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서울대학교 인지과학연구소> Journal of Cognitive Science> The role of subsyllabic units in the visual word recognition of Korean monosyllabic words: A masked priming study

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The role of subsyllabic units in the visual word recognition of Korean monosyllabic words: A masked priming study

Say Young Kim , Donald J. Bolger
  • : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소
  • : Journal of Cognitive Science 17권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2016년 09월
  • : 343-359(17pages)
Journal of Cognitive Science

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Native speakers of Korean have been shown to prefer a left-branching body-coda subsyllabic structure over a right branching onset-rime structure when processing monosyllabic words in written language. However, counter-arguments have been made that the highly transparent nature of Korean hangul provides no preference for larger subsyllabic units beyond the phoneme. A masked priming lexical decision experiment was conducted to determine whether this subsyllabic preference occurs for orthographic processing in Korean. C1VC2 structured monosyllabic target words preceded by one of four different types of primes at a short prime duration (50 ms): body (C1VC), rime (CVC2), identical (C1VC2), and non-match (C2VC1). Both identical and body prime conditions elicited a significant priming effect as consistent with the left-branching model in Korean. The present study provides converging evidence for a left-branching model of subsyllabic structure in visual word recognition in Korean using a masked priming paradigm.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2017-180-000531391

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 심리학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1598-2327
  • : 1976-6939
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2000-2022
  • : 317


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발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-32 (32 pages)

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Both Johnson-Laird and Jean Piaget proposed psychological theories of reasoning. Johnson-Laird formulated a mental-model theory in opposition to rule-based theories of reasoning; however, he put Piaget's theory in the latter pigeonhole. In this paper, I argue that this is a misconception of Piaget's theory of propositional reasoning and that further misconceptions have separated Johnson-Laird's and Piaget's theory of reasoning unnecessarily. To this end, I outline and compare salient aspects of Piaget's operatory theory and Johnson-Laird's mental-model theory of propositional reasoning. I conclude that a misconception lies at the heart of the purported opposition of the mental-model and operatory theories and suggest that both theories correctly understood might even complement each other.

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The brain tumor is the growth of an abnormal mass in the brain which may be malignant or benign. Misdiagnosis of different types of brain tumors reduces the patients' chances of survival. In the last years, efforts have been made to automate the present process for clinical and research reasons. For this purpose, machine learning methods were highly considered for a long time. In this paper, we presented a method for classification of brain tumors from magnetic resonance images using a convolutional neural network and two-level discrete wavelet transform algorithm. The BRATS 2013 dataset contains FLAIR, T1, T1c and T2 images of 20 patients with high-grade glioma, and ten patients with low-grade glioma were used in this investigation. This study aimed to classify the data into two classes of high-grade glioma and low-grade glioma by convolution neural network using a two-level wavelet transform algorithm on images. The Image wavelet coefficients contain more information than the original images, thus increasing the network performance. All the experiments were performed on the main dataset and two synthetic datasets with 60 and 300 data. The highest classification accuracy is obtained for T1 images in all three sets of 30, 60 and 300 data that were 86.25%, 94.58%, and 95.86%, respectively.

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3Individual Differences in the Expectation-based Comprehension of Korean Dative Sentences: An ERP Study

저자 : Hongoak Yun , Dongsu Lee , Yunju Nam

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 57-94 (38 pages)

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Readers' active use of linguistic cues from a given context elicits anticipatory processing of yet-to-be-encountered information. In this study, we aimed to examine whether the patterns of anticipatory comprehension would systematically differ by the degree of readers' working memory capacity. Readers' evoked responses potentials (ERPs) in response to words were recorded in the processing of Korean dative sentences (i.e., subject+[recipient+theme]/[theme-recipient]+adverb+verb) in which the presentation order of arguments (i.e., role predictability) and the likelihood corresponding to argument role fillers (i.e., word predictability) were manipulated. We found quantitative and qualitative differences in ERPs among readers during sentence comprehension. The N400 emerged in the integration of unpredictable words, and it occurred more frequently among readers with low working memory. Of our interest, we observed the asymmetrical distribution of the negativity and the positivity, attributable to the differences in readers' working memory, at adverbs and verbs in which readers were busy with integrating previously-presented arguments into sentences and processing incoming words. Our results suggested that readers with low working memory are more involved in the lexical retrieval process, whereas those with high working memory are more attentive to the structural or semantic integration process. In short, we argued that the lack of working memory capacity could make readers fall behind in using lexical and structural information during sentence processing, particularly for argument integration.

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4A Realizational Approach to Light Verb Ellipsis in Korean: Non-constituent Ellipsis as Zero Vocabulary Insertion

저자 : Changguk Yim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 23권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 95-121 (27 pages)

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In Distributed Morphology, the operation of Vocabulary Insertion applies a phonological exponent (Vocabulary Item) to a functional terminal morpheme. In this article, I propose that even if there is a candidate Vocabulary Item for the designated terminal node, Vocabulary Insertion may not insert a Vocabulary Item, which I dud Zero Vocabulary Insertion. Specifically, based on the fact that the light verb ha- 'do' in Korean may be elided in certain contexts, I offer a realizational, morpheme-based analysis of the phenomenon of the light verb in which the ha- ellipsis is not a bona fide syntactic constituent ellipsis. Rather, it occurs post-syntactically when the operation of Vocabulary Insertion does not apply a Vocabulary Item to the relevant functional morpheme for the verb at stake. Zero Vocabulary Insertion explains the property of the non-constituent ellipsis of the light verb.

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2The role of subsyllabic units in the visual word recognition of Korean monosyllabic words: A masked priming study

저자 : Say Young Kim , Donald J. Bolger

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 17권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 343-359 (17 pages)

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초록보기

Native speakers of Korean have been shown to prefer a left-branching body-coda subsyllabic structure over a right branching onset-rime structure when processing monosyllabic words in written language. However, counter-arguments have been made that the highly transparent nature of Korean hangul provides no preference for larger subsyllabic units beyond the phoneme. A masked priming lexical decision experiment was conducted to determine whether this subsyllabic preference occurs for orthographic processing in Korean. C1VC2 structured monosyllabic target words preceded by one of four different types of primes at a short prime duration (50 ms): body (C1VC), rime (CVC2), identical (C1VC2), and non-match (C2VC1). Both identical and body prime conditions elicited a significant priming effect as consistent with the left-branching model in Korean. The present study provides converging evidence for a left-branching model of subsyllabic structure in visual word recognition in Korean using a masked priming paradigm.

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3Gender Mismatches and Ellipsis in Cayuga

저자 : Michael Barrie

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 17권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 361-388 (28 pages)

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This paper discusses a kind of ellipsis in Cayuga (Northern Iroquoian) known as stripping. We show that while person, number and gender feature mismatches are generally tolerated in this construction, gender mismatches are not tolerated with most predicate nouns referring to humans. Merchant (2014) discusses gender mismatches under ellipsis in Greek human nominals and proposes that certain human nouns are lexically encoded to presuppose the gender of their respective referents. We show that Merchant's general proposal can be accommodated to the Cayuga facts, the specifics of his proposal cannot be carried over. We reject the lexicalist stance in Merchant's proposal and instead propose that human noun roots in Cayuga carry an interpretable humanness feature [H], which is obligatorily valued for gender. It is this interpretable [H] feature that gives rise to the lack of tolerance for gender mismatches on human predicate nouns.

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4The Predictive Processing of Korean Control Sentences

저자 : Jina Song , Hongoak Yun

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 17권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 389-422 (34 pages)

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The goal of this study is to investigate whether an antecedent for pro in Korean control sentences is predictively determined and if so, which constituent is preferred to be selected as an antecedent for pro. We manipulated the type of preverbal markers (i.e., control-creating markers, -keys or -la, and a control-neutral marker, -kes) and the type of control verbs (subject control verbs, object control verbs). Using a self-paced moving window reading task with a secondary judgment, we found that 1) reading times at control verbs were slower when preverbal markers (i.e., control-neutral markers) did not provide any particular semantic information on pro than when they (i.e., control creating markers) cued semantic information on pro. 2) The words prior to control verbs took longer to read when the antecedent for pro corresponded to matrix subjects than matrix objects. 3) The rejection rates of sentences were higher from the position of control verbs when control-neutral markers were used and pro had to be co-indexed with matrix subjects than when control-creating markers were used and pro had to be co-indexed with matrix objects. Our results suggest that licensing of pro identity was predictively determined and matrix objects were preferred the antecedent for pro. Taken together, we claim that Korean readers actively and immediately use information from preverbal markers and control verbs associated with pro resolution.

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5A Processing-Based Account for the Preferred Ordering of the Korean Classifier Structures

저자 : Kum Jeong Joo , Kitaek Kim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 17권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 423-440 (18 pages)

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This study explores whether native Korean speakers have a preference between the two numeral classifier structures, N+NUM+CL and NUM+CLgen+N. According to Hawkins's (2004) domain minimization account, the N+NUM+CL structure would be preferred over the NUM+CLge +N structure because the former considerably has a bigger IC-to-word ratio than the latter. To test this prediction, we conducted an experiment in which native Korean-speaking adults completed two acceptability judgment tasks, one written (n = 67) and one spoken (n = 46). The results of the two acceptability judgment tasks indicate that native Korean speakers prefer N+NUM+CL over NU +CLgen+N, compatible with the prediction of the domain minimization account.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

6The Role of Categorical Information in Refutation Texts

저자 : Irini Skopeliti , Stella Vosniadou

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 17권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 441-468 (28 pages)

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In two experiments we investigated the hypotheses that a) the refutation of more than one alternative conception, and b) the inclusion of categorical information in a refutation text will facilitate elementary school children's understanding of the scientific concept of the Earth. The results of the first experiment showed no clear support of the first hypothesis but suggested that the inclusion of categorical information - information about the ontological category in which a concept belongs - is more effective than other kinds of information. The second experiment controlled for the amount of information and compared only the inclusion of categorical vs. non categorical information in refutation and non-refutation texts. The results showed that the texts that included the categorical information improved children's understanding of the scientific information more than all the other texts. This result needs to be replicated using more examples from other science domains.

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7The Effect of Present Activity Verbs on Processing Structural Ambiguity in Japanese Garden-Path Sentences

저자 : Yoshie Yamamori

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 17권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 469-497 (29 pages)

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This paper addresses the semantics of the present form (known as the -ru form) of activity verbs in Japanese and examines the effect of these verbs in contrast to that of the inflected form (the  ta form). Garden-path sentences involving an ambiguity between a simple sentential reading and a relative clause reading generally show a preference for the former reading; when the preferred reading proves to be inconsistent with the correct reading of the sentence, the ensuing processing difficulty is known as the 'garden-path effect.' Interestingly, it has been observed that the effect is reduced in sentences that contain activity verbs in the present -ru form in the adnominal clause. One major problem that arises in the interpretation of the -ru form in subordinate clauses is that it is temporally ambiguous, and may be interpreted as belonging to the matrix clause instead. To date, no uniform analysis has been developed to characterize the semantic nature of the -ru form in subordinate clauses. This study will develop a semantics of the -ru form. The data revealed some interesting findings suggesting some logical characteristics of the -ru form. The results help to clarify how the semantic nature of the -ru form exerts an effect on the processing of garden path sentences, and to show that, contrary to what had been assumed in the absence of semantic research into the embedding verb, the activity verbs ending in the -ru form extend the worlds against which a given proposition is evaluated, which has the effect of reducing the GP effect.

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