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한국몽골학회> 몽골학> 16세기 중앙아시아 신흥국가들의 몽골제국 계승성 연구 -우즈벡,카자흐칸국과 무굴제국의 지배계층을 중심으로-

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16세기 중앙아시아 신흥국가들의 몽골제국 계승성 연구 -우즈벡,카자흐칸국과 무굴제국의 지배계층을 중심으로-

The Turco-Mongolian States in the 16th-Century Central Asia and the Legacy of the Mongol Empire

이주엽 ( Joo Yup Lee )
  • : 한국몽골학회
  • : 몽골학 17권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2004년 08월
  • : 171-194(24pages)
몽골학

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UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2009-910-002347987

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 동양사
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1229-7097
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1993-2022
  • : 729


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69권0호(2022년 05월) 수록논문
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1몽골 창세신화에 등장하는 거북의 역할

저자 : 이평래 ( Lee Pyungrae )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 7-37 (31 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to review the role of turtles in the Mongolian creation myth, and to examine the Mongolian perception of turtles and their cultural implications based on this. Since ancient times, the Mongols have regarded the turtle as the as the creator of everything in the world, a helper in life and the symbol of longevity, eternity, and firmness. The Mongolian people's perception of turtles is confirmed in various fields, including oral materials, relics and remains, customs and rituals, play culture and modern customs. However, in contrast to the abundance of such turtle-related data, studies on this are very rare. In particular, research on turtles appearing in Mongolian mythology is scarce enough to say that there are few studies. With this in mind, I took the Mongolian creation myth as a basic data and analyzed the role of the turtle projected therein in turn, and based on this, I reviewed the Mongolian perception of the turtle and its cultural implications. The discussion was divided into four main parts. First, the role of the turtle as a base for this world floating in the vast sea was reviewed. Next, the role of the turtle as the owner of the primordial soil, the material of the earth, was reviewed. Third, the role of the turtle as the source of the five elements constituting everything in the universe was examined. Finally, based on this discussion, the cultural significance of the role of the turtle in the creation myth was reviewed.

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2파스파문자로 기록된 <이달한(李達漢) 문서>의 이본 조사

저자 : 박상철 ( Park Sangchul )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 39-60 (22 pages)

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This study compares different editions of Li-ta-han document, the only existing document of the 'Phags-pa script in Korea, to discover their relative chronology and to suggest a new transliteration based on Coblin (2007) by focusing on the difference in the letter shapes which had been unnoticed in previous studies.
All previous studies on Li-ta-han document had dealt with a single edition of the document which was introduced to the public in 1966. This study clarifies that different woodblock-printed books of the document had been published in 1919 and 1958, and shows with evidence that the three different editions including the previously known edition were serially replicated.
While previous studies have not distinguished ꡚ from ꡮ and ꡜ from ꡯ to transliterate ꡚ / ꡮ and ꡜ / ꡯ as š and h respectively, this study proposes the letters must be distinguished as zh (ꡚ), sh (ꡮ), h (ꡜ) and H (ꡯ), emphasizing that the document is a transcription of Chinese, not Mongolian, into the 'Phags-pa script.

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3МОНГОЛ ХЭЛЭНД УУРЛАХ ХИЛЭГНЭХ ҮЙЛДЭЛ ИЛЭРХИЙЛЭХ НЬ

저자 : Otgontsetseg. D

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 61-83 (23 pages)

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This brief article is a continuation of the author's observations and research findings on verbal and non-verbal means of expressing the rather active and productive speech acts of laughter and smiling, fear, crying, and anger in Mongolian.
In previous studies, the author attempted to analyze the basic qualities, specific semantic features, and means of expression, as well as their forms, structures, functions, and semantic peculiarities of the modern Mongolian speech acts of laughter and smiling, fear, and crying, based on Mongolian literary examples.
Along this same vein, in this article, the author observes how these speech acts are expressed and how they are formed based on examples from the characters of the bestselling novel Tungalag Tamir by Ch. Lodoidamba, identifying and categorizing the features and distinctive traits, and the characters' expressions of these three emotions based on specific events that happen in the story development.
Based on the author's attempt to identify the three highest frequency, relatively productive speech acts among the many forms of emotional states of the main characters and supporting characters in the above-mentioned selected literary work - i.e., laughter, fear, and crying - and their interrelationships, this article similarly studies the speech act of anger.
This time, the primary objective is to expand the linguistic data expressing the features, methods of expression, usages, and forms.
Based on the author's previous research findings, multiplicity of verbs denoting 'laugh', 'cry', 'fear', and 'anger' in the Mongolian language have unique interrelationships, and form a major semantic field expressing human emotions, and can overlap with each other in specific contexts.
The Mongolian speech act of anger is semantically broad in scope, and in terms of expression, it is comparatively productive, as it can be expressed with both analytical and synthetic linguistic methods with almost any level of language usage.
Based on the above-mentioned considerations, the following points can be highlighted:
- The speech act of anger, a major feature of Mongolian language speech acts, can be expressed at both the basic and peripheral levels, and is relatively productive.
- This speech act is a productive action, which is expressed not only by phonetic means and usages, but also by non-linguistic factors and non-verbal usages.
- Among the other speech acts, the speech act of anger is most closely related to fear and crying, to which it has both direct and indirect connections.
This speech act has features which contrast with laughter, but if this speech act occurs because of fear, then it is an action leading to the speech act of crying.

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4关于契丹语“碑、官、牌”

저자 : 玲玲 ( Lingling )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 85-94 (10 pages)

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The Epitaph of xiao Wuyan Dujian in Khitan large script has not yet been published. By conducting a preliminary study of it, the author has mainly investigated two large scripts □、□ seen in it and 珀in the Epitaph of Yelü Qi. Based on the previous research findings, the present paper proposes that the Khitan large script □ denotes “stele” with the pronunciation of “bi”, and □ denotes “official” with the pronunciation of “nαi”, and珀denotes “tablet” with the pronunciation of “pαi”, using the method of comparing Khitan large and small scripts.

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5'제국적 제도'로서의 차가타이 울루스 명령문제도 연구

저자 : 김석환 ( Kim Seokhwan )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 97-125 (29 pages)

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Until now, studies on the chancery system of the Chagatai Ulus have not been conducted thoroughly. Most studies were focused on the annotation and translation of existing orders issued in Chagatai Ulus. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that the chancery system of Chagatai Ulus is still unknown when compared to that of Qa'an Ulus and Hülegü Ulus, which have considerable historical sources. Therefore, this study explores the chancery system of Chagatai Ulus at a preliminary level by analyzing the existing orders and compares them with other cases of the Mongol Empire.
Chagatai, the second son of Chinggis Khan, was quite stubborn and adhered to the Mongol tradition. His father told his commanders that “any who had a desire to know the yasa and yosun of the kingdom should follow Chagatai.” Also, there was few sedentary cultures in Central Asia at that time, where his ulus was located, and most of rulers and subjects were more accustomed to the Turk-Mongol nomadic world. Thus, it is highly probable that the chancery system of Chagatai Ulus was quite like that of the early Mongol Empire, and even appeared to contain some of its original form.
First, we could find that the structure of orders issued in Chagatai Ulus was almost identical with that of the early Mongol Empire. For example, Tughlugh Temür's edict in 1348 or 1360 was comprised of 'Addresser and Order Type', 'Addressee', 'Text', 'Intimidation', and 'Date.' Although 'Authorization' and 'Background', commonly found in royal orders in the Mongol Empire, were omitted in this edict, most key parts were maintained in the same order, and it is not hard to find those two components contained in other cases of Chagatai Ulus. This structure was applied not only to khan's edicts, but also to princes and amirs' orders with some different terms.
Second, a strong tradition was kept in 'Order Type.' The Mongols made a sharp distinction between jarligh, a sovereign ruler's word, and üge, the other's word. In principle, Chagatai and later khans of Chagatai Ulus had to refer to their edicts as üge, because they were not qa'an, the supreme ruler of the whole Mongol Empire, but köbe'ün, a prince, who possessed his own ulus. On the other hand, they exercised absolute power in their own ulus. They could claim that they had the legal right of using jarligh, and we could easily find those cases in sources. However, khans of Chagatai Ulus used üge as 'Order Type' in their edicts thoroughly. This shows that the tradition in the chancery system of the early Mongol Empire had continued in effect in Chagatai Ulus.
Third, the orders of Chagatai Ulus have in common with those of the early Mongol Empire and Hülegü ulus in documents' layout. Güyük, the third great khan of the Mongol Empire, sent a letter to Pope Innocent IV. Four lines after 'Addresser and Order Type' were indented in the letter as well as in the letter of Arghun, the fourth khan of Hülegü Ulus, to Phillip IV. In the cases of Chagatai Ulus, from 2 to 5 lines after 'Addresser and Order Type' were indented in nine documents. Although there are three exceptional cases and few unidentifiable documents because of their original damage, overall, we could claim that orders of Chagatai Ulus were followed by the Mongol Empire's custom in the aspect of layout.
Fourth, there is some similarity in the use and division of seals. Seals were expressed as nishan in orders of Chagatai Ulus, and they were divided into nishan, al nishan, and qara nishan. Al nishan, red seal in its sense, appeared in Tughlugh Temür Khan's two edicts, and qara nishan, black seal, was referred to in others' documents except khan. This distinction of seal's color and its usage reminds us of the exact same cases in Hülegü Ulus, where tamgha was used instead of nishan. However, contrary to Hülegü Ulus, it appears that in Chagatai Ulus seals inscribed in Chinese had not been used, and both round and square seals were used at the same time.
In general, if we examine the existing orders of Chagatai Ulus, we could find common features with those of the early Mongol Empire and Hülegü Ulus in their structure, expression, and format. This means that the Mongols did not simply accept their chancery system from the sedentary world, but they continued to develop and maintain it as their own tradition. In this sense, we could define the chancery system as one of the “imperial institutions” which was operated all over the empire including Chagatai Ulus.

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6한국내 학부 몽골어 통번역 교육과정 고찰 및 개선 방안

저자 : 오윤게렐 ( Ch. Oyungerel )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 129-148 (20 pages)

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This year is the 32nd anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between Korea and Mongolia. Relations between the two countries are expanding and developing both quantitatively and qualitatively, but there is a shortage of professional interpreters and translators in companies or institutions that require interpreting personnel.
This article tried to identify the current status of the Mongolian language interpretation and translation curriculum for undergraduates in Korea, and to suggest ways to improve the development of a more effective Mongolian interpretation and translation curriculum for Mongolian majors.
The undergraduate Mongolian language interpretation and translation curriculum needs to be improved. This needs to be improved in the direction of improving the Mongolian language interpretation and translation ability, which reflects the basic theory and methodology of interpretation and translation, beyond the nature of the interpretation and translation classes offered by faculties and departments of general foreign language departments, and further training and practice of interpretation and translation.

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7몽골 오유톨고이 광산을 둘러싼 갈등에 대한 사례 연구

저자 : 덜거르마 ( Lkhagvadorj Dolgormaa )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 149-180 (32 pages)

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The Mongolian government recently ended a persistent dispute with the country's largest foreign direct investment company, and recently reached a settlement. Investors of the Oyu Tolgoi mining, Rio Tinto and Turquoise Hill, invested a total of $13 billion in Mongolia, and Mongolia's economy once showed a high growth rate of 17%. The Oyu Tolgoi mining has emerged as the largest industrial development project in the past 30 years, and it has significant contribution to the national economy, accounting for 1/3 of the nation's fiscal revenue as of 2021. Nevertheless, what the investors and the Mongolian government promised to the people at the beginning of the project is very different from the reality now. The expectation that Mongolia would transform into a middle-income country by the development of large-scale copper mines, which ranks fourth in the world in terms of reserves, did not come true. Due to the increase in project cost overrun, main incomes including tax income and dividend was delayed. Rather, the debt to be borne by equity investors and the burden of commissions to be paid to managers are increasing day by day. The people's disappointment in the project led to political instability in the country.
Regarding the Mongolian side's dissatisfaction with the outcome of the Oyu Tolgoi project, most of the external media have explained that the reason was the strengthening of resource nationalism. On the other hand, as the expected effects of the project promised at the beginning of the project did not appear and the schedeule of tax revenue and dividends was continuously delayed, Mongolian people raised suspicions that their politicians entered into an unfavorable investment contract to gain private interests. Meanwhile, other stakeholders in the Oyu Tolgoi business include minority shareholders, who argued that Oyu Tolgoi's management negligence eventually caused the dispute. As in many cases of resource development projects in which resource-holding countries and foreign investors cooperate, the Oyu Tolgoi project is also complicatedly intertwined with various political and economic interests.
The conflict between investors and the Mongolian government over the Oyu Tolgoi mine project is not a single issue, but a complex entanglement of issues. There were three major issues including the problem of project cost overrun, the problem of tax evasion, and other problems (management improvement, infrastructure development cooperation project, environmental cooperation), etc. Among them, the main cause of the conflict was the increased damage on the Mongolian side due to the project cost overrun, that is, the deterioration of the project profitability. As a result of the review by the independent experts investigation and the consultation of the Joint negotiation committee composed mainly of experts, the two sides ended the conflict in December 2021. The investor and management acknowledged the unreasonable project cost and decided to write off Mongolia's USD 2.3 billion-debt for its share in the Oyu Tolgoi mine project.

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1The research work on numerals of Mongolian and Tureg languages

저자 : L. Bold

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 1-47 (47 pages)

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2몽골어 〈판차탄트라〉의 음운적 특징에 관한 고찰 -구어적 요소를 중심으로-

저자 : 최형원 ( Hyong Won Choi )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 43-70 (28 pages)

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3한국어와 몽골어에 나타난 말(馬)

저자 : 김기선 ( Ким Ги Сонь )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 71-92 (22 pages)

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4Some problems of correlation between analytical and synthetical construction of the modern Mongolian

저자 : Bayansan J.

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 93-107 (15 pages)

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5Some Observations on The Essence and Historical Development of Voice Affixes

저자 : D. Zayabaatar

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 107-125 (19 pages)

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6한,몽 설화에 나타난 여성성 비교 연구

저자 : 장두식 ( Du Sik Chang )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 123-142 (20 pages)

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7후금(淸)의 흑룡강 주변 부족에 평정 과정 및 복속 정책

저자 : 조병학 ( Byoung Hak Cho )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 143-169 (27 pages)

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816세기 중앙아시아 신흥국가들의 몽골제국 계승성 연구 -우즈벡,카자흐칸국과 무굴제국의 지배계층을 중심으로-

저자 : 이주엽 ( Joo Yup Lee )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 171-194 (24 pages)

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9라마교의 의식무복식 연구

저자 : 김문영 ( Mun Young Kim ) , 김혜영 ( Hye Young Kim ) , 조우현 ( Woo Hyun Cho )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 195-221 (27 pages)

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1013-14세기 고려복식에 수용된 몽고복식에 관한 연구

저자 : 김문숙 ( Moon Sook Kim )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 17권 0호 발행 연도 : 2004 페이지 : pp. 223-246 (24 pages)

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