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한국어교육학회> 국어교육> 청소년의 입말에 나타난 비속어와 공격적 언어 표현 사용 실태 조사

KCI등재

청소년의 입말에 나타난 비속어와 공격적 언어 표현 사용 실태 조사

A Study on the Use of slang and aggressive language expressions in Adolescents` Spoken Language

김정선 ( Jung Sun Kim ) , 이필영 ( Phil Yong Lee ) , 김태경 ( Tae Kyung Kim ) , 이삼형 ( Sam Hyung Lee ) , 장경희 ( Kyung Hee Chang ) , 전은진 ( Eun Jin Jeon )
  • : 한국어교육학회
  • : 국어교육 140권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2013년 02월
  • : 153-181(29pages)
국어교육

DOI


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초록 보기

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of slang and aggressive language expression in teenagers` spoken language. The analysis results were summarized as follows: Of the entire subjects, 95% were using slang. Most of teenagers were using slang. Middle and high school students showed a higher percentage of slang usage than elementary school students with no gender differences. As for the characteristics of the slang vocabulary list, such slang as ``좆나, 씨발, 새끼, and 개-`` recorded a high frequency by the school levels and gender. There were differences in slang vocabulary between elementary school students and middle and high school students. As they moved to middle and high school, their usage of sex-related slang increased. Even though there were differences in frequency between boys and girls, the gap in the form of slang used between them narrowed. Of the entire subjects, 81% were using an aggressive language expression. "Curses" recorded the highest frequency by the school levels              and gender, being followed by "belittlement/slander," "threat" and "imprecation" in the order. As for the characteristics of aggressive language expression according to the subtypes, person curses including ``미친년, 미친놈, 씹새끼, 개새끼, 멍청이, 바보, 병신, and 새끼`` and non-person curses including ``지랄, 지랄하다, and 좆같이`` showed an even distribution in the area of curses. A phenomenon of using curses in opposite to the gender of the other was also observed. They used such metaphorical expressions as ``얼굴을 갈아주다, 뒷동산으로 갈래?`` in the area of threats and usually belittled the actions and appearances of the other in the area  of slander. Imprecation was in very low frequency, containing content of wishing death upon the other or taking his or her possessions.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2013-710-001974714

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 국어학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-3958
  • : 2713-9867
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1958-2022
  • : 2153


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178권0호(2022년 08월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

12015 개정 교육과정 『독서』 텍스트 및 대학수학능력시험 독서 지문 비교 연구 - 난도와 관련된 텍스트 내적 요인을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김진우 ( Kim Jinwoo )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 178권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-32 (32 pages)

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본 연구는 2015 개정 교육과정 『독서』 교과서와 같은 교육과정 하에서 시행된 2021학년도, 2022학년도 대학수학능력시험 독서 지문을 난도와 관련된 텍스트 내적 요인을 중심으로 비교하는 것을 목적으로 하였다.
본 연구에서는 텍스트 내적 요인으로 문장 수준으로 문장의 길이를, 어휘 수준으로 어휘 난이도와 어휘 다양성을 설정하였다. 문장의 길이는 문장 당 평균 어절 수로 하였고, 어휘 난이도는 말뭉치에 나타난 빈도값에 로그값을 구했다. 마지막으로 어휘 다양성으로는 TTR(Type-Token Ratio)을 측정하였다.
연구 결과 이 세 요소 간의 상관 관계는 나타나지 않았다. 또한 문장 길이에서도 교과서와 수능 지문 사이에 유의미한 차이가 발견되지 않았다. 그러나 어휘 난도는 수능이 3종 교과서보다 유의미하게 높은 것으로 나타났으며, 어휘 다양성은 수능이 2종 교과서보다 유의미하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 머신러닝을 통해 군집 분석을 시도한 결과, 수능 지문이 대체로 한 군집으로만 묶이는 것을 발견할 수 있었다. 이는 수능 지문의 텍스트 내적 요인이 『독서』 교과서와 차이가 있다는 것을 말해준다.


This study compares the texts of the CSAT conducted under the 2015 revised curriculum and texts of the Reading textbooks focusing on the text-inherent factors related to difficulty.
The length of sentences was set at the sentence level, and word difficulty and word diversity were set at the word level. The length of the sentence was the average number of words per sentence, and the word difficulty was measured from the frequency in the corpus. Finally, for vocabulary diversity, type-token ratio (TTR) was measured.
The results revealed there was no correlation between these three factors. In addition, no significant difference was observed between the textbooks and the CSAT text in the sentence length. However, the word difficulty was found to be significantly higher in the CSAT than in the three textbooks, and the word diversity was found to be significantly higher in the CSAT than in the two textbooks. Finally, cluster analysis established that the CSAT texts were generally grouped into one cluster. This suggests that the inherent factors of the CSAT texts are different from those of Reading textbooks.

KCI등재

2분석적 쓰기평가 범주별 피드백에 대한 학습자의 수용과 유용성 인식 -전체 집단의 특성 및 쓰기 수준 집단 간 차이를 중심으로-

저자 : 변경가 ( Byun Kyung-ga ) , 이지선 ( Lee Jeesun )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 178권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 33-66 (34 pages)

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이 연구는 쓰기교육 현장에서 쓰기 피드백의 실천이 분석적 쓰기평가 범주를 중심으로 이루어짐에 주목하여, 교수자가 제공하는 평가범주별 피드백에 대한 학습자의 인식 및 수용 양상을 실증적으로 탐색하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 이를 위해 내용, 조직, 표현 피드백을 독립 변인으로, 학습자의 피드백 수용과 피드백 유용성 인식을 종속 변인으로 하는 가설적 모형을 세워 연구를 진행하였다. 연구 결과, 첫째, 전체 학습자들은 쓰기 피드백 수용도가 전반적으로 높았으며, 표현 피드백을 인지적·행동적으로 가장 잘 수용했고, 내용 및 조직 피드백은 인지적 수용은 상대적으로 낮았으며 행동적 수용은 더욱 낮았다. 둘째, 전체 학습자들은 내용 및 표현에 비해 조직 피드백이 가장 유용했다고 답하였다. 셋째, 상하위 집단은 쓰기 피드백 수용도에 있어 전반적인 수준 차이를 보였으며, 상위 집단은 형식 및 어법과 조직 피드백을, 하위 집단은 단어 선택과 내용 피드백을 상대적으로 잘 수용했다. 넷째, 상하위 집단은 조직 피드백을 가장 유용하고 표현 피드백이 가장 덜 유용하다고 응답했다. 그러나 상위 집단이 내용보다 표현 피드백을 유용하다고 대답한 반면, 하위 집단은 내용 피드백이 더 유용하다고 대답하였다. 이상의 연구 결과는 평가범주에 따른 학습자의 피드백 수용 양상을 실증적으로 밝혔다는 점에서 의의가 있다.


The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the students' perception and acceptance of the analytical writing feedback provided by the instructor. The study was conducted with content, organization, and expression feedback as independent variables and students' feedback acceptance and feedback usefulness perception as dependent variables.
As a result of the study, first, the acceptance of writing feedback was generally high among all students. Expression feedback was most cognitively and behaviorally accepted, and content and organization feedback had relatively low cognitive acceptance and lower behavioral acceptance. Second, all students answered that organizational feedback was the most useful compared to content and expression feedback. Third, the upper and lower groups showed a difference in level of feedback acceptance. Fourth, the upper and lower groups responded that organization feedback was most useful and expression feedback was least useful.

KCI등재

3잠재적 교육과정으로서 인터넷 의사소통 공간의 의미 - 건강장애 학생을 대상으로

저자 : 구영산 ( Goo Youngsan )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 178권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 67-112 (46 pages)

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이 연구의 목적은 건강장애 학생 대상의 인터넷 의사소통 공간이 갖는 잠재적 교육과정으로서의 의미를 살펴보는 데에 있다. 건강장애 학생을 위탁 받아 교육하는 한 기관(A 학교)에서 열어 놓은 온라인 소통 채널을 2021년 3월부터 같은 해 10월까지 관찰하였다. 관찰한 대화 자료를 바탕으로 이 채널에서 건강장애 학생들이 어떠한 경험을 하고 있는지를 분석하였다. 그 결과 이 채널에서는 학생들 간 대화를 바탕으로 놀이, 학습, 기웃거림이 이루어지고 있었다. 이와 같은 분석 결과를 근거로 이 A 학교의 인터넷 의사소통 공간이 건강장애 학생들에게 잠재적 교육과정으로서 어떠한 의미가 있는지를 도출하였다. '학교 친구'와 소통할 수 있는 '학교 공간', 선택적 소통 및 관계 형성의 공간, '학습-대화-삶'의 연결 공간, 또래와의 소통에 대한 기대감 및 기회의 공간이 그에 해당한다. 이상의 논의를 바탕으로 이 인터넷 의사소통 공간이 건강장애 학생들에게 일종의 잠재적 교육과정으로서 갖는 가능성과 한계를 제시하였다.


This study examines the meaning of the Internet communication space for students with health disabilities as a hidden curriculum. From March to October 2021, the online communication channel opened by an institution (School A) that educates students with health disabilities was observed. Based on the observed conversational data, I analyzed what kind of experiences students had in this channel. I documented how play, learning, and snooping were taking place. Based on the results of the analysis, the meaning of the Internet communication space of this school A was derived as a potential curriculum for students with health disabilities. These include a school space where you can communicate with schoolmates, a space for selective communication and relationship formation, a space for linking learning, conversation, and life, and a space for communication with your peers in anticipation of the occurrence of an event. Finally, the possibilities and limitations of this Internet communication space as a kind of potential curriculum for students with health disabilities are discussed.

KCI등재

4서사 텍스트 읽기 이해 능력의 측정 및 학습자 수준별 이해 양상의 탐색 - 인물에 관한 추론적 이해를 중심으로 -

저자 : 박유현 ( Park Yuhyun ) , 허모아 ( Heo Moah )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 178권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 113-155 (43 pages)

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이 연구는 서사교육적 관점에서 고등학생 학습자의 서사 텍스트 읽기 이해 능력을 측정할 수 있는 도구를 개발하고, 개발한 검사 도구를 통해 학습자들이 어떠한 유형의 서사 이해 양상을 보이고 있는지를 탐색하는 데에 주요한 연구 목적을 둔다.
이에 서사 텍스트 읽기 이해의 핵심 요소로 볼 수 있는 '인물에 관한 추론적 이해'를 중심으로 하위 구인을 설정하고, 이를 측정할 수 있는 검사지를 개발한 후, 검사지를 활용하여 서사 이해와 관련한 학습자들의 능력 수준을 측정하였다. 인물에 관한 사실적·추론적 이해는 인지서사학 이론과 읽기 이론을 바탕으로 '인물에 관한 사실 정보 파악, 인물에 대한 직시 추론, 인물이 경험한 사건 추론, 인물의 심리 및 생각 추론, 인물 행위의 의도 추론'의 다섯 가지 하위 구인으로 구체화되었다. 검사지는 전문가 의견을 수렴하고 문항반응이론을 활용한 통계적 분석으로 그 타당도를 확보하였다. 문항들은 전반적으로 보통에서 약간 쉬운 수준의 난이도로 나타났으며, 변별도는 대체로 적절한 수준을 보였다.
이상으로 수집한 자료를 바탕으로 k-평균 군집분석을 수행한 결과 학습자 유형은 상위 집단, 중위 집단, 하위 집단의 세 가지로 나타났고, 학습자 수준별 서사 이해 양상에 있어 구인별로 이해도가 서로 다르게 나타남을 확인하였다. 이에 더하여 검사에 대한 사후 활동지와 소설 전문 감상 활동지를 통해 집단별 학습자의 이해 양상을 질적으로 살펴, 구인에 대한 이해도가 낮게 나타남이 구체적으로 어떤 양상으로 나타나는지도 확인하였다. 이러한 분석을 토대로 학습자 수준별로 서사 텍스트 읽기 이해 교육의 접근이 달라져야 하며, 서사 읽기 교육이 사실적 이해와 텍스트 기반 추론적 이해, 지식 기반 추론적 이해의 위계에 맞게 이루어져야 한다는 점을 시사점을 도출하였다.


This study develops a tool that can measure high school student learners' narrative text reading comprehension, and explores what type of narrative comprehension learners show through the developed test tool.
Accordingly, the sub factors were set up around “inferential comprehension of character”, which can be viewed as a key element of narrative text reading comprehension. After developing a test paper to measure it, the level of learners' ability related to narrative comprehension was measured. Based on cognitive narratology and reading theory, the factual and inferential comprehension of characters were embodied in five sub factors: “identifying facts about characters, reasoning deixis on characters, reasoning about events that characters have experienced, reasoning about mental states and thoughts of characters, and reasoning about characters' actions.” The test paper collected three experts' opinions and was secured its validity through statistical analysis using question response theory. Overall, the questions were found to be at a level of difficulty that was moderate to slightly easy level of difficulty, and the degree of discrimination was generally appropriate.
K-average cluster analysis of the collected data revealed three types of learners: upper group, middle group, and lower group, and it was confirmed that learners' comprehension was different in each group. In addition, the practice of learners' comprehension by group was qualitatively examined through the post-test activity paper and the novel appreciation activity paper. Based on this analysis, it was suggested that the approach of narrative text reading comprehension education should be different for each learner group, and that narrative reading education should be conducted according to the hierarchy of factual, text-based inferential, and knowledge-based inferential comprehension.

KCI등재

5은유 확장 중심의 시 읽기 교육 연구 - 정지용의 「유리창 2」읽기를 중심으로 -

저자 : 박주형 ( Park Juhyeong )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 178권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 157-204 (48 pages)

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이 연구는 시적 은유를 대상 간의 상호작용을 통해 시 작품 속 다른 대상들의 관계를 새롭게 체계화할 수 있게 하는 표현으로 정의하고, 이를 기반으로 하여 특정 은유가 영역 간의 전이를 바탕으로 다른 표현에 영향을 주는 은유 확장 현상을 시교육적 관점에서 살폈다.
전문 독자의 반응 텍스트에서 은유 확장 중심의 시 읽기는 은유 적응, 은유 연계, 은유 적용의 과정을 통해 이루어진다. 은유 적응은 은유 확장을 위한 소재 탐색을 거쳐 기점 은유를 구심점으로 한 관계망 형성을 통해 일정한 개연성을 갖는 새로운 영역을 구성하는 과정이다. 은유 연계는 독자가 구성한 은유적 관계망들을 선별적으로 배치하거나 상호 조율하는 과정이며, 은유적 관계망들이 추동하는 은유적 사고의 체계화를 수반한다. 은유 적용은 독자의 일상적 경험의 기반이 되는 개념적 은유나 영상 도식을 경유하여, 은유 확장 현상이 추동하는 은유적 사고를 의미화하는 과정이다.
은유 확장 중심의 시 읽기가 갖는 핵심적 특성을 고려할 때, 그에 대한 시 교육 내용은 개념 교육과 읽기 방법을 포괄할 필요가 있다. 이를 위해 은유의 확장성을 인지할 수 있도록 은유적 전이를 재개념화하는 방안을 제시하였고, 읽기 방법으로 '한계 범위까지 관계 짓기', '적절한 관계 조합 선별하기', '관계 조합과 경험을 단계적으로 비교하기'를 제안하였다.


This study defined a poetic metaphor as an expression that allows the relationship between other objects in a poetic work to be newly systematized through the interaction between specific objects. The metaphorical extension in which a specific metaphor affects other expressions based on the transfer between realms was interpreted from the perspective of poetry education.
Poetry reading focused on metaphorical extension in the response text of professional readers is achieved through the process of "metaphorical adaptation," "connection," and '"application." Metaphorical adaptation is the process of constructing a new realm with certain plausibility through the formation of a network with the starting point metaphor as the central point through material search for metaphorical extension. Metaphorical connection is the process of selectively arranging or coordinating the metaphorical networks constructed by the reader. It entails the systematization of metaphorical thinking driven by metaphorical networks. Metaphorical application is the process of signifying the metaphorical thinking driven by the metaphorical extension through conceptual metaphors or image schemas that are the basis of the reader's ordinary experience.
Considering the core properties of poetry reading focused on metaphorical extension, the content of poetry education needs to include understanding concept and reading methods. To this end, a method of reconceptualizing metaphorical transfer was suggested so that the property of metaphorical extension could be recognized. As reading methods, "creating relationships to the limit," "selecting appropriate relationship combinations," and "comparing experiences step by step" were suggested.

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6복합 매체 문학교육 논의를 위한 시론 - 고등학생 그림소설 감상 양상 분석을 중심으로 -

저자 : 권근영 ( Kwon Kuenyoung )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 178권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 205-250 (46 pages)

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본 연구는 복합 매체 문학교육을 논의하고자 복합 매체 문학을 정의하고 학습자 양상 분석을 토대로 교육 가능성을 타진하는 것을 목표로 한다. 문자 언어는 근대적 인식 틀을 형성하며 오래도록 독보적인 영역을 구축해왔으며, 문학교육은 이러한 영향 아래 문학작품을 문자라는 단일 매체에 천착해왔다. 그러나 근대의 신문연재소설 및 현 학습자들의 문화 향유 양상에서 보듯 문학은 문자 외 여타 매체와 상호 결합하여 총체적인 감상을 이끌어낼 수 있는 영역으로 복합적 가능성을 지닌 것이기도 하다. 이에 본고는 복합 매체 문학을 매체와 장르의 경계를 넘어선 상호교통적 문학으로 보고, 삽화의 의미를 살폈다. 문자 텍스트의 최초 독자인 동시에 그 메시지를 재해석하여 시각적 이미지로 표현하는 작가라는 이중적 성격을 지닌 삽화는 단일 매체를 넘어선 의미를 담지하며, 본고는 이러한 맥락에 놓인 '그림소설'에 주목하였다. 그림이 문자를 보조하는 수단을 넘어선 그림소설을 감상하는 학습자 양상은 삽화가 문자 텍스트 내용 이해에 방해가 되거나 보조적·잉여적인 것으로 여기는 양상도 있었으나, 양가적이고 분열적인 관점 속 문자와 삽화를 함께 감상하고자 하는 시도를 보이기도 하며, 삽화를 문자와의 대화적 관계 속에서 적극적으로 살피려는 양상을 볼 수 있었다. 본 연구는 복합 매체 문학교육 논의로 나아가기 위해 선결되어야 하는 지점들을 실제 학습자 양상을 바탕으로 구체적으로 제시했다는 점에서 의의가 있다.


This study adopts a multimodal literary education perspective and explores the possibility of such education. Textual text has established an unrivaled area, forming a modern framework, and influenced literary education. However, as seen in newspaper novels in the modern era and the cultural play of today's students, literature has a complex possibility in that it can be combined with several media. Therefore, this study views the multimodal literature as a transaction beyond the boundaries and that illustrations have significant potential, for both the writer and the reader in terms of expressing visual image. In this context, this study focused on the “picture novel” and the research of students. Some students had defensive aspects of multimodal literature, others had ambiguous aspects, and the others had affirmative aspects. This study is meaningful in that it specifically presented the points that must be predetermined to proceed to the discussion of multimodal literature education based on the actual students' pattern.

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7방언 교육의 내용과 방향

저자 : 고춘화 ( Ko Chunhwa )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 178권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 251-283 (33 pages)

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이 연구는 입말 담화로서 방언이 갖는 구성적 기능과 방언이 화자 정체성의 표지로서 실제 언어생활에서 작용하는 양상에 기반하여 방언 교육의 내용과 방향을 살피고자 하였다.
이를 위해 선행 연구를 분석하고, 교육과정과 교과서를 분석하여 방언 교육의 내용과 관점의 변화를 정리하였다. 화자들의 소통 장면에서 방언이 화자의 정체성과 자아 구성에 영향을 줌을 확인하였다.
지역 화자에게 유의미한 방언의 특성을 찾고, 방언 교육의 교수·학습 방향을 방언의 일상성과 실제성 인식, 소통과 지역 화자로서의 정체성 인식, 방언에 대한 깊은 이해와 탐구로 제안하였다. 방언 교수·학습의 예로 방언 자료의 관찰과 수집, 방언 자료의 분석, 정체성 있는 방언 생활 실천하기 등을 구성하여 제시하였다.
앎의 층위와 삶의 층위에서 잘 이루어진 방언 교육은, 지역 화자로서의 정체성을 일깨우고 방언을 다양한 언어 현상의 하나로서 알게 할 것이며 표준어와의 관련성을 균형감 있게 인식함으로써 주체적인 언어적 삶을 영위하게 할 것이다.


Based on how dialect acts as a marker of speaker identity in actual language life, this study proposes the contents and direction of dialect education.
Previous studies, curriculum, and textbooks were analyzed to organize dialect education. The process in which dialects influence the speaker's identity and self-composition in the speaker's communication scene was investigated. Dialect education was presented in two directions: the level of life and the level of knowledge. At the former, the contents of communication and recognizing the identity of the local speaker were proposed together, and at the latter, the contents of deep understanding and exploration of dialects were proposed. In the practice of dialect education, educational methods such as observation and collection of dialect data, analysis of such data, and practice of dialect life with an identity were suggested.
A dialect education well done at the aforementioned levels will awaken the identity as a local speaker, recognize the dialect as one of various linguistic phenomena, and lead an independent linguistic life by balancing the relevance to the standard language.

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1창의인성의 방향과 국어교육의 역할

저자 : 우한용 ( Han Yong Woo )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 1-29 (29 pages)

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This article is focused on the possible way to develop the creativity in the Korean education. How to define the creativity, how to describe the classroom conditions for developing creativity, they are not the point to aim at in this paper. The point to be reached in this paper, it is how to become a person who has the creative personality as a homo loquence. The creativity including the personality that ethics adjusted human character, defined and disscused in the context language bounded conditions. Especially the standard Korean, as the goal of nation`s general education, it is ideologically managed that not free from modern national ideology. The creativity in standard Korean sometimes bounded in the socio-cultural conditions that they remember the conditions in the course of research. In general, the creativity is a kind of multiple stratified mental ability. In this paper we are going to describe the scope of creativity as follow; emotional creativity, willing creativity, logical creativity, ethical creativity and the practical creativity. They work as the co-operational system in the context of performance. In the area of Korean education, they aim at the formation of self identity, communication with others, lingual meaning construction.

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2창의 인성 계발과 국어과 교육의 과제

저자 : 박수자 ( Soo Jah Park )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 31-51 (21 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to investigate korean instruction problems for developing creativity-character, and to propose several solutions in accordance with the current teaching methods based on constructivism paradigm. First, I have reviewed the elements of creativity and character in 2007/2011 revised curriculum, and have considered current curriculum developing theory, related with constructivism. So, I have found the ties between creativity-character development and constructivism`s teaching method. The essential point is student`s motivation for learning and authenticity of language experiences. It is possible to happen that students meaningfully experience their learning. Then, I have analyzed 2007 korean textbook`s introduction meta-text  and pre-teachers` syllabus for elementary students, focusing on students` motivation for student-directed learning. Therefore, I have proposed to revise textbook`s meta-text and syllabus format.

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3창의,인성 교육의 의제 설정이 문학교육에 던지는 질문

저자 : 최지현 ( Ji Hyun Choi )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 53-71 (19 pages)

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Long before ``Creativity-Character Education(CCE)`` was proposed, literary education has theoretically investigated the possibility of students` creativity and character. Because creativity and character are essential  properties of literature education, we have emphasized basic literary  experiences instead of searching for extra activities. Literary experience was understood as an integrated process that improves creativity and character. However, we are now facing a situation demanding to accept literary education named ``CCE``. Every textbook author has to include 'creativity-personality development excercise`` in his book. Then, according to textbook, teachers would have more possibility of teaching literature as mere information instead of helping students acquire original and sensual experiences.'CCE`` is an educational response as a reason-centered education to complement deficiency of sympathy and fellowship raised from science and technology education. This is the problem in that an external problem is the trigger for an internal change. In this thesis I explain such circumstances, and propose problems of literature education as following; literature education should not be an agent of idealogical practice but an active participant of social change. Therefore, literature education should be able to present social values of the era in its essential properties.

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4문법 교육에서 창의, 인성의 방향과 내용

저자 : 김은성 ( Eun Sung Kim )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 73-107 (35 pages)

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The present article aims to review the direction and the contents of creativity and personality in grammar education. The study adopts interpretative and internal approaches as basic methodology in investigating grammar education with creativity and personality. The study sets its own direction as ``Bupgochangsin grammar education`` and reviews specific educational contents mainly from the perspective of grammar education focusing on thoughts. This study especially divides the meaning of grammar into two: grammar as a set of rules and grammar as a set of exposition and examines possible contents according to each semantic vale. Through these efforts, this study strives to describe grammar education should not be understood as an education where creativity/personality is imposed from the outside but be the one that begins from the basics of grammar education and innovates the basics at the same time so that it can change into more fresh and optimal one.

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5국어 교사의 창의 인성 수업 경험 연구

저자 : 남지애 ( Ji Ae Nam ) , 최영인 ( Young In Choi ) , 우신영 ( Shin Young Woo ) , 박혜진 ( Hye Jin Park ) , 조고은 ( Go Eun Cho )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 109-151 (43 pages)

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This study deals with the latest issue ``Korean creativity and character education``. Korean creativity and character education has been newly focused in the field of Korean Education. Creativity and character education policy that forces all school and members to get a new angle and to change completely has been implementing since 2012. Therefore Korean education is seeking new ways of accepting or integrating of creativity and character education into Korean education. The study consider "teachers` experience" an important factor in performing a desirable ``Korean creativity and character education``. So to examine their           recognitions, teaching experiences, difficulties is the most basic task. With these task, the study have conducted interviews with three Korean teachers, analyzed them, and described the meaning of the experience of Korean creativity and character education. After interview, data is classified into three categories-recognitions, teaching methods or cases, obstruction of practicing Korean creativity and character education-.Korean teachers altogether feel the necessity to practice Korean creativity and character education, but they have an   antipathy to unilaterally pushing policies. All of them describe their own  teaching techniques or methods to work toward a goal. Paying attention this qualitative classroom cases, some efforts are needed for theorizing a vivid and meaningful experiences. On realistic constraints, teachers note that evaluation is the most difficult problem to achieve aims of creativity and character education. And another barriers are classroom size, lack of time, textbook being standardized so on.

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6청소년의 입말에 나타난 비속어와 공격적 언어 표현 사용 실태 조사

저자 : 김정선 ( Jung Sun Kim ) , 이필영 ( Phil Yong Lee ) , 김태경 ( Tae Kyung Kim ) , 이삼형 ( Sam Hyung Lee ) , 장경희 ( Kyung Hee Chang ) , 전은진 ( Eun Jin Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 153-181 (29 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of slang and aggressive language expression in teenagers` spoken language. The analysis results were summarized as follows: Of the entire subjects, 95% were using slang. Most of teenagers were using slang. Middle and high school students showed a higher percentage of slang usage than elementary school students with no gender differences. As for the characteristics of the slang vocabulary list, such slang as ``좆나, 씨발, 새끼, and 개-`` recorded a high frequency by the school levels and gender. There were differences in slang vocabulary between elementary school students and middle and high school students. As they moved to middle and high school, their usage of sex-related slang increased. Even though there were differences in frequency between boys and girls, the gap in the form of slang used between them narrowed. Of the entire subjects, 81% were using an aggressive language expression. "Curses" recorded the highest frequency by the school levels              and gender, being followed by "belittlement/slander," "threat" and "imprecation" in the order. As for the characteristics of aggressive language expression according to the subtypes, person curses including ``미친년, 미친놈, 씹새끼, 개새끼, 멍청이, 바보, 병신, and 새끼`` and non-person curses including ``지랄, 지랄하다, and 좆같이`` showed an even distribution in the area of curses. A phenomenon of using curses in opposite to the gender of the other was also observed. They used such metaphorical expressions as ``얼굴을 갈아주다, 뒷동산으로 갈래?`` in the area of threats and usually belittled the actions and appearances of the other in the area  of slander. Imprecation was in very low frequency, containing content of wishing death upon the other or taking his or her possessions.

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7이상곡의 분절과 해석 ―향가와 관련하여

저자 : 신재홍 ( Jae Hong Shin )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 183-205 (23 pages)

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In this study one of the poems of Koryeo dynasty, Isanggok is divided into 10 lines as Hyangga in Silla dynasty and interpreted like this. When snow fell heavily on a mountain hut like drizzle On the frosty winding path of tight frost columns crunching noise. Each eaves and brushwood doors For the hardly frozen shape my heart wave roughly. I`m nesting the hut with missing my lover gone away Would he come to here through the stupefied path? Who should perish soon and fall into hell for being hit by lightning Will I walk another mountain path with leaving my lover? Was it a promise saying this or that? Oh, sweetheart, it`s a promise living together forever. Isanggok is a poem that shows obscenity from illicit love affair. The secret place of two lovers, desolation and dreariness of the path toward that place, lyric I`s feelings like the shape of frozen path, fear for suffering a punishment due to guilt, lament for destiny of perish of body, and the                promise to keep at last etc., the pitiful emotions of female speaker are expressed on the poem. Therefore the speaker of the poem may be a prostitute of a red-light district not a faithful widow. We should estimate this poem`s lyric value highly. Because the delicate sensual descriptions of poetic situation is eminent and the emotions of waiting and pledge for lover is appealing. This poem is a high level lyric in that the emotional concreteness is in accord with poetic situation. On the other hand, it is necessary to set a place of this poem on the stream of Korean lyric history. Through this study Isanggok is appeared as a poem to be constructed with the same poetic structure of 10 lines Hyangga of Silla dynasty. The mixed foots turned from 3 foots, insertion of zest-phrases and alteration of interjection in last two lines etc. is a change on the lyric history. But Isanggok follows 10 lines Hyangga in the basic form and meaning structure. It is significant in that this poem expresses the pitiful love feelings which are deficient in existing works of Hyangga. The change in stream of Korean lyric history is distinguished in the rhyme change from 3 foots to 4 foots. The poems of Koryeo dynasty, Koyreo-Gayo having 3 foots jointly with Hyangga make a intermediate role in change to 4 foots lyrics like Shijo and Gasa. Some works of Koyreo-Gayo show the rhyme features of transitional period, and Isanggok is one of the cases. In short, Isanggok has significances in the side of pure lyric features and                the side of place in the stream of lyric history.

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8고려속요의 수용사적 특징과 문학교육

저자 : 조하연 ( Ha Youn Cho )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 207-245 (39 pages)

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This thesis aims to investigate the literary educational use of Kory Sogyo based on the characteristics which can be found in the history of reception. From the perspective that the literary education pursues not only the appreciation of literary work but also the affluent literary life of the student, the interesting phenomenon which is in the history Kory? Sogyo`s reception, should be considered as important material of literary                education. In accordance with the same idea, I investigated the interesting features which can be found in the history of Kory? Sogyo`s reception. The first, I explained that there were two standpoints to Kory? Sogyo. One is to preserve Kory? Sogyo and the other is to change it. The second, I insisted that there were change from the oral tradition to the characters tradition in the history of Kory? Sogyo and it was possible by virtue of paradigm shift in the notation means. Finally, I confirmed that some creative poets invented new model of writing through the appreciation of Kory? Sogyo. The purpose of this research is to produce new contents of literary education. I think that there are various ways which Kory? Sogyo and literary education can combine. The characteristics which I revealed in this thesis might be effectively connect with the contents of literary education; understanding the essence of literature, realizing the feature literary language, comprehending the virtuous circle of appreciation and creating. I think that we can produce new contents of literary education by the application of the history of Kory? Sogyo.

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9"탈식민주의시" 교육방법에 대한 연구

저자 : 오정훈 ( Jeong Hun Oh )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 247-282 (36 pages)

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The concern for post-colonial poetry education could achieve the ultimate cultural equality and interactive relationships while claiming to advocate a universal multiculturalism by departing from the logic of the West-centered cultural hierarchy. As long as the colonialism committed by military invasion in the past, and the neocolonialism on the basis of understandable cultural supremacy, as an extension of the colonialism, last, it`s difficult to break away from the trend to make light of one`s culture, negation of cultural legitimacy, and cultural toadyism. Accordingly, it is hoped that the paradigm shift to the understanding of the iniquity of culture power and supporting of the identity of the minority culture through the post-colonial poetry education will be helpful in accomplishing a universal ideal for which the world culture has to aim.

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10국어과 읽기 영역의 계열성 원리 고찰

저자 : 천경록 ( Gyeong Rok Cheon )

발행기관 : 한국어교육학회 간행물 : 국어교육 140권 0호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 283-309 (27 pages)

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This paper investigated the concept and principle of sequence in Korean language subject, specially reading contents. Sequence is arranging the curriculum contents according to the grade, semester, and units. This term is frequently confused with related terms such as hierarchy, articulation and alignment. These terms should be discriminated each others. Sequence is to arrange curriculum contents, and hierarchy is to discriminate the interrelationship between the related content elements. Articulation is to                  decide the relationship between elementary and secondary school levels. Most basic principle of sequence is to ``repeating and deepening`` which was originated from Bruner`s squirrel curriculum theory. There were few specific principles of sequence for reading area. So, in this paper, five types and 14 specific principles were developed. Five types are knowledge, skill, attitude, text, and learning activity.

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