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한국지구과학회> 한국지구과학회지> Convective Cloud RGB Product and Its Application to Tropical Cyclone Analysis Using Geostationary Satellite Observation

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Convective Cloud RGB Product and Its Application to Tropical Cyclone Analysis Using Geostationary Satellite Observation

Yuha Kim , Sungwook Hong
  • : 한국지구과학회
  • : 한국지구과학회지 40권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 08월
  • : 406-413(8pages)
한국지구과학회지

DOI


목차

1. Introduction
2. Data and Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion and Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgment
References

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Red-Green-Blue (RGB) imagery techniques are useful for both forecasters and public users because they are intuitively understood, have advantageous visualization, and do not lose observational information. This study presents a novel RGB convective cloud product and its application to tropical cyclone analysis using Communication, Oceanography, and Meteorology (COMS) satellite observations. The RGB convective cloud product was developed using the brightness temperature differences between WV (6.75 μm) and IR1 (10.8 μm), and IR2 (12.0 μm) and IR1 (10.8 μm) as well as the brightness temperature in the IR1 bands of the COMS, with the threshold values estimated from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) radar observations and the EUMETSAT RGB recipe. To verify the accuracy of the convective cloud RGB product, the product was applied to the center positions analysis of two typhoons in 2013. Thus, the convective cloud RGB product threshold values were estimated for WV-IR1 (-20 K to 15 K), IR1 (210 K to 300 K), and IR1-IR2 (-4 K to 2 K). The product application in typhoon analysis shows relatively low bias and root mean square errors (RMSE)s of 23 and 28 km for DANAS in 2013, and 17 and 22 km for FRANCISCO in 2013, as compared to the best tracks data from the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Tokyo. Consequently, our proposed RGB convective cloud product has the advantages of high accuracy and excellent visualization for a variety of meteorological applications.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2019-400-001379103

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 지질
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 1225-6692
  • : 2287-4518
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1979-2021
  • : 2167


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1Distribution of Rare Earth Elements and Their Applications as Tracers for Groundwater Geochemistry - A Review

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발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 383-389 (7 pages)

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Several studies investigating the behavior and environmental distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) have been reviewed to determine the geochemical processes that may affect their concentrations and fractionation patterns in groundwater and whether these elements can be used as tracers for groundwater-rock interactions and groundwater flow paths in small catchments. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), equipped with an ultrasonic nebulizer and active-film multiplier detector, is routinely used as an analytical technique to measure REEs in groundwater, facilitating the analysis of dissolved REE geochemistry. This review focuses on the distribution of REEs in groundwater and their application as tracers for groundwater geochemistry. Our review of existing literature suggests that REEs in ice cores can be used as effective tracers for atmospheric particles, aiding the identification of source regions.

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2Impact of Iron Scavenging and Desorption Parameters on Chlorophyll Simulation in the Tropical Pacific within NEMO-TOPAZ

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발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 390-400 (11 pages)

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Ocean biogeochemistry plays a crucial role in sustaining the marine ecosystem and global carbon cycle. To investigate the oceanic biogeochemical responses to iron parameters in the tropical Pacific, we conducted sensitivity experiments using the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean-Tracers of Ocean Phytoplankton with Allometric Zooplankton (NEMO-TOPAZ) model. Compared to observations, the NEMO-TOPAZ model overestimated the concentrations of chlorophyll and dissolved iron (DFe). The sensitivity tests showed that with increasing (+50%) iron scavenging rates, chlorophyll concentrations in the tropical Pacific were reduced by approximately 16%. The bias in DFe also decreased by approximately 7%; however, the sea surface temperature was not affected. As such, these results can facilitate the development of the model tuning strategy to improve ocean biogeochemical performance using the NEMOTOPAZ model.

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3Assessment of New High-resolution Regional Climatology in the East/Japan Sea

저자 : Jae-ho Lee , You-soon Chang

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This study provides comprehensive assessment results for the most recent high-resolution regional climatology in the East/Japan Sea by comparing with the various existing climatologies. This new high-resolution climatology is generated based on the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method with individual profiles from the World Ocean Database and gridded World Ocean Atlas provided by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). It was generated from the recent previous study which had a primary focus to solve the abnormal horizontal gradient problem appearing in the other high-resolution climatology version of NCEI. This study showed that this new OI field simulates well the mesoscale features including closed-curve temperature spatial distribution associated with eddy formation. Quantitative spatial variability was compared to the other four different climatologies and significant variability at 160 km was presented through a wavelet spectrum analysis. In addition, the general improvement of the new OI field except for warm bias in the coastal area was confirmed from the comparison with serial observation data provided by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute's Korean Oceanic Data Center.

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4Distribution of Heavy Metals in Sediment Cores Collected from the Nakdong River, South Korea

저자 : Yoon-Jin Lim , Jiyeong Lee , Jihye Kang , Jeonghoon Kim , Ho-jin Park , Sang Yeol Bae , Seok Jeong , Young-seog Kim , Jong-sik Ryu

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 412-424 (13 pages)

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Understanding the distribution of heavy metals in sediment is necessary because labile heavy metals can partition into the water column and bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Here we investigated six heavy metals (Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediment cores using a five-step sequential leaching method to examine the occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment. The results showed that all elements, except Mn, are depleted in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. However, heavy metal concentrations are much higher in the Fe-Mn oxide and organic matter fractions, especially for Cu, indicating enrichment in the organic matter fraction. Furthermore, contamination parameters (contamination factor and geoaccumulation index) indicate that Mn contamination is high, primarily derived from anthropogenic sources, presenting a potential risk to ecosystems in the Nakdong River.

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5Hydrogeological Characteristics of a Riverine Wetland in the Nakdong River Delta, Korea

저자 : Hang-tak Jeon , Eun-ji Cha , Woo-ri Lim , Sul-min Yoon , Se-yeong Hamm

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 425-444 (20 pages)

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Investigating the physical and chemical properties of riverine wetlands is necessary to understand their distribution characteristics and depositional environment. This study investigated the physical (particle size, color, and type) and chemical properties (organic, inorganic, and moisture contents) of sediments in Samrak wetland, located in the Nakdong River estuary area in Busan, South Korea. The particle size analysis indicated that the hydraulic conductivity values for the coarse grain and the mixture of coarse and fine grains ranged from 2.03 to 3.49×10-1 cm s-1 and 7.18×10-3 to 1.24×10-7 cm s-1 , respectively. In-situ water quality and laboratory-based chemical analyses and radon-222 measurement were performed on groundwater and surface water in the wetland and water from the nearby Nakdong River. The physical and chemical properties of Samrak wetland was characterized by the sediments in the vertical and lateral direction. The concentrations of chemical components in the wetland groundwater were distinctly higher than those in the Nakdong River water though the wetland groundwater and Nakdong River water equally belonged to the Ca-HCO3 type.

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6Reconstruction of Terrestrial Water Storage of GRACE/GFO Using Convolutional Neural Network and Climate Data

저자 : Woohyu Jeon , Jae-seung Kim , Ki-weon Seo

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 445-458 (14 pages)

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Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravimeter satellites observed the Earth gravity field with unprecedented accuracy since 2002. After the termination of GRACE mission, GRACE Follow-on (GFO) satellites successively observe global gravity field, but there is missing period between GRACE and GFO about one year. Many previous studies estimated terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes using hydrological models, vertical displacements from global navigation satellite system observations, altimetry, and satellite laser ranging for a continuity of GRACE and GFO data. Recently, in order to predict TWS changes, various machine learning methods are developed such as artificial neural network and multi-linear regression. Previous studies used hydrological and climate data simultaneously as input data of the learning process. Further, they excluded linear trends in input data and GRACE/GFO data because the trend components obtained from GRACE/GFO data were assumed to be the same for other periods. However, hydrological models include high uncertainties, and observational period of GRACE/GFO is not long enough to estimate reliable TWS trends. In this study, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) method incorporating only climate data set (temperature, evaporation, and precipitation) to predict TWS variations in the missing period of GRACE/GFO. We also make CNN model learn the linear trend of GRACE/GFO data. In most river basins considered in this study, our CNN model successfully predicts seasonal and long-term variations of TWS change.

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7Comparison on Positive Experiences about Science between Gifted and General Students in Middle School

저자 : Taehee Kim , Youngsun Kwak , Won-mi Park

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 459-469 (11 pages)

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In this study, we investigated the difference in the affective characteristics between science-gifted students and general students through the positive experiences about science (PES) index. We also explored ways to apply the characteristics of gifted classes suggeseted by the teachers of this study, which had a positive effect on science-gifted students, to general science classes. For this study, a PES survey was carried on middle school science-gifted students enrolled in the gifted education center in the central region and general middle school students in the same area who had no experience in gifted education. Based on the survey result, we conducted in-depth interviews with teachers, having teaching experience with both science-gifted and general students. The results revealed that science-gifted students showed a significantly higher PES index than general students in all five areas of PES. The area with the largest difference between the two groups was science-related self-concept and the smallest was science academic emotion. Teachers suggested ways to apply the characteristics of science-gifted classes to general science classes, such as organizing general science classes around inquiry activities, supporting class materials such as MBL or tablets, reconstructing the classes using materials reflecting students' needs, and changing the textbook content and narrative style, to induce students' interest and curiosity. Based on the study results, ways to enhance the PES through science classes for general students were proposed.

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8Exploring Alignments among International Baccalaureate, Next Generation Science Standards, and the 2015 Science Curriculum of Korea, Focusing on Elementary Science

저자 : Myeong-kyeong Shin , Eun-jeong Kim

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 42권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 470-475 (6 pages)

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This study aimed to explore alignments among three curricula based on the contents of the university level curriculum. The 2015 revised curriculum, International Baccalaureate(IB), and Next Generation Science Standards(NGSS) were selected for this study, and a college textbook was analyzed to compare the curricula. As the age groups studying the curricular were different, we reorganized them according to school ages prior to conducting the study. The results of the analysis were: first, the contents of the 2015 revised curriculum did not sufficiently elaborate on the natural hazards related to humans, unlike the university level, IB PYP, and NGSS curricula. Third, there are different ways of introducing scientific vocabulary curricula, meaning that the number of scientific vocabularies in the 2015 revised curriculum was less than that in the IB, PYP, and NGSS.

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1Overview of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Retrieval Algorithms from Multi-Satellite Data

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Arctic warming is a global issue. The sea ice in the Arctic plays a crucial role in the climate system. We thought that a recent abnormality in many countries in the northern hemisphere could be related to the effects of shrinking sea ice in the Arctic. Many research groups monitor sea ice in the Arctic for climate research. Satellite remote sensing is an integral part of Arctic sea ice research due to the Arctic's large size, making it difficult to observe with general research equipment, and its extreme environment that is difficult for humans to access. Along with monitoring recent weather changes, Korea scientists are conducting polar remote sensing using a Korean satellite series to actively cope with environmental changes in the Arctic. The Korean satellite series is known as KOMPSAT (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite, Korean name is Arirang) series, and it carries optical and imaging radar. Since the organization of the Satellite Remote Sensing and Cryosphere Information Center in Korea in 2016, Korean research on and monitoring of Arctic sea ice has accelerated rapidly. Moreover, a community of researchers studying Arctic sea ice by satellite remote sensing increased in Korea. In this article, we review advances in Korea's remote sensing research for the polar cryosphere over the last several years. In addition to satellite remote sensing, interdisciplinary studies are needed to resolve the current limitations on research on climate change.

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The purpose of science education is scientific literacy, which is extended in its meaning in the 21st century. Students must be equipped with the skills necessary to solve problems from the community beyond obtaining the knowledge from curiosity, which is called 'computational thinking'. In this paper, the authors tried to define computational thinking in science education from the view of scientific literacy in the 21st century; (1) computational thinking is an explicit skill shown in the two steps of abstracting the problems and automating solutions, (2) computational thinking consists of concrete components and practices which are observable and measurable, (3) computational thinking is a catalyst for STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) education, and (4) computational thinking is a cognitive process to be learned. More implication about the necessity of including computational thinking and its emphasis in implementing in science teaching and learning for the envisioned scientific literacy is added.

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4The Spatially Closed Universe

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The general world model for homogeneous and isotropic universe has been proposed. For this purpose, we introduce a global and fiducial system of reference (world reference frame) constructed on a (4+1)-dimensional space-time, and assume that the universe is spatially a 3-dimensional hypersurface embedded in the 4-dimensional space. The simultaneity for the entire universe has been specified by the global time coordinate. We define the line element as the separation between two neighboring events on the expanding universe that are distinct in space and time, as viewed in the world reference frame. The information that determines the kinematics of the geometry of the universe such as size and expansion rate has been included in the new metric. The Einstein's field equations with the new metric imply that closed, flat, and open universes are filled with positive, zero, and negative energy, respectively. The curvature of the universe is determined by the sign of mean energy density. We have demonstrated that the flat universe is empty and stationary, equivalent to the Minkowski space-time, and that the universe with positive energy density is always spatially closed and finite. In the closed universe, the proper time of a comoving observer does not elapse uniformly as judged in the world reference frame, in which both cosmic expansion and time-varying light speeds cannot exceed the limiting speed of the special relativity. We have also reconstructed cosmic evolution histories of the closed world models that are consistent with recent astronomical observations, and derived useful formulas such as energy-momentum relation of particles, redshift, total energy in the universe, cosmic distance and time scales, and so forth. The notable feature of the spatially closed universe is that the universe started from a non-singular point in the sense that physical quantities have finite values at the initial time as judged in the world reference frame. It has also been shown that the inflation with positive acceleration at the earliest epoch is improbable.

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5Application of Vertical Grid-nesting to the Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity Forecast

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The impact of vertical grid-nesting on the tropical cyclone intensity and track forecast was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) version 3.8 and the initialization method of the Structure Adjustable Balanced Bogus Vortex (SABV). For a better resolution in the central part of the numerical domain, where the tropical cyclone of interest is located, a horizontal and vertical nesting technique was employed. Simulations of the tropical cyclone Sanba (16th in 2012) indicated that the vertical nesting had a weak impact on the cyclone intensity and little impact on the track forecast. Further experiments revealed that the performance of forecast was quite sensitive to the horizontal resolution, which is in agreement with previous studies. The improvement is due to the fact that horizontal resolution can improve forecasts not only on the tropical cyclone-scale but also for large-scale disturbances.

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6Impacts of Albedo and Wind Stress Changes due to Phytoplankton on Ocean Temperature in a Coupled Global Ocean-biogeochemistry Model

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Biogeochemical processes play an important role in ocean environments and can affect the entire Earth's climate system. Using an ocean-biogeochemistry model (NEMO-TOPAZ), we investigated the effects of changes in albedo and wind stress caused by phytoplankton in the equatorial Pacific. The simulated ocean temperature showed a slight decrease when the solar reflectance of the regions where phytoplankton were present increased. Phytoplankton also decreased the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude by decreasing the influence of trade winds due to their biological enhancement of upper-ocean turbulent viscosity. Consequently, the cold sea surface temperature bias in the equatorial Pacific and overestimation of the ENSO amplitude were slightly reduced in our model simulations. Further sensitivity tests suggested the necessity of improving the phytoplankton-related equation and optimal coefficients. Our results highlight the effects of altered albedo and wind stress due to phytoplankton on the climate system.

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7Convective Cloud RGB Product and Its Application to Tropical Cyclone Analysis Using Geostationary Satellite Observation

저자 : Yuha Kim , Sungwook Hong

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Red-Green-Blue (RGB) imagery techniques are useful for both forecasters and public users because they are intuitively understood, have advantageous visualization, and do not lose observational information. This study presents a novel RGB convective cloud product and its application to tropical cyclone analysis using Communication, Oceanography, and Meteorology (COMS) satellite observations. The RGB convective cloud product was developed using the brightness temperature differences between WV (6.75 μm) and IR1 (10.8 μm), and IR2 (12.0 μm) and IR1 (10.8 μm) as well as the brightness temperature in the IR1 bands of the COMS, with the threshold values estimated from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) radar observations and the EUMETSAT RGB recipe. To verify the accuracy of the convective cloud RGB product, the product was applied to the center positions analysis of two typhoons in 2013. Thus, the convective cloud RGB product threshold values were estimated for WV-IR1 (-20 K to 15 K), IR1 (210 K to 300 K), and IR1-IR2 (-4 K to 2 K). The product application in typhoon analysis shows relatively low bias and root mean square errors (RMSE)s of 23 and 28 km for DANAS in 2013, and 17 and 22 km for FRANCISCO in 2013, as compared to the best tracks data from the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Tokyo. Consequently, our proposed RGB convective cloud product has the advantages of high accuracy and excellent visualization for a variety of meteorological applications.

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8Case Studies of Mass Concentration Variation in the Central-Southern Korean Peninsula Caused by Synoptic Scale Transport of Dust Storms

저자 : Hak-sung Kim , Jae-hee Cho

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 414-427 (14 pages)

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In East Asia, the long-range transport of dust storms originating from Mongolia and northern China affects airborne dust loadings over downwind areas in the southern Korean Peninsula. Since 1997, dust loading cases caused by dust storms have been observed using the thresholds of total suspended particles (TSP, ≥250 μg m-3 hr-1) and particulate matter less than 10 μg (PM10, ≥190 μg m-3 hr-1 ) in the central-southern Korean Peninsula. There were two dust loading cases that exceeded these thresholds in 2016 and three in 2017, which reflects the downward trend of the last twenty-one years in the central-southern Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, five other dust loading cases with mass concentrations lower than the thresholds were observed from 2016 to 2017. In the moderate dust loading cases exceeding the thresholds, a descending motion of cut-off lows below 45˚N and a southward trough at 500 hPa gpm isopleths intensified at the western ridge, and largely extended the surface high-pressure system over southeast China. Airborne dust loadings following pronounced north-westerlies in the forward side of the high-pressure system were transported to the surface of the central-southern Korean Peninsula. However, in slight dust loading cases lower than the thresholds, the restricted descending motion of cut-off lows over 45˚N and the southwestward trough at 500 hPa gpm isopleths intensified the zonal flow over the Korean Peninsula. Surface high- and low-pressure systems moved eastward from the source compared to moderate dust loading cases. Due to the zonal movement of dust storms traversing eastern China, slight dust loading cases were observed with relatively higher ratios of PM2.5/TSP and carbon monoxide (CO) in the central-southern Korean Peninsula.

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9Geoacoustic Model of Coastal Bottom Strata off the Northwestern Taean Peninsula in the Yellow Sea

저자 : Woo-hun Ryang , Hyuckjong Kwon , Jee-woong Choi , Kyong-o Kim , Jooyoung Hahn

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 428-435 (8 pages)

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In the shallow coastal area, located off the northwestern Taean Peninsula of the eastern Yellow Sea, geoacoustic models with two layers were reconstructed for underwater acoustic experimentation and modeling. The Yellow Sea experienced glacio-eustasy sea-level fluctuations during Quaternary period. Coastal sedimentation in the Yellow Sea was characterized by alternating terrestrial and shallow marine deposits that reflected the fluctuating sea levels. The coastal geoacoustic models were based on data from piston, grab cores and the high-resolution 3.5 kHz, chirp seismic profiles (about 70 line-kilometers, respectively). Geoacoustic data of the cores were extrapolated down to 3 m in depth for geoacoustic models. The geoacoustic property of seafloor sediments is considered a key parameter for modeling underwater acoustic environments. For simulating actual underwater environments, the P-wave speed of the models was adjusted to in-situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. The proposed geoacoustic models could be used for submarine acoustic inversion and modeling in shallow-water environments of the study area.

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10The Role of Science Knowledge Application in Improving Engineering Problem Solving Skills

저자 : Younkyeong Nam , Jimin Chae

발행기관 : 한국지구과학회 간행물 : 한국지구과학회지 40권 4호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 436-445 (10 pages)

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This study presents how two types of integrated science and engineering lessons affect students' engineering problem solving skills and their perceptions of engineering. In total, 146 middle school students participated in this study. Eighty-six students participated in the Type I lesson (complete engineering design lesson with a science knowledge application) and 60 students participated in the Type II lesson (engineering design without a science knowledge application). Two main datasets, (1) students' Creative Engineering Problem Solving Propensity (CEPSP) measurement scores and (2) open-ended survey questions about students' perceptions of engineering, were collected before and after the lessons. The results of this study show that after participating in the Type I lesson, students' CEPSP scores significantly increased, whereas the CEPSP scores of the students who participated in the Type II lesson did not increase significantly. In addition, students who participated in the Type I lesson perceived engineering and the engineering integrated science lesson differently compared to the students who participated in the Type II lesson. The results of this study show that engineering integrated science, technology, engineering & mathematics (STEM) lessons should include a complete engineering design and a science knowledge application to improve students' engineering problem solving skills.

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