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The Journal of Chinese Historical Researches

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~135권0호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 1,550
중국사연구
135권0호(2021년 12월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1“영구변래(營丘邊萊)”변(辨)과 주왕조의 “이제제이(以齊制夷)”

저자 : 루링위 ( Lu Lingyu ) , 옌아이민 ( Yan Aimin )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-16 (16 pages)

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『史記·齊太公世家』에 나오는 '營丘邊萊'는 西周 初年에 강태공이 제나라로 건너가 건국할 때 萊侯와의 전쟁에 대한 내용을 기술하고 있다. 萊侯와의 전쟁 충돌의 배경과 동기, 과정에 대한 묘사는 역사적 사실에 부합하는 중요한 참고할 가치가 있다. '營丘邊萊' 사건은 西周 初期에 薑齊 정권으로 대표되는 姬周 귀족집단과 萊夷로 대표되는 東夷部族간의 정벌 전쟁의 축소판이었다.
傳世文獻와 鹽業遺存考古學 및 靑銅器 銘文을 통해 살펴볼 때, 西周 初期 萊人들은 周王朝의 統治에 臣服하였고 그 部族의 首領도 周나라 天子에 의해 諸侯로 分封되었다. 經濟的으로는 齊와 萊가 西周 初부터 魚鹽貿易에서 긴밀한 합작을 해 왔으며, 軍事的으로는 齊나라 군사(齊師)와 萊人이 계속 협력해 周 王朝에 對抗하던 오랑캐의 反亂을 平定하는 데 큰 힘이 되었다. 周 王室은 점차 齊나라 군사를 主力으로 하여 萊人 등 臣服한 지방 후백(後伯)을 보강하여 山東半島를 管轄하였다. 이러한 禦敵機制는 西周 시기 周왕조의 東夷諸部에 대한 감시와 정벌 전쟁에서 중요한 역할을 했다.


The historical records of Qi Taigong's family(《史記·齊太公世家》) recorded a military conflict between Jiang Shang and Lai people in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. This record has important reference value for the description of the background, motivation and process of the war. This incident is the epitome of the war between the ruling group of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Dongyi tribes in Shandong.
According to handed down documents, salt remains, archaeology and relevant bronze inscriptions, the Lai people were conquered by the rulers of the Zhou Dynasty in the early Western Zhou Dynasty, and their tribal leaders were also enfeoffed as princes by the emperor of the Zhou Dynasty. Economically, Qi and Lai had close cooperation since the early Western Zhou Dynasty. Militarily, Qi and Lai continued to cooperate and became an important force in calming the barbarian rebellion of the Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou royal family gradually took the Qi army as the main force and assisted the local vassal state forces subdued by the Lai people to form the eastern defense front. This mechanism of resisting the enemy played an important role in the surveillance and expedition war of the Zhou Dynasty against the eastern Yi tribes in the Western Zhou Dynasty.

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2전한(前漢) 전기(前期) 남군(南郡)의 지역성과 군현(郡縣) 통치의 전개

저자 : 琴載元

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 17-54 (38 pages)

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本文以南郡為例分析了西漢前期關外郡“漢承秦制”的基本特点. 南郡在項羽掌權時與長江以南地區一起被封給臨江王, 到漢帝國建立時臨江王就被排除到分封異性諸侯王之外, 并被漢朝廷肅清, 隨後就恢復與秦郡縣相同的體制. 當時漢朝廷早已打算在南郡地區廢止分封制並建立郡縣制, 必然是從秦郡縣統治的傳統而構想的. 首先, 南郡“漢人”基本上都是從南郡“秦人”轉換而來的. 他們在臨江國統治時期成為亡命者, 再次恢復郡縣統治以後, 根據秦户籍再次擁有編戶民身份. 在此基礎上, 隨著皇帝頒布對過去奴婢的赦免, 可以通過“書名數”的手續升為編户民, 这样秦代南郡的百姓基本都享有編戶民的待遇. 至於對南郡百姓進行軍功賜爵, 南郡出身者與諸侯國出身者相比有較多的限制. 因為在南郡參與反秦起義的人員极少, 并且在楚漢戰爭時没有為漢軍征發過兵力.
其次, 關於南郡軍事功能的問題. 因為南郡位於江南和江淮連接的交通中心, 所以漢朝廷一定要直轄此地. 漢朝廷通過控制此地, 将郡縣制擴展到江南和江淮地區. 比如, 漢初洞庭湖周圍地區都屬於南郡, 與後來的武陵郡和長沙郡疆域不同. 因為這種措施, 長沙國內經過洞庭湖水道達到沅水及酉水水路交通被切斷, 成為了以後在湘西地區設置武陵郡的開端. 而且, 安陸縣位於漢水以東, 與諸侯國領地接壤. 其縣城原来是楚時修建的大型城邑, 但在秦佔領此地時没廢棄并沿用到漢初. 因為在戰國秦及漢初時安陸周圍成為郡縣區域的前沿地帶, 具備了可以集中兵力的軍事據點特征. 這種情况可能到武帝元狩二年(前121)江夏郡設置後開始發生變化. 大概此時南郡東邊地區都變為郡縣, 郡國對峙局面大約結束, 南郡作為邊境的特点也隨之消失. 這樣的南郡長期的沿變, 告訴我們秦漢帝國的郡縣統治並沒有完全由中央一律進行, 而在各地存在地緣政治, 並展開不同形態、保持個性的動態趨勢.

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3당(唐) 헌종(憲宗) 초기 회서(淮西) 번진(藩鎭)의 지역할거(地域割據) -오소양(吳少陽)의 행동을 중심으로

저자 : 鄭炳俊

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 55-85 (31 pages)

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淮南节度使吴少诚时期, 掌握淮西藩镇的势力是“平卢军集团”. 吴少阳虽然不是平卢军出身而是河北出身, 但吴少诚先前在扩张因李希烈的死亡而受损的平卢军集团领土的过程中, 将吴少阳从外部召了进来. 在这种情况下, 平卢军集团中加入了河北出身的人们而形成了“平卢河北集团“.
元和4年(809年)11月, 虽然吴少阳擅自继承了淮西藩镇, 但是宪宗为了集中精力讨伐成德王承宗的叛乱而容忍了他的世袭. 其实, 宪宗从早期开始就下了决心要讨伐淮西, 其原因是因为淮西独自远离于其他割据的藩镇, 所以宪宗判断其相对而言更易讨伐, 这显露出宪宗从最初就有意要改革割据的藩镇. 对此, 吴少阳“屡献牧马以自解, 帝亦因善之”, 吴少阳这样的态度, 帮助他与宪宗之间没有特别的冲突, 能以相安无事.

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4근세중국의 법치주의와 그 향방 ―송원(宋元)시대를 중심으로―

저자 : 朴永哲

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 87-142 (56 pages)

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宋朝是中國歷史上法治發展到最高的時代, 被稱為“法治”時代. 宋代之文學和元代之吏學可以說是民間法治發展的一股潮流. 然而, 即使是宋代發達的法治, 也有其局限性, 無法擺脫王法主義性法治的本質, 即法律不應該在人民, 而應該在政府. 這種法治自秦朝法學家李斯推行“以吏為師”的政策以來一直存在. 隨著胥吏在元帝國地位的上升, 儘管吏學思想的發展, 但對訟學的壓制似乎仍在繼續, 以王法主義為基礎的法治的本質似乎仍然存在.
誠然, 元朝在出版方面比宋朝表現出更多的自由, 但似乎並沒有帶來新的法律意識. 這種影響例如, 投下領的放任政策, 由於蒙古統治階級與蒙古人的合作, 會因非法徵稅[橫科]的重複而導致地方行政枯竭.
元帝國一百年的法制, 由於異族統治的特殊性問題, 儘管取得了吏學上一些的進步, 沒有解決宋朝的根本的王法主義問題而趨同於回歸唐律的保守的大明律.
如果說是宋元時代的訟學與吏學在民間所經歷的受挫, 那麼洪武帝的講讀律令的受挫, 也是朝廷所經歷的受挫, 讓人感覺像是一道王法主義的法治之屏障.

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5청말(淸末) 이래 '의진(義賑)'의 전개와 20세기 '재해 거버넌스'의 변용

저자 : 朴敬石 ( Park Kyungsuk )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 143-188 (46 pages)

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This paper looked at the development of “Yizhen”(Charity Disaster Relief, 義賑) over the first half of the 20th century since the Late Qing. In particular, attention was paid to the collaborations between “Guanzhen(Government Disaster Relief, 官賑)” and “Yizhen”. This was intended to reveal the characteristic aspects of disaster relief in the 20th century from the perspective of 'Disaster Governance.'
“The Great Drought Disaster in North China” of the Late Qing clearly revealed the limitations of Guanzhen. On the other hand, new attempts and experiences related to disaster relief were accumulating in the charity sector, which is so-called Yizhen. Since then, the Yizhen activity continued, and there was a distinct trend by the Late Qing Dynasty and Early Republic of China. Of course, even before Yizhen, there were small-scale and peripheral private relief activities covered in the magnetic field of Guanzhen, but Yizhen is clearly distinguished from this historically. Yizhen overcame regional and hierarchical closeness due to social and economic changes in modern China. It expanded its scope of activity throughout the country, secured 'autonomy' to the government as a social force, and it improved the rationality of the operating system. This emergence of private Yizhen is significant in that it has led to a change in the disaster relief system itself, that is, a new disaster governance, by supplementing the decline of Guanzhen in Late Qing.
In the summer of 1931, an unprecedented major flood occurred in the Yangtze River basin, and Chinese society's response to this disaster was also new and effective unprecedented. This was possible because the collaboration between Guanzhen and Yizhen developed very efficiently at the national level. That means that Yizhen which was started in Late Qing, maintained vitality until 1931, and the representative organization was “Shanghai's Association for Planning Rapid Relief for Those Provinces Stricken by Flood(上海籌募各省水災急賑會).” This Association efficiently raised donations from a wide range of classes and carried out relief activities nationwide across the 16 Provinces and 3 Cites. In addition, it has the basic characteristics of Yizhen, which excludes Guanzhen and collects it from the private sector and processes it directly by the private sector, and applies efficient and transparent procedures and regulations. In addition, “Collaboration Relief of Government and Charity(官義合賑)” was typically conducted at the scene of the disaster. A close cooperation relationship, that is, harmonious 'disaster governance', was formed between the central and local governments and nongovernmental Yizhen.
From the summer of 1942 to the spring of 1943, drought damage was severe in Henan. The victims were neglected because it was a 'war situation', and the tragedy reached its peak. Accordingly, there was active criticism from domestic and foreign media, and domestic and foreign public opinion sympathizing with the victims was a great burden on the national government. The National Government urgently took relief measures, but the effect was very limited. As Guanzhen was sluggish again this time, Yizhen supplemented it. At that time, the Yizhen organization representing Shanghai was the “Shanghai Association for Rapid Relief of North China(上海各界華北急賑會).” Shanghai was under the “Wang Jingwei Regime(汪精衛政權)”, but the main figures that made up this Association were those who had led the Yizhen in the Nanjing National Government Period. “Chongqing National Government”, “Wang Jingwei Regime”, Japanese Army, Shanghai's national Yizhen, and Xian(西安) and Zhengzhou(鄭州)'s Yizhen intertwined with each other appeared.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, “Catastrophic Flood(特大洪水)” occurred in Yangtze River basin in 1954. People's Government responded actively and had a relatively effective effect, thanks to preemptive repair projects and the rapid establishment of a relief system in the early days of its foundation. The fact that the People's Government was so active is deeply related to its experience of emphasizing disaster relief during the revolution. In addition, disaster relief was a 'political project' to strengthen political support for the New Regime. Through the practice of “politicalized” disaster relief, the 'governance' structure was 'nationalized' as the state's control penetrated widely and deeply into the underlying society, which led to a change in the subject of disaster relief. Now, the social relief system independent of state power has disappeared. Disaster governance, which has been composed of a collaboration between Yizhen and Guanzhen since the Late Qing, has been transformed into “Yizhenless governance”.

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6중국에서 본 5·18 민주화운동 : 자유민주주의에서 사회민주주의로

저자 : 尹淑鉉

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 189-210 (22 pages)

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1980年5·18民主化運動在韓國發生時, 中國《人民日報》和朝鮮《勞動新聞》詳細報導了5·18民主化運動的背景和情況, 以及歪曲和操縱的過程. 5·18民主化運動被解讀為“反抗法西斯專政的民主化運動”, 這與文化大革命以後緩和的中國政治體制有關. 然而, 1989年6·4天安門事件後, 對5·18民主運動的研究開始通過“民族主義”和“工人階級”來理解和重新評估. 這些對5·18民主運動的各種解釋, 與中國知識分子對6·4天安門事件的解釋相似. 這展示了對5ㆍ18民主化運動的各種解釋的可能性.

KCI등재

7전국(戰國)·진(秦)·한(漢) 시기 사법 변천 과정에서의 공간적 요소 - '풍속에 따른 통치'를 중심으로 한 고찰

저자 : 쑹레이 ( Song Lei )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 211-232 (22 pages)

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사법 활동은 시공간의 자원을 이용하여 그 목적을 달성하기 때문에, 반드시 지리 환경의 영향을 받아 뚜렷한 공간적 특징을 보인다. 전국시대와 진·한 왕조 시기는 왕국에서 제국으로 전환하는 중요한 시기였다. 진나라와 한나라 정부의 중앙 사법권은 관중 지역과 훗날의 중원지역을 중심으로 하여 주변 지역으로 확장되었고, 중심에서 가장자리로 갈수록 점점 약해지는 체증식 원형 구조를 보였다. 이는 사법 분야에서 오복 제도의 구현으로 확인된다.
제제(帝制) 중국 초기 서로 다른 지역의 경제와 문화는 커다란 차이를 보였다. 이때 특정 지역에서 사법상 '풍속에 따른 통치'를 허용한 것은 안정성의 유지와 아름답고 다양한 사법적 양상의 조성을 가능하게 하였다.


Judicial activities need to use the resources in time and space to achieve their own purposes, so they will inevitably show obvious spatial characteristics under the influence of geographical environment. The Warring States Period, the Qin and Han Dynasties were an important period of transformation from the kingdom to the Empire. The central judicial power of the Qin and Han Dynasties government expanded to the surrounding areas with the Guanzhong(關中)region and the later Central Plains region as the core, showing a progressive circle structure that gradually weakened from the center to the edge, which can be regarded as the embodiment of the Wufu(五服) system in the judicial field.
At the beginning of Imperial China, there were great differences in economy and culture between different regions. At this time, allowing specific regions to "rule according to custom" in judicature can not only maintain their own stability, but also build a beautiful and diverse judicial landscape.

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8헌법의 권위가 생성되는 경로에 관한 연구 - 라즈가 제기한 '권위 명제'에서 착안하여

저자 : 친원 ( Qin Wen )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 135권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 233-251 (19 pages)

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일찍이 고대 그리스 시기에 서방사회에서는 이미 헌법의 권위에 대한 토론이 있었다. 반대로 청나라 조정은 청조말기의 변법개혁시기에 이르러서야 처음으로 헌법적인 법률문건을 제정하였다. 따라서 중국의 전통문화에는 헌법 권위를 수호할 전승요소가 없다. 특히 중국 역사상 '외유내법(外儒內法)'의 치국 사상과 신중국 건국 이래의 역사와 현실은 헌법 권위를 크게 좌우했다. 라즈(Raz)가 제시한 '권위 명제'에 따르면 '의존 명제', '통상적 정당화 명제', '선취적 근거 명제'는 각각 '추론', '강제력', '신앙'이라는 헌법 시행의 세 측면에 대응하는 를 포함한다. 헌법 권위를 수립하는 경로에 대한 토론도 역시 이 세 가지 방면으로부터 전개되었다.


As early as the ancient Greek period, the western society has appeared on the constitutional authority of the discussion. In contrast, it was not until the reform period of the late Qing Dynasty that the Qing government formulated the first constitutional legal document. Therefore, in Chinese traditional culture, there is no inheritance factor to safeguard constitutional authority. In particular, the governing thought of "Confucianism outside and law inside" in Chinese history, as well as the history and reality since the founding of the People's Republic of China have greatly influenced the constitutional authority. According to the "authority proposition" proposed by Raz includes "dependence proposition", "normal justification proposition" and "preemptive reason proposition", which correspond to the "reasoning", "coercive force" and "belief" of the implementation of the constitution respectively. The discussion on the path of establishing constitutional authority is also carried out from these three aspects.

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