind areas in the southern Korean Peninsula. Since 1997, dust loading cases caused by dust storms have been observed using the thresholds of total suspended particles (TSP, ≥250 μg m-3 hr-1) and particulate matter less than 10 μg (PM10, ≥190 μg m-3 hr-1 ) in the central-southern Korean Peninsula. There were two dust loading cases that exceeded these thresholds in 2016 and three in 2017, which reflects the downward trend of the last twenty-one years in the central-southern Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, five other dust loading cases with mass concentrations lower than the thresholds were observed from 2016 to 2017. In the moderate dust loading cases exceeding the thresholds, a descending motion of cut-off lows below 45˚N and a southward trough at 500 hPa gpm isopleths intensified at the western ridge, and largely extended the surface high-pressure system over southeast China. Airborne dust loadings following pronounced north-westerlies in the forward side of the high-pressure system were transported to the surface of the central-southern Korean Peninsula. However, in slight dust loading cases lower than the thresholds, the restricted descending motion of cut-off lows over 45˚N and the southwestward trough at 500 hPa gpm isopleths intensified the zonal flow over the Korean Peninsula. Surface high- and low-pressure systems moved eastward from the source compared to moderate dust loading cases. Due to the zonal movement of dust storms traversing eastern China, slight dust loading cases were observed with relatively higher ratios of PM2.5/TSP and carbon monoxide (CO) in the central-southern Korean Peninsula.

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9Geoacoustic Model of Coastal Bottom Strata off the Northwestern Taean Peninsula in the Yellow Sea

저자 : Woo-hun Ryang , Hyuckjong Kwon , Jee-woong Choi , Kyong-o Kim , Jooyoung Hahn

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 428-435 (8 pages)

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In the shallow coastal area, located off the northwestern Taean Peninsula of the eastern Yellow Sea, geoacoustic models with two layers were reconstructed for underwater acoustic experimentation and modeling. The Yellow Sea experienced glacio-eustasy sea-level fluctuations during Quaternary period. Coastal sedimentation in the Yellow Sea was characterized by alternating terrestrial and shallow marine deposits that reflected the fluctuating sea levels. The coastal geoacoustic models were based on data from piston, grab cores and the high-resolution 3.5 kHz, chirp seismic profiles (about 70 line-kilometers, respectively). Geoacoustic data of the cores were extrapolated down to 3 m in depth for geoacoustic models. The geoacoustic property of seafloor sediments is considered a key parameter for modeling underwater acoustic environments. For simulating actual underwater environments, the P-wave speed of the models was adjusted to in-situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. The proposed geoacoustic models could be used for submarine acoustic inversion and modeling in shallow-water environments of the study area.

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10The Role of Science Knowledge Application in Improving Engineering Problem Solving Skills

저자 : Younkyeong Nam , Jimin Chae

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 436-445 (10 pages)

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This study presents how two types of integrated science and engineering lessons affect students' engineering problem solving skills and their perceptions of engineering. In total, 146 middle school students participated in this study. Eighty-six students participated in the Type I lesson (complete engineering design lesson with a science knowledge application) and 60 students participated in the Type II lesson (engineering design without a science knowledge application). Two main datasets, (1) students' Creative Engineering Problem Solving Propensity (CEPSP) measurement scores and (2) open-ended survey questions about students' perceptions of engineering, were collected before and after the lessons. The results of this study show that after participating in the Type I lesson, students' CEPSP scores significantly increased, whereas the CEPSP scores of the students who participated in the Type II lesson did not increase significantly. In addition, students who participated in the Type I lesson perceived engineering and the engineering integrated science lesson differently compared to the students who participated in the Type II lesson. The results of this study show that engineering integrated science, technology, engineering & mathematics (STEM) lessons should include a complete engineering design and a science knowledge application to improve students' engineering problem solving skills.

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