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대한금속재료학회> Metals and Materials International (MMI)> Effect of Repetitive Equal Channel Angular Pressing on Microstructural Stability of Low Carbon Steel

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

Effect of Repetitive Equal Channel Angular Pressing on Microstructural Stability of Low Carbon Steel

Young Kuk Kim , Sang Min Kim , Ki Seung Lee , Jong Jin Pak , Dong Hyuk Shin
  • : 대한금속재료학회
  • : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 7권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2001년 10월
  • : 437-442(6pages)
Metals and Materials International (MMI)

DOI


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The microstructure of ultrafine grained low carbon steel processed with repetitive equal channel angular pressing was investigated. A submicron ferrite grain size of ~0.2 mm was achieved by pressings of up to 12 passes. Microstructural examination by TEM with SAD pattern on the pressed samples revealed the presence of high density dislocations inside the ferrite grains and ill-defined grain boundaries. These features became more significant as the number of pressings increased. The static annealing of the pressed samples at 753 K up to 24 hrs resulted in a recovery which was associated with the absorption of the dislocations by the grain boundaries. However, the recovery was inhibited as the number of pressings increased. The annealing process also led to the precipitation of cementite particles in ferrite colonies. The presence of precipitated particles inside the ferrite grains enhanced the microstructural stability of the low carbon steel at elevated temperatures.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2009-580-005175818

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 금속공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1598-9623
  • : 2005-4149
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1995-2008
  • : 1183


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1Controlled Synthesis and Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Review

저자 : Won Il Park

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 659-665 (7 pages)

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The unique and fascinating properties of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures have triggered tremendous interest in exploring their possibilities for future electronic and photonic device applications. This paper provides current information on the progress of ZnO nanostructures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD); it covers issues ranging from controlled synthesis of various ZnO nanostructures to their properties and potential applications. The unique features of MOCVD have been exploited to grow high-quality 1D ZnO nanostructures with tunable sizes, enabling the study of excitonic dynamics in low-dimensional nanostructures and size-dependent quantum confinement. A better understanding of the growth behaviors of ZnO nanostructures-particularly the anisotropic surface energy and adsorbate-surface interaction with regard to the crystal planes-allows control over the positions, morphologies, and surface polarities of the ZnO nanostructures as appropriate for device integration.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

2Effect of Molybdenum and Chromium on Hardenability of Low-Carbon Boron-Added Steels

저자 : Fu Tao Han , Byoung Chul Hwang , Dong Woo Suh , Zuo Cheng Wang , Duk Lak Lee , Sung Joon Kim

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 667-672 (6 pages)

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The hardenability of low-carbon boron-added steels containing molybdenum or chromium was studied using dilatometry, thermodynamic calculations, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The combined addition of boron and molybdenum was found to be more effective than that of boron and chromium in enhancing the hardenability of boron-added steels. In particular, the addition of 0.5 wt.% molybdenum to the boron-added steel almost completely suppressed the formation of polygonal ferrite even at a slow cooling rate of 0.5℃/s. The synergistic effect of the combined addition of molybdenum and boron is thought to be due to both the suppression of M23(C,B)6 precipitation resulting from the deterioration of phase stability and the reduction of carbon diffusivity by the molybdenum addition.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

3Oxygen Out-Diffusion in Partially Melted YBa2Cu3Oy-0.325Ag Superconductor at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressure

저자 : Ju Hyung Kim , Hai Gun Lee

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 673-678 (6 pages)

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In this study, we examined the chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen out-diffusion (Dout) in partially melted YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123)-Ag superconducting tape produced by the thermomechanical processing of the silver-clad precursor (doped with 5 wt.% Ag) containing BaCuO2.5 at reduced oxygen partial pressure (Po2). The Dout value of Y123-Ag (O7.0 to O6.2), obtained by using the thermogravimetric relaxation technique at 950℃ and a Po2 of 0.28 kPa, was 1.0476 × 10(-7) ㎠/s.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

4Mechanical Analysis of Woven Composites at High Strain Rates and Its Application to Predicting Impact Behavior

저자 : Han Sun Ryou , Kwan Soo Chung , Ji Ho Lim

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 679-687 (9 pages)

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The deformation behavior of woven composites at high strain rates was analyzed using a constitutive equation developed to describe the nonlinear, anisotropic/asymmetric and rate-dependent mechanical behavior of woven composites. The rate-dependent nonlinear behavior of woven composites was characterized at high strain rates (1 s-1 to 100 s-1) using a tensile testing method first proposed in this research. The material properties for the developed constitutive equation were determined and subsequently used in a finite element analysis of the deformation behavior of woven composites at high strain rates. Finally, the impact behavior of woven composites was predicted using the constitutive equation and the results were compared with experiments, showing that the current constitutive equation including the characterization method is adequate to describe the deformation behavior of woven composites at high strain rates up to impact level.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

5Effect of Impact Energy on the Impact-Wear Properties of Low Carbon High Manganese Alloy Steels in Corrosive Conditions

저자 : Kai Wang , Xiao Dong Du , Kuk Tae Youn , Yasunori Hayashi , Chan Gyu Lee , Bon Heun Koo

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 689-693 (5 pages)

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The impact-wear properties of low carbon high manganese alloy steel were tested under three different impact energies (0.7 J, 1.2 J and 1.7 J) using a modified MLD-10 wear tester. SEM inspection of the wear surface and subsurface optical metallographic analysis reveal the impact wear mechanism. Under corrosive conditions we observe a shift from single micro-cutting to impact-flaking, after the appearance of vertical section micro-cracks, while at higher impact energies fatigue corrosion and abrasion are observed.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

6Evolution and Mechanical Effect of S`-Phase in ECA Pressed Al-3.8Cu-1.2Mg-0.5Mn Alloys

저자 : Yong Lak Choi , Seon Hwa Kim

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 695-699 (5 pages)

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The composition, morphology, and distribution of an Al-3.8Cu-1.2Mg-0.5Mn alloy precipitate formed during the ECAP process was investigated using XRD and TEM, and its mechanical properties were estimated via a SP test. A texture structure was formed at the initial state of the ECAP process, but an equiaxed structure was formed as the process progressed. The grain size was refined to around 100 nm through the ECAP process, and the morphology of the S` phase at the initial state is characterized by a rod shape in the grain boundary. As the number of passes increased, the S` phase assumed a spherical shape, with a diameter of 10 nm to 20 nm, and it was uniformly distributed in the internal grain boundary. Growth of the S` phase was also observed, and is thought to be due to Ostwald ripening. The results of the SP test show that the maximum load increased to above 60 %, indicating that changes in the size and distribution of the S` phase affect the alloy`s tensile strength.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

7Transport Properties of Bi43Se4Te53 Thermoelectric Alloy Fabricated by Mechanical Grinding and Pulse Discharge Sintering

저자 : Woo Suk Choi , Bong Gyu Park , Ik Min Park , Yong Ho Park

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 701-706 (6 pages)

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Mechanical grinding followed by pulse discharge sintering was applied to fabricate n-type Bi43Se4Te53 thermoelectric materials. Calorimetric measurements demonstrated that a Se-rich phase was developed from Bi2(Se, Te)3 phase after 10h of milling. However, when the milling time was extended to 25 h or longer, a Te-rich phase was formed. Hall measurements showed that the development of the Se/Te-rich phase considerably increased the carrier concentration but decreased the carrier mobility. The oxygen contamination in the smashed powders was also an important consideration for the degeneration of the figure of merit of the sintered samples.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

8High Energy Pulsed Plasma Arc Synthesis and Material Characteristics of Nanosized Aluminum Powder

저자 : Kyoung Jin Kim

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 707-711 (5 pages)

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Using a modified concept of an electrothermal gun powered by a high energy electrical pulse, aluminum nanopowder, whose average particle size ranges from 40 to 110 nm, has been synthesized by discharging and quenching aluminum plasma arc vapor in the argon gas. The characterization of produced aluminum nanopowder has been performed by using SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, and SAXS, and the results show the spherical aluminum nanoparticles with an amorphous oxide layer of passivation whose thickness is 2 nm to 3 nm. Thermal analysis of 44 nm and 80 nm aluminum nanopowders using TG and DSC shows that the aluminum nanopowder with a smaller particle size has increased reactivity during oxidation, such as a lower oxidation onset temperature. However, as the average particle size becomes smaller, the active aluminum content decreases rapidly, so 80 nm to 120 nm-sized aluminum nanopowder might be useful as an energetic material.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

9Indirect Evaluation of the Long-Term Oxidation Properties of Al-21Ti-23Cr and Al-37Ti-12Cr Coating Materials for TiAl Alloy

저자 : J. K. Lee , S. H. Kim , D. M. Wee , K. Sharvan Kumar , M. H. Oh

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 713-720 (8 pages)

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The most pertinent coating materials in the Al-Ti-Cr alloy system to improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of a TiAl alloy, with respect to oxidation properties, resistance to thermal stress, and chemical compatibility, are the two-phase alloys of Al-21Ti-23Cr (L12+Cr2Al) and Al-37Ti-12Cr (γ+TiAlCr). In this study, cyclic oxidation tests at 1000℃ and 1200℃ were performed for the specimens coated with both materials of 10 im thickness. Furthermore, breakaway oxidation caused by the formation of a rutile TiO2 scale was observed, though both bulk alloys showed very stable oxidation behavior. This phenomenon was resulted from the depleted Al content in the coating layer due to Al2O3 oxide growth and interdiffusion with the substrate. Considering the decrease of Al content due to oxide growth, the Al-21Ti-23Cr coating with the initial higher Al content was more effective for long-term oxidation protection of the TiAl alloy. On the other hand, when the Al content changes due to the interdiffusion with the substrate, the Al-37Ti-12Cr coating with a smaller compositional gradient with the TiAl substrate was more effective than the Al-21Ti-23Cr coating. Cyclic oxidation tests at 1000℃ and 1200℃ confirmed that for the longer lifetime of coating materials the initial Al content was more important than the smaller compositional gradient with the substrate. Consequently, the Al-21Ti-23Cr coating was considered as more effective one for the long-term oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

10Steam Oxidation and Surface Hardness of Power Plant Valve Materials Under the Ultra Super Critical Steam Condition

저자 : Ki O Song , Tong Yul Cho , Jae Hong Yoon , Chan Gyu Lee , Kee Sam Shin , Seon Ho Lee , Kee Won Urm , Jong Wook Lee , In Soo Kim

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 14권 6호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 721-727 (7 pages)

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Current supercritical steam power plants operate at 3,600 psi and 1,000°F. If the steam temperature is raised from 1,000°F (538℃) to 1,150°F (621℃), the efficiency increases by 2 %. Therefore, study on the high temperature corrosion of power plant materials under ultra-supercritical conditions (USC) is necessary to protect the plant from corrosion. In this study, valve materials of 17 % Cr martensitic steels (17Cr steel), Incoloy 901 (I901) and their surface nitrided specimens were exposed to USC of 621℃ and 3600 psi (255 kg/㎠) steam for 200℃, 400℃, and 800 h. The oxidation of both 17Cr steel and I901 under the USC for 800 h is very small due to the formation of a protective thin oxide layer formation on the surface. The USC oxidation of both nitrided specimens were increased due to the decomposition and formation of active nitrogen from the non protective nitrides such as Fe4N, Fe2-3N, and CrN. The oxidation of nitrided 17Cr steel (n17Cr steel) is about two times higher compared to nitrided I901 (nI901). The surface hardness is improved by more than two times near the surface by nitriding, and the degradation of hardness by USC oxidation is rapid for n17Cr steel, but slow for nI901.

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1Developing SPD Methods Processing Bulk Nanostructured Materials with Enhanced Properties

저자 : R . Z . Valiev

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 7권 5호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 413-420 (8 pages)

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Severe plastic deformation (SPD), I.e. intense plastic straining under high pressure, is an innovative technique for processing ultrafine-grained nanostructured metals and alloys. SPD fabricated nanostructures can lead to novel properties, which, however, depend strongly on the processing parameters. This paper focuses on examples of attaining enhanced mechanical properties in several metals and alloys, subjected to severe plastic deformation. In addition, the relationships among the processing conditions, microstructures and properties of the materials produced by SPD are considered.

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2Tuning the Electronic Structure of Solids with Nanometer - Sized Microstructures

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Most materials studied and/or used technologically today are electrically neutral, I.e. the positive and negative electric charges are balanced. Limited attention has been paid so far to the option of influencing the properties of materials by deviating from charge neutrality. In fact, solids with nanometer-sized microstructures may open the way to generate materials with an excess or a deficit of electrons or holes of up to about 0.3 electrons/holes per atom. Such deviations from charge neutrality may be achieved either by means of an externally applied voltage or by space charges at interfaces between materials with different chemical compositions (or combinations of both). As many properties of solid materials depend on their electronic structure, significant deviations from charge neutrality result in materials with new, yet mostly unexplored properties such as modified electric, ferromagnetic, optical etc. properties as well as alloys of conventionally immiscible components or materials with new types of atomic structures. Existing and conceivable new technological applications of solids deviating from charge neutrality are discussed.

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3A New Low Carbon Steel Microstructure : Ultrafine Ferrite Grains with Homogeneously Distributed Fine Cementite Particles

저자 : Dong Hyuk Shin , Jong Ryoul Kim , Kyung Tae Park

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 7권 5호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 431-435 (5 pages)

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Low carbon steels containing carbon less than 0.2 wt.% are the most widely used ferrous alloys in structural application. These steels consist of ferrite of large volume fraction with pearlite as the remainder and exhibit a strength of ~400 Mpa. To date, considerable effort has been devoted to enhancing the strength of these steels. However, existing methods of improving their strength are limited by the counter effect of loss of ductility and toughness. To overcome this deficiency, a new low carbon steel microstructure and its processing route are reported in this study. The steel with the new microstructure-submicrometer scale equiaxed ferrite grains with fine cementite particles distributed uniformly - was manufactured by imposing severe plastic deformation to introduce ultrafine ferrite grains and subsequent static annealing for uniform precipitation of nanosized cementite particles. The strength of the steel with the new microstructure increased nearly 100%, over 800 Mpa, without significant loss of ductility.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

4Effect of Repetitive Equal Channel Angular Pressing on Microstructural Stability of Low Carbon Steel

저자 : Young Kuk Kim , Sang Min Kim , Ki Seung Lee , Jong Jin Pak , Dong Hyuk Shin

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 7권 5호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 437-442 (6 pages)

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The microstructure of ultrafine grained low carbon steel processed with repetitive equal channel angular pressing was investigated. A submicron ferrite grain size of ~0.2 mm was achieved by pressings of up to 12 passes. Microstructural examination by TEM with SAD pattern on the pressed samples revealed the presence of high density dislocations inside the ferrite grains and ill-defined grain boundaries. These features became more significant as the number of pressings increased. The static annealing of the pressed samples at 753 K up to 24 hrs resulted in a recovery which was associated with the absorption of the dislocations by the grain boundaries. However, the recovery was inhibited as the number of pressings increased. The annealing process also led to the precipitation of cementite particles in ferrite colonies. The presence of precipitated particles inside the ferrite grains enhanced the microstructural stability of the low carbon steel at elevated temperatures.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

5Crystal Structure of ( TiHf ) Ni Phase Formed in a 20Ti-50Ni-30Hf ( at.% ) Alloy

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The crystal structure of the (TiHf)Ni phase formed in a 20Ti-50Ni-30Hf (at.%) alloy was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and was found to be rhombohedral whose lattice parameters were a=0.4887 nm and a=83.3˚. The atomic positions of the Ti(Hf) atoms in the rhombohedral structure of the precipitates were assumed to be Ti=0 0 0, x 1/2 0, x 0 1/2, x 1/2 1/2, and those of the Ni atoms were known to be Ni=1/2 1/2 1/2, 0 0 1/2, 0 1/2 0, 1/2 0 0.

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The effects of intermediate annealing temperature on the corrosion behavior of Zr-0.4Nb-0.8Sn-0.3Fe-0.2Cr-0.1Mn and Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.1Fe alloys intermediate-annealed at various temperatures were investigated. The relationship between the corrosion behavior and the precipitation characteristics was discussed. A desirable microstructure containing a fine dispersion of second phase particles was obtained by intermediate annealing at a low temperature. Intermediate annealing at higher temperatures resulted in undesirable microstructural features including the precipitation of b-Zr and the coarsening of precipitates. The corrosion resistance of the alloys was apparently degraded with increasing size of the precipitated intermetallic compounds, especially in Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.1Fe where b-Zr precipitated on higher-temperature annealing. The corrosion behavior of Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.1Fe was more sensitive to intermediate annealing temperature than was that of Zr-0.4Nb-0.8Sn-0.3Fe-0.2Cr-0.1Mn. An examination of particle size distribution revealed that the corrosion behavior of the alloys was dominantly affected by b-Zr larger than the specific size, which is responsible for the difference in corrosion resistance between Zr-0.4Nb-0.8Sn-0.3Fe-0.2Cr-0.1Mn and Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.1Fe. It is implied from these results that the optimum corrosion performance of niobium-containing zirconium alloys is achieved by maintaining a uniform distribution of fine second phase particles

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저자 : Jun Hee Lee , Hyun Ki Kang

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 7권 5호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 457-460 (4 pages)

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As the cathode material(La0.8Sr0.2MnO3) in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells(SOFCs), plasma was sprayed on mild steel by a DC thermal plasma spray as a high-speed process depositing thin films of SOFCs components. The results showed that a La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 coating layer with a certain porosity could be obtained directly using both La0.8Sr0.2MnO3(LSM) and mixed raw materials (La2O3, SrCO3 and MnO or MnCO3) with or without a pore former. Especially, the heat treatment of the coating layer from the mixed raw materials at 800℃ for 3hrs significantly enhanced the desired crystallization of the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 from the incomplete reaction of the raw materials.

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8High Temperature Sulfidation and Oxidation of Sputter - Deposited Nb - Al - Si Coatings

저자 : Dong Bok Lee

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 7권 5호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 461-466 (6 pages)

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The sulfidation and oxidation behavior of amorphous 58Nb-38Al-4Si(at.%) coating sputter-deposited with d.c. magnetron sputtering was studied between 700 and 900℃ under 0.1 atm of pure S2(g) and 1 atm of air, respectively. The coating approximately followed the parabolic sulfidation and oxidation rate law, and displayed superior resistance to sulfidation and oxidation. The coating sulfidized to Al2S3 and NbS2 which protected the substrate. The coating oxidized to TiO2, AlNbO4 and k-Al2O3 which acted as an oxidation barrier. The mechanisms of sulfidation and oxidation of the prepared coating are discussed.

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

9Bonding Strength in Structural Adhesive Bonded Joint

저자 : Jae Kyoo Lim , Jun Hee Song

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : Metals and Materials International (MMI) 7권 5호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 467-470 (4 pages)

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Adhesive bonding has emerged as a unique and highly developed joining process with applicability to a wide variety of engineering materials. Because the stresses of adhesive bonded joints are distributed much more uniformly than mechanical fasteners and many welds, they can be used to improve fatigue resistance and to join thin or fragile parts. This study is to investigate whether welding structure can be replaced by adhesive bonding as structural joints. The bonding strength was evaluated with the manufacturing factors of overlap length, overlap width, added pressure and surface treatment. These data provide bonding structure with design criterion and contribute to raising productivity and reducing in cost.

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The effects of Y-addition on the high-temperature oxidation of Fe3Al alloy were investigated in air at a temperature range of 800-1100℃. The reactive element enhanced the initial nucleation of the oxide scale and thus formed a fine-grained oxide. The grain refinement of the alumina scale due to the addition of yttrium changed the growth mechanism of the oxide from a countercurrent diffusion of Al and O to a predominantly inward oxygen diffusion, which led to the formation of pegs on the scale/alloy interface, the prevention of the formation of voids in the substrate, and a decrease in growth stress. The beneficial effects of the reactive element on oxide adhesion are explained by “countercurrent diffusion modification model” suggested in this study.

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자료제공: 네이버학술정보

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