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경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원> 비교문화연구> 문화,문학 : 비교문학의 과제와 문학적 트랜스내셔널리즘

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문화,문학 : 비교문학의 과제와 문학적 트랜스내셔널리즘

Culture,Literature : The Tasks of Comparative Literary Studies and The Literary Transnationalism

이창남 ( Chang Nam Lee )
  • : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원
  • : 비교문화연구 38권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2015년 03월
  • : 245-264(20pages)
비교문화연구

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 경계의 아포리: 처용과 이방
Ⅱ. '세계'에서 '비교'로
Ⅲ. 탈중심화와 비교문학의 난제들
Ⅳ. 번역과 비교에서의 “다리와 문”
Ⅴ. 문학적 트랜스내셔널리즘과 새로운 공동체
참 고 문 헌

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In this paper, I suggest methodological ways of studying comparative literature regarding ongoing discussions of world and national literature. The role of comparative literature studies has widened in the contemporary era, in which nations have become rapidly entangled and the concept of the world as a unified entity is under question. In this regard, I critically review the traditional principles of the hospitality of cosmopolitanism and the exclusivity of the borders of national literatures. Further, I suggest that scholars adopt the concept by Sigmund Freud of "unfamiliar familiarity" as a methodological motive for studies of comparative literature. Based on this concept, scholars can further develop the unique methods of the discipline of comparative literary studies for teaching and research amidst the ongoing phenomenon of globalization. They can also use these methods to simultaneously contribute to solving the problem of "comparison without a unifying category of the world," as revealed by the results of deconstructional and postcolonial studies. Regarding community-based discussions of literature, I introduce the "bridge and door" metaphor, put forth by Georg Simmel, as a key concept in methodological consideration of translation and in comparative literary studies. In this paper, adopting the metaphor of the bridge and door as an intertextual and social model for comparative studies, I define the new role of comparative literary studies in literary transnationalism, which is particularly necessary when different languages and cultures overlap and become entangled. Regarding the rapidly changing contemporary world community, comparative literary studies, as an experimental discipline, is uniquely capable of examining this kind of community, which forms itself beyond and beneath individual nations.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2015-300-002054011

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 기타(인문과학)
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 연3회
  • : 1598-0685
  • : 2671-9088
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1994-2022
  • : 924


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65권0호(2022년 02월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1'발산과 수렴'의 언어, 문화적 발현 -'평서문과 의문문'을 중심으로-

저자 : 오정민 ( Oh Jungmin )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 65권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-35 (35 pages)

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프랑스어와 한국어 안에 자리한 사유방향의 대립성 특히 발산과 수렴은 태극 그림에서 그 엄연한 법칙이 짚어지며 그러한 언어, 문화적 발현은 이원적 대립에서 나아가 보다 세분화된 사상(四象)의 이효 괘를 통하여 분석될 수 있다. 이효 괘에서 상부 효와 하부 효는 각각 '자아개념'의 자리, '발화자가 외부세계와 맺는 관계'의 자리로서 그 자리가 음인지 양인지에 따라 의문문/평서문, 숫자 세는 방법, 날짜나 주소, 성명 표기의 순서, 동양화의 화법과 원근법 등이 대립적 현상으로 나타나는 것이다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 언어분석에서 도출되는 사상의 소음(少陰), 소양(少陽)의 괘에서 상부 효와 하부 효가 음인지 양인지에 따라 한국과 프랑스에서 서로 문화적 가치판단이 대립적으로 뒤바뀌는 연원을 밝혀낸다. 그리하여 의문문/평서문 분석에서 시작된 사상적 뒤바뀜의 사유패턴은 결국 문화적 발산, 수렴과 직결되어 있다는 사실에 이른다. 그것은 한국과 프랑스의 일상에서 자주 접하게 되는 문화적 대척 현상을 이원성이라는 단순한 음양 대립보다는 소양, 소음의 이효 괘로 풀어내는 것이기도 하다. 이로써 자아개념(상부 효)이나 개인관계에 대한 가치관(하부 효)과 그로부터 야기되는 언어, 문화현상에 있어서 한국과 프랑스가 사상적으로 서로 뒤바뀌어 있음을 구체적 예를 통하여 밝혀내었다.


The opposition in the way of thinking especially the opposition of emissivity and receptiveness revealed by analyzing the declarative and interrogative sentences in our study could be visualized by Taegeuk. The dualism of Yin-Yang can be subdivided into Sixiàng to better locate the characteristics of each part of our universe, which leads to two parts of trigrams, specifically the bigrams of Sixiàng. Our previous study which showed that the upper part of bigrams indicates the notion of ego while the lower part the relationships between an enunciator and its interlocutor was proved to be also valid both in the cultural phenomenon such as the way of painting, counting, and scribing dates, addresses, names, et cetera and in the linguistic phenomenon such as declarative and interrogative sentences in Korean and French. These two regions on our planet correspond to Yin and Yang. Our search specifically revealed that the properties of Soeum and Soyang are inherent in the concrete examples of Korean and French cultures and languages.

KCI등재

2로맨틱 코미디, 깡패영화에서 남성 멜로드라마로 1992~2000: 영화 사이클의 변화와 계급, 젠더, 세대의 문제

저자 : 정영권 ( Chung Youngkwon )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 65권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 37-78 (42 pages)

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본 연구는 IMF를 전후한 1992~2000년 시기 로맨틱 코미디, 깡패영화, 남성 멜로드라마가 이행, 접합하는 과정을 계급, 젠더, 세대라는 측면에서 논하고자 했다. 1980년대 후반 이후 본격적으로 형성된 중산층의 생활양식은 1992년 이후 로맨틱 코미디에서 나타났다. 한편, 1994년부터 본격적인 사이클을 구가하는 깡패영화는 신자유주의화하는 한국사회에서 만연한 물질주의와 계급상승 의지를 보여주었다. 그러나 1997년부터 이 흐름은 노골적 욕망을 포기하고 사랑하는 여자나 가족을 위해 죽으며, 회한과 향수 정서에 가닿았다. 이것이 <편지> (1997), <약속>(1998) 등 남성 멜로드라마 사이클의 주조라고 할 수 있다. 멜로드라마는 로맨틱 코미디를 대체한 장르이자 1997~1998년 깡패영화와 만나 남성 멜로드라마라는 한 몸이 되었던 것이다.
IMF 시기 남성 멜로드라마는 한국 중산층이 꿈꾸던 전원적 유토피아를 영화라는 환상 속에서 구현하며, 영화 속 남성들은 로맨틱 코미디가 보여준 핵가족 재생산 실현의 의지를 보여주지 못한다. 이것은 엄혹한 역사의 시간을 맞이한 한국영화가 회한, 향수로 퇴행하면서 미래 세대를 생산할 수 없음을 보여주는 것이었다. 그것은 또한 중산층의 붕괴과정이기도 했다.


This study focuses on the transition process and articulation between romantic comedy, gangster film, and male melodrama from 1992 to 2000, around the IMF era, in terms of class, gender, and generation. The middle-class lifestyle which can be traced from the late 1980s in South Korea was represented in romantic comedy since 1992. In the meantime, the gangster films which have enjoyed the cycles since 1994 displayed the desire to move up in social class. However, since 1997, this tendency has been associated with the death of men for women or family members they loved, creating the mood of regret and nostalgia. In other words, melodrama substituted romantic comedy and became the male melodrama by connecting with the gangster films.
The male melodrama in the IMF era represented the rural utopia that the Korean middle class desired, but men in these films could not have the will of the reproduction of nuclear family. This showed that the Korean male melodrama faced the impossibility of producing the next generation while it regressed toward regret and nostalgia. This also indicated the process of middle-class collapse.

KCI등재

3현대슬라브어 등위 접속사 a의 기능 연구

저자 : 정정원 ( Chung Jungwon )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 65권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 79-115 (37 pages)

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지역어와 국어를 막론하고 모든 현대슬라브어에는 등위 접속사 a가 존재하고, 이것은 대조, 도입, 역접, 연결, 연속, 이접의 다양한 기능을 수행한다.
슬라브어 접속사 a의 가장 본질적인 기능은 대상, 특징, 사건들의 내적 관련성의 유무에 관계없이 서로 다른 것을 병치하는 대조 기능이라 할 수 있으며, 모든 슬라브어에서 a는 대조를 표현한다. 또한 대부분의 슬라브어 접속사 a는 선행 발화나 선행 맥락 없이 새 발화를 등장시키는 도입 기능, 그리고 서로 인접하는 것이 비일상적인 두 명제를 연결하는 역접 기능을 수행하는데, 이는 각각 사고와 발화라는 서로 다른 영역을 연결하고, 내적 인과관계의 단절에 대한 전제 없이 두 명제를 병치시킨다는 측면에서 대조 기능과 밀접한 연관을 맺고 있다. 이 이외에도 서슬라브어에서는 접속사 a가 연결과 연속 관계를 표현하고, 남슬라브어에서는 독립적인 것들 사이의 선택에 기반한 이접 기능을 수행하기도 한다.
이와 같이 여러 슬라브어에서 접속사 a는 매우 다양한 기능으로 널리 사용되고, 러시아어학계에서 흔히 매우 러시아어적인 접속사라 간주되는 접속사 a는 러시아어를 넘어 매우 슬라브어적인 접속사라 할 수 있으며, 그 기능적 변별성 및 다양성과 그 기능들 사이의 관계에 주목할 필요가 있다.


This article aims to examine functions of the Slavic coordinate conjunction a. All modern Slavic national and regional languages have a conjunction that is pronounced as /a/ which fulfills functions, such as contrastive, introductory, adversative (in a narrow sense), copulative, consecutive, and disjunctive functions.
The contrastive function occurring among semantically related or unrelated things juxtaposed by the Slavic conjunction a is the most basic and prominent function of this conjunction, and all the modern Slavic conjunctions pronounced as /a/ can represent a contrastive relation between coordinates.
The Slavic a also serves as an introductory conjunction appearing at the beginning of an utterance without a related precedent utterance or context, and as an adversative conjunction connecting incompatible events. These two functions must have been derived from its contrastive function since the introductory conjunction juxtaposes a new utterance to an unuttered inner speech or an unrelated precedent discourse, and the Slavic adversative a juxtaposes propositions that do not usually co-occur, not implicating a breaking of a usual chain of causation.
In the West Slavic languages, except Polish, the conjunction a is, above all, a copulative conjunction and can also serve as a consecutive conjunction. On the other hand, some South Slavic languages have a correlative disjunctive conjunction a, repeatedly added at the beginning of each coordinate.
Many Russian linguists suggested that the Russian conjunction a is the most typical Russian conjunction that cannot be translated into other languages. However, the Russian conjunction a shares its main functions and pragmatic peculiarities with other Slavic equivalents, and the corresponding conjunctions in other Slavic languages also have their own idiosyncratic functions. Therefore, the conjunction a should be considered a characteristic Slavic conjunction rather than a peculiar Russian conjunction.

KCI등재

4신유물론, 해러웨이, 퇴비주의

저자 : 주기화 ( Joo Kee Wha )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 65권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 117-146 (30 pages)

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이 글은 다나 해러웨이의 '우리는 퇴비다'라는 선언이 어떤 맥락에서 나왔고, 세계를 이해하는 관점을 어떻게 바꾸었으며, 그리고 왜 지금 이것이 필요한지 살펴본다. 이를 위해 첫째, 데카르트의 이원론을 해체하는 해러웨이의 '자연문화' 개념을 신유물론 페미니즘 맥락에서 살펴본다. 둘째, '우리는 퇴비다'라는 해러웨이의 윤리-존재-인식-론을 생태진화발생생물학 차원에서 과학적ㆍ직관적으로 이해하기 위해, 린 마굴리스의 공생발생 이론, 마이크로바이옴 개념, 비키 헌의 동물권 인식을 차용하여, 장내 미생물과 인간의 공동생성적 반려 관계를 살펴본다. 셋째, 기존의 포스트휴머니즘을 인간 예외주의와 추상적 미래주의로 비판하면서, 포스트휴머니즘과 결별하는 그의 새로운 윤리-존재-인식-론을 '퇴비주의'로 부를 것을 제안한다.


This paper examines the context in which Donna Haraway's 'we are compost' manifesto was conceived, how it changed our perception and understanding of the world, and why we need it now. First, I examine Haraway's concept of 'naturecultures', which deconstructs the dualism of René Descartes, in the context of New Material Feminism. Second, to scientifically and intuitively understand Haraway's ethics-onto-epistem-ology of 'we are compost' in ecological evolutionary developmental biology (EcoEvoDevo), by borrowing the concept of Lynn Margulis's symbiogenesis, microbiome, and Vicki Hearne's animal rights, I examine the sympoietic companionship between gut microbes and humans. Third, I propose to call her new ethics-onto-epistem-ology, which criticizes posthumanism as human exceptionalism and abstract futurism, as 'compostism'.

KCI등재

5리들리 스콧 영화에서 드러나는 히스테리의 구원론 - <엑소더스 : 신들과 왕들>, <에이리언 : 커버넌트>, <킹덤 오브 헤븐>을 중심으로

저자 : 허의진 ( Hur Euijin )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 65권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 147-174 (28 pages)

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본 연구는 리들리 스콧의 작품, 특히 <엑소더스 : 신들과 왕들>(2014), <에이리언 : 커버넌트>(2017), 그리고 <킹덤 오브 헤븐>(2005)을 정신분석에서 말하는 히스테리와 윤리를 바탕으로 분석하는데 그 목표가 있다. 영화에서 스크린이 차지하는 위치는 관객과 감독 사이를 매개하는 동시에 거리 혹은 간극을 만드는 것으로 감독과 관객 모두를 보존하는 참조점의 위치이다. 스크린의 이러한 유보는 '구원'의 개념과 연결될 수 있다. 이는 라캉이 말하는 히스테리자의 욕망과 환상의 횡단 등의 개념을 지탱하는 근거이며, 라캉을 바탕으로 자신의 이론을 개진하는 슬라보예 지젝의 중심 사유이기도 하다. 마찬가지 맥락에서 분석의 끝은 증상의 소멸을 의미하지 않는다. 오히려 분석의 종료는 역설적으로 긴장상태의 지속에 더 가깝기 때문이다. 그러므로 스콧이 자신의 작품에서 끊임없이 발화하는 메시지의 목적은 대타자를 겨냥하여 전략적으로 도발하는 히스테리자의 고발로 해석할 여지가 있다. 그렇다면 비평이란 긴장 관계에서 영화와 관객 사이의 긴장 상태 속에서 발생하는 중지되는 순간을 밝혀내는 절차라고 할 수 있을 것이다. 이러한 차원에서 스콧의 영화는 히스테리적인 윤리를 추구하고 있다고 말할 수 있다.


The study aimed to analyze Ridley Scott's works, especially Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014), Alien: Covenant (2017), and Kingdom of Heaven (2005) based on the hysteria and ethics referred to in psychoanalysis. The position occupied by the screen in the film is the position of the reference point that preserves both the director and the audience by mediating between the audience and the director while creating a distance or gap. This reservation of the screen can be linked to the concept of 'Salvation'. This is the basis for the concept of hysteria's desire and Traverse of Fantasy and is also the central reason for Slavoj Žižek, who expresses his theory based on Lacan. In this context, the end of the analysis does not mean the elimination of symptoms. Rather, the end of the analysis is paradoxically closer to the continuation of tension. Therefore, the purpose of Scott's constant provocation in his work can be interpreted as an accusation of hysteria that strategically provokes the Other. If so, criticism can be said to be a procedure to uncover the moment that occurs in a tense relationship between a film and an audience. In this respect, it can be said that Scott's film pursues hysterical ethics.

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1문화,문학 : 장혁주의 「춘향전」을 통해 본 제국과 식민지의 변주

저자 : 김계자 ( Gae Ja Kim )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 7-28 (22 pages)

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This article considers Chunhyanjeon written in Japanese by Jang Hyukju in 1938. His Chunhyangjeon was presented from among the collusion and crack of ``things Japanese`` and ``things Chosun`` discussed in Japanese literary world in the 1930`s. This article analyzed the writing method and the meaning of the text. Jang Hyukju(張赫宙, 1905∼1997) became known to Japanese literary world by the second grade nomination of the prize contest of the magazine Kaizo in 1932. Since then, he worked actively in the Japanese literary world by writing novels in Japanese and introducing the literature of Chosun. Thanks to his activity, the literature of Chosun drew attraction from the Japanese, which can be called ``boom``. Jang Hyukju was in the middle of this boom. So, his text presented the collusion and crack of empire and colony. We can make sure this issue from his play Chunhyangjeon. When he presented Chunhyangjeon, Jang Hyukju mentioned his purpose of writing. He intended to write modern play in new literary style. Chunhyangjeon was surely the material of things traditional Chosun, which was corresponded to the demand of Japanese literary world. Through the story of Chunhyangjeon, however, he formed the modern text style. He wrote in standard Japanese language, and described things from the perspective style which is often used in modern novel. And he renewed the character characteristically and arranged the structure of the play. His writing style showed clear distinction in the comparison to Chunhyangjeon written by You Chijin which was presented in Korean language 2 years earlier than Jang Hyukuju`s. The text Chunhyangjeon written in Japanese by Jang Hyukju reflected specificity as a district of Japan. But on the other hand, a new literary method of modern realism was tried. Chunhyangjeon written by Jang Hyukju shows the cross penetration of empire and colony. And in his Japanese-language literature, the literature of Chosun is coexisting and playing variation.

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2문화,문학 : 테네시 윌리엄스의 블랑쉬 다시 기억하기 -공포와 연민을 넘어서 책임과 공감으로-

저자 : 김미정 ( Mi Jeong Kim )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 29-63 (35 pages)

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This paper attempts to re-read Tennessee William`s A Streetcar Named Desire from a non-Aristotelian perspective, particularly focusing on the audience performativity. In Chapter 6 of the Poetics, Aristotle says that tragedy has a final purpose or end (telos) and that is to inspire a catharsis (literally “purification”) of pity and fear by means of representation and to give pleasure from experiencing their relief. However, a dramatic theoretician Augusto Boal argues that Aristotelian catharsis is not to get rid of pity and fear through their vehement discharge; rather, the basic function of catharsis is the purging of antisocial elements from the social body and the restoration of order because catharsis occurs when the spectator, terrified by the spectacle of the catastrophe, is purified of his “hamartia” which looks similar to the tragic flaw of the hero in the play. Thus, Boal asserts that Aristotle`s coercive system of tragedy manipulates the emotions of the passive spectator. By contrast, in non-Aristotelian aesthetics, tragedy functions not as legitimation for a particular political configuration but as the performance of ethical acts―through which all the participants, including not only the actors but also the audience, communicate more actively about practical problems and actively work in order to make sense of themselves, others, and society. Here, the audience is required to restore and reinforce his/her capacity to think and to act; thus, an unquestioning, passive, indifferent attitude is not allowed. In these contexts, this paper explores how Tennessee William`s A Streetcar Named Desire involves the audience in the responsibility for what occurs on the stage, in order to urge the audience`s ethical judgements and responsible acts. This paper argues that what this play asks of us is not catharsis, the purging of pity and fear, but empathy toward the other`s pain, beyond pity and fear, to carry out our responsibility of sharing in and caring for the other`s suffering. That is to say that it will be an ethical way to “re-member” Blanche DuBoi―the iconic Williams victim “dis-membered” by traumatic memories and open wounds and is thus unable to complete her grieving and mourning―as one of us, not as the other. It will be the only way to remember right regarding her tragedy.

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3문화,문학 : 포스트모던 그림책에서의 역설과 아이러니 -앤서니 브라운의 『돼지책』을 중심으로-

저자 : 나선희 ( Sun Hee Ra )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 65-87 (23 pages)

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This study has examined, first of all, one of unique characteristics of picturebook, so-called dual audience. To be more exact, this paper aimed at exploring the flexibility of picturebooks that allows both of children and adult reader to enjoy them. For this, we analysed Piggybook by Anthony Browne that so far has been read as a traditional picturebook with a single distinctive narrative rather than as a postmodern picturebook with multiple narratives, centering on paradox and irony. The results of this study were as fallows: Piggybook has the potential of multiple readings and meanings for a variety of audiences. Above all, this picturebook raises not only the question about the gender roles but also the one about representation of reality through the language.

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4문화,문학 : 미국의 9/11 애도 작업에 관한 고찰: 9/11추모관 건립과 테러와의 전쟁을 중심으로

저자 : 오봉희 ( Bong Hee Oh )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 89-113 (25 pages)

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This paper explores the work of mourning of 9/11 in the United States, focusing on the project of building the National September 11 Memorial managed by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation(LMDC) and the War on Terror declared by the George W. Bush administration in the wake of 9/11. This paper first looks at the project of building the Natioanl September 11 Memorial and considers what was at stake in achieving this project. It also examines the limitations of the project. This paper argues that, in spite of the efforts to mourn the victims in significant and meaningful ways, the work of mourning in the memorial project fails at least in two respects. First, the memorial project “began so soon” right after 9/11 that the victims` families were not given enough time to mourn their loved ones. Second, the project were permeated with American nationalism and patriotism, which made the 316 non-American victims of 9/11 invisible and forgotten. Then, it goes on to examine the War on Terror because the War on Terror epitomized the failure of mourning due to these causes. In his address to the nation delivered on the very day of 9/11, President George W. Bush stated that “America was targeted for the attack because we`re the brightest beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world” and that the terrorists failed to threaten America into chaos. He also stated that America is in “the war against terrorism.” These statements were a futile reassertion of the illusion of American invulnerability and a prohibition of mourning in favor of violent military responses to 9/11. American nationalism also underlies Bush`s official naming of September 11 as “Patriot Day.” The victims were sacrificed because they were at the site when terrorists attacked, which implies that their death had nothing to do with American patriotism. Naming September 11 as Patriot Day was an act of imbuing the absurdity of the victims` death with a false meaning and an act of forgetting the non-American victims. The failure of the work of mourning of 9/11 consisted in the inability to recognize human vulnerability and interdependence and the inability to mourn not only. American victims but also non-American victims killed in 9/11 and the War on Terror. A meaningful and significant mourning could be possible when we realizes that all human beings are exposed to one another and their lives are interdependent on one another. September Eleventh Families for Peaceful Tomorrows well demonstrated this kind of mourning. When most Americans supported violent retaliations, Peaceful Tomorrows made pleas for nonviolent responses to 9/11. Turning their grief into action for peace, its members work “to create a safer and more peaceful world for everyone,” not only for Americans. Their effort to mourn in meaningful and nonviolent ways delivers the message that a disaster like 9/11 should not happen anywhere.

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5문화,문학 : 로뻬 데 베가의 대중 지향적 연극에 대한 고찰

저자 : 윤용욱 ( Yong Wook Yoon )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 115-144 (30 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to look into the support activities of the 17th century spanish plays which had been taken in various paths in terms of responses of the then-public who had been enthusiastic about great plays and artworks. Such a phenomenon clearly appeared in the open-air theater ``corral`` where 'Teatro nacional' was performed at that time. Therefore, this study tries to investigate the functional relation between the public`s responses and the prosperity of then-plays from the concrete standpoint of Lope`s public-oriented plays. Although Lope`s plays basically include system-protection ideology, they are thoroughly based on the public`s support and popularity. In short, at that time, Lope`s dramatic reform and entailing remarkable hit and success were made possible through thorough compliance with the public`s preference and thereby the public`s absolute support and affection. The tendency of his public-oriented plays appears in two aspects. One is the common people persecuted and punishment of a wicked man of power. The typical plays in point are Lope`s Peribanez y el comendador de Ocana and El mejor alcalde, el rey. Through the plays, the playwright Lope not only implemented praise of absolute monarch very effectively, but soothed the wounded heart of the common people who had suffered pains due to their unfair and lowly social status. In this way, his plays might give senses of reliefs and satisfaction to most viewers who identified with the common people in the plays. The other one is the decisive raise of status of an exemplary commoner, the subject matter which had been used by Lope as one of useful means to show the public-oriented tendency of his plays. The cases in point are Los Tellos de Meneses and its succeeding work Valor, fortuna y lealtad. The two-part work of Lope is about the hard journey, ups and downs, and ascent to the nobility of Tello, an exemplary and rich farmer, and hits young son Tello. Through the two-part play, Lope demonstrated how an exemplary and good-mannered commoner rose to the nobility and thereby gave vicarious satisfaction to the then-public and received a lot of praise from them. As mentioned earlier, through his public-oriented plays, Lope not only satisfied the public`s desires and achieved his realistic goal of big success. Not all Lope`s plays are public-oriented. Nevertheless, the popular success of ``Teatro nacional`` made by Lope and his followers is based on the public`s preference and the plays` dramatic responses to their desires, and the strategic elaboration to comfort the public suffering lot of pains in daily life.

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6문화,문학 : 『옥중화(獄中花)』의 한국적 고유성과 게일의 번역 실천 -J. S. Gale, "Choon Yang"(The Korea Magazine 1917.9~1918.8)의 번역용례를 중심으로-

저자 : 이상현 ( Sang Hyun Lee ) , 이진숙 ( Jin Sook Lee )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 145-190 (46 pages)

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The objective of this paper is to investigate translated individual words in J. S. Gale`s "Choon Yang" in comparison with its original OkJoongHwa(『獄中花』) while referring to early modern bilingual dictionaries and missionaries` ethnography. Gale faced a lot of translation difficulties because the source text had a very different cultural system from the object text. OkJoongHwa was a Korean pansori novel which meant it included many Korean characteristics. However, Gale considered its Korean characteristics were deeply connected with Chinese classics. Even famous people and place names cited from the Chinese classics in OkJoongHwa represented the Korean thinking. Gale tried to faithfully translate the source text as much as possible whether the words were Chinese or Korean. In this paper, we deal with mostly various translation aspects of the Chinese-letter words in OkJoongHwa. Gale`s first method to translate words made of Chinese Character is transliteration, the examples of which are the name of Chinese famous people and places, and Chinese poems. The second method is to parallel transliteration and English interpretation equivalent to the Chinese Character. The examples are the names of main characters like "Spring Fragrance or Choonyang," "Mongyong, or Dream-Dragon" and in his translation of word play in Osa (Commissioner), or Kamsa (Governor), kaiksa (a dead beggar). The third is literal translation of Chinese idiomatic phrases as Gale translated 侵魚落雁 into "She`d make the fishes to sink and the wild-geese to drop from the sky." The fourth is a little free translation of the title of public office, the various names of Korean yamen servants and the unique Korean clothing and ornaments. We expect Gale`s many translation difficulties as we can see the translated long list of yamen clerks and Korean clothing and ornaments. After our investigation of his translation practices in "Choon Yang" we conclude that he tried to translate its literary language very faithfully though he could not avoid inevitable loss caused by the cultural difference involved in two languages. Gale`s "Choon Yang" contributed to introducing the uniqueness of the classical Korean novel and Korean culture to the world more than any other English translation works of that time through his faithful translation.

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7문화,문학 : 하진의 중국재현과 오리엔탈리즘 논쟁

저자 : 이수미 ( Su Mee Lee )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 191-214 (24 pages)

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Chinese American Writer, Ha Jin has been writing exclusively about the life in his native Communist China. His stories and poems are almost all about the Chinese people so far. In addition, the distinctive Chinese flavour and the inexorably repressive image of China in his works present an 'Other' to the American culture. Such kind of Chineseness can also be found in Ha Jin`s works and his career as a writer. The continued demand for knowledge of China, which is created by China`s increasingly important role in the globalized economy, sustains the country`s position as an Other for America. In his early four novels, Ha Jin portrays a totally repressive image of Communist China, an image of which functions perfectly as a form of otherness for his American readers. In Ha Jin`s portrayal, the Chinese masses are subjected to the Communist authority through its bureaucracy and state-economy mechanism, as well as through the godlike image of Mao Zedong. They are to follow the Communist conscience and subscribe to unity-in-difference. Deviation from the one-party rule is intolerable. In each of the novels, Ha Jin presents a specific system of repression. In In the Pond, confrontation against Party authority is contained by a process of complicity. In Waiting, the Party`s power is upheld through a system of surveillance in which people act as agents, resulting in a web of power which paralyses love. The Crazed illustrates a play of power by Party officials which, against the backdrop of the Tiananmen Square Massacre, is full of craze itself, driving people either out of sanity or out of the country. War Trash exposes the Communist power`s repression to the extreme by presenting a case of dishonour in those whose life is debased as trash by the Party. The repressive image of China produced in these stories, which span over half a century, makes Ha Jin`s China a perfect Other for the West. To sum up, Ha Jin`s novels construct a repressive image of China. In his novels, Ha Jin exposes the working of repression in particular systems. Through these systems, he problematizes the notion of personal autonomy for Chinese people and proposes for his western/American readers a solution which eventually turns into a re-presentation of American hegemony.

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8문화,문학 : 러시아 제국의 이단아 남서문학 -오데사 문학에 나타난 유대인, 피카로(picaro), 언어를 중심으로-

저자 : 이은경 ( Eun Kyung Yi )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 215-243 (29 pages)

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This paper looks at the literary mood of southwestern Russia in the late Russian Empire, while examining the writers of this area and their literary tendencies. Southwestern literature was formed in the late Russian Empire, and prospered centering around Odessa. Because of the uniformity in the Soviet culture, however, it could not stay alive but disappeared in the history of Russian literature. Odessa, the center of southwestern literature was a multiracial region unlike other Russian cities. A unique culture was created, therefore, combining the western European culture and local ethnicity. Jews in Odessa could enter into the Russian society and assimilate naturally. They could utilize their talents as a strength to enrich the Russian culture without giving up their cultural heritage. For example, in lingual aspects, using Yiddish was not against the Russian culture. In addition, it contributed to interesting new coinages and led to efforts among writers to minimize the gap between the two languages. Many Jewish writers showed special interest not only in Yiddish but also in French, German and other languages. Therefore, they took the lead in translating and introducing west classics. As evident in the way Yiddish language was formed, mixing their language with other languages enabled jews to soak their way into other cultures naturally. Their yearning for the Russian and western European cultures, combined with their unique sense of humor, led to generic twists and problematic experiments. From another point of view, it is also unusual that southwestern literature diversified locational settings and heroic characters in literary works. European style heros, appearance of multiracial people, pain or waggery experienced by Jews in their assimilation process, thrilling revenge to unfair violence of Russians, and espiegle swindlers are the new domains that southwestern literature pioneered. In summary, southwestern literature was formed in a heterogeneous cultural climate, which was entirely different from the Russian Empire. In this regard, it was in deviation from the Russian literary tradition. From the Soviet point of view, it existed as a heresy which was against the Russian Empire.

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9문화,문학 : 비교문학의 과제와 문학적 트랜스내셔널리즘

저자 : 이창남 ( Chang Nam Lee )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 245-264 (20 pages)

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In this paper, I suggest methodological ways of studying comparative literature regarding ongoing discussions of world and national literature. The role of comparative literature studies has widened in the contemporary era, in which nations have become rapidly entangled and the concept of the world as a unified entity is under question. In this regard, I critically review the traditional principles of the hospitality of cosmopolitanism and the exclusivity of the borders of national literatures. Further, I suggest that scholars adopt the concept by Sigmund Freud of "unfamiliar familiarity" as a methodological motive for studies of comparative literature. Based on this concept, scholars can further develop the unique methods of the discipline of comparative literary studies for teaching and research amidst the ongoing phenomenon of globalization. They can also use these methods to simultaneously contribute to solving the problem of "comparison without a unifying category of the world," as revealed by the results of deconstructional and postcolonial studies. Regarding community-based discussions of literature, I introduce the "bridge and door" metaphor, put forth by Georg Simmel, as a key concept in methodological consideration of translation and in comparative literary studies. In this paper, adopting the metaphor of the bridge and door as an intertextual and social model for comparative studies, I define the new role of comparative literary studies in literary transnationalism, which is particularly necessary when different languages and cultures overlap and become entangled. Regarding the rapidly changing contemporary world community, comparative literary studies, as an experimental discipline, is uniquely capable of examining this kind of community, which forms itself beyond and beneath individual nations.

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10문화,문학 : 『돈키호테』에 나타난 모리스꼬의 정체성을 중심으로

저자 : 임주인 ( Ju In Lim )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 글로벌인문학술원 간행물 : 비교문화연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2015 페이지 : pp. 265-295 (31 pages)

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This article is concerned about a reason for which Cervantes participates an arabic author named Benengeli and morisco translator in his work instead of christian author. From the multi-cultural point of view, the time in which Don Qujote was published, belongs to the Golden Age. In other words, the society can not be supported by the ideology of Purity of Blood in that the morisco, converso (Christian Jewish) have been permitted to coexist in the name of christian proselyte or New Christian despite of invisible discrimination. An invisible discrimination is based on the prejudice and negative stereotype of Old Christian against the New Christian. Cervantes offers an o open space for readers to participate in the creative reading, giving up the absolute authority of author named Benengeli. The deep-rooted prejudice against morisco or muslim author makes the readers of Don Quijote do reinterpret the contents and have question about his sincerity. This disbelief is partly on the basis of hypothesis that Don Quijote would be passed on orally by an arabic or morisco. Leaving the hypothesis alone, Romance, festival performances of morisco or the aljamia literature in the Iberian Peninsula have the chivalry or knights of the Occident. The chivalry in Romance of morisco means that morisco would seek assimilation into the mainstream of Occidental Christian community. At the same time, morisco would be faced with the dilemma of loss of religious identity. But Taqiyya, islamic doctrine, offsets the dilemma between yearning to assimilate into mainstream and religious conscience of morisco in that Taqiyya permits morisco to convert to Christianity in case that they are in danger of life or the following risk. From this point of view, There is no room for doubt about the fact that Taqiyya contributed to social assimilation or multicultural society of the Iberian Peninsula. It has been a long time since a narrow-minded religious dogma and ideology became a anachronistic relic in multicultural society of Spain such as the Purity of Blood. From a relative viewpoint, Don Quijote provides a ground for the collective intelligence among christian, muslim(morisco) and converso through a liberal community between readers and authors who form a pluralistic society.

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