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The Journal of Chinese Historical Researches

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~137권0호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 1,571
중국사연구
137권0호(2022년 04월) 수록논문
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1상(商)과 동이(東夷) -공존과 갈등-

저자 : 裵 眞 永 ( Bae Jin Young )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-41 (41 pages)

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The amicable relationship comparably maintained between Shang and Dongyi in peace changed gradually into conflict and struggle relationship from the conquest of Nanyi(藍夷). The period of the coexistence and symbiosis in the amicable relationship includes the Pre-Shang(先商) culture Era and the Early Shang Era. The long exchange between Shang and Dongyi culturally formed the bilaterally influencing relationship, and politically established the Yi-Shang(夷商) alliance. The conflict and struggle started from the Meddle Shang Era. It can be considered that the cause of the conflict and struggle was due to the results of the East Conquest to occupy the resources in the East.
The change of the relationship between Shang and Dongyi was due to the political growth of Shang as a leading nation of the Center Field(中原). In general, the growth as the leading nation is accompanied by plundering of the resource in the neighboring nations or countries. The status of Shang as the leading nation may have played an important role for domination and distribution of the Ritual Bronzes. In addition, domination of salt, which is one of the essentials, may have been one of the main objectives for the status. With respect to the change of the relationship, this paper assumed that the decline of both the Yuanqu-Shangcheng(垣曲商城), supervising copper ore and manufacturing bronze wares, and the Dongxiaping(東下憑) Site, relating with the salt, from the Erligang(二里崗) Upper Period, may not be unrelated with the Shang's Conquest of the East. There existed the conflict relationship with the East since the Middle Shang Era, however, it is essential to understand that the Shang's amicable relationship with a number of the East nations or countries was continuously maintained, too.

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2고대(古代) 한반도(韓半島)의 젓갈의 출현(出現)과 보급(普及) : 『제민요술(齊民要術)』과 관련하여

저자 : 崔德卿

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 43-93 (51 pages)

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本稿關注的是, 與韓中日魚醬相比, 被評價爲其起源地的中國文化已經退潮, 幾乎消失殆盡, 日本很早就從中國流入, 變形成壽司等新的形態, 韓半島與中國原來的形態不同, 以不同的方式制造, 至今享有各種食材和調味料. 本文想查看其背景.
從先秦時代到《齊民要術》的華北地區飼料來看, 肉醬和魚醬需要酵母和大米, 再加上添加物制成的魚醬和魚醬爲中心. 從材料購買不容易、制造過程複雜、需要花費心血來看, 這似乎不是小農民的日常食品, 而是用作祭祀或禮儀的祭品. 與此相反, 雖然只利用鹽醃制的鹽藏魚醬首次出現在馬島遺址上, 但從鮧的傳統和樂浪潘國的魚資源來看, 其傳統始于韓半島南部, 可以追溯到衛滿朝鮮, 這與食醢、魚鮓的傳統在華中地區受到影響, 一直被用作重要祭祀的祭物不同. 這種現象說明, 在韓半島實行兩元化, 南下和北上交叉. 之所以能夠出現韓半島特有的鹽醬魚醬, 最重要的是韓半島西海岸的穩定的鹽生產和豐富的魚資源. 這種鹽醬醬以韓半島爲起點, 沿著海岸線向東西擴散, 朝鮮對魚醬的需求進一步擴大, 其用途也變得多樣化, 通過《朝鮮王朝實錄》可以具體了解.

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3당(唐) 헌종(憲宗) 전기(前期)의 번진개혁(藩鎭改革)과 평로절도사(平盧節度使) 이사도(李師道)

저자 : 鄭炳俊

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 95-124 (30 pages)

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永貞元年(805年)8月, 憲宗即位, 當月, 西川的劉辟發動叛亂. 比起其他的原因, 這主要是利用了同年正月順宗即位以來, 藩鎮勢力顯赫以及吐蕃施加威脅所造成的危機感籠罩著整個朝廷的這一局面. 但是, 根據宰相杜黃裳的建言, 次年即元和元年(806年), 憲宗突然下令討伐劉辟, 並於9月平定了叛亂.
在憲宗討伐劉辟的期間中, 即元和元年閏6月, 李師道繼承平盧鎮, 但憲宗一度推遲應對. 於是, 李師道感到不安, 提出了妥協之策, 即獻兩稅, 遵守鹽法, 並邀請官員. 憲宗接受了這個提議, 並於8月將其任命爲平盧節度使. 但是, 李師道並沒有履行這個承諾.
在被任命爲節度使之後, 李師道完全繼承了自祖父李正己以來的統治方式, 同時, 與唐朝朝廷的關係也維持著以前的政策. 也就是說, 他維持著雙重性, 即雖然一邊完全地享有朝廷的恩澤, 但一邊又表現出叛逆的態度. 這樣的矛盾關係一直持續到元和10年(815年)正月. 但是, 在元和10年(815年)正月, 隨著唐軍對吳元濟討伐的開始, 這種關係轉變爲互相發動武力的關係.

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4송대(宋代) 재상(災傷) 대응의 역사적 경험 -호절전(戶絕田) 유전(流轉) 및 재해 구휼의 관점에서 본 연구

저자 : 장징카이

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 125-143 (19 pages)

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송대(宋代)는 창조적으로 상속인이 없는 경작지를 재해와 부상진휼에 활용하였고 '민생을 안정시키고 기초를 단단히 하는' 사회 안정 기기 역할을 수행하게 하였다. 이 때문에 관공서는 상속인이 없는 경작지에서 나오는 수익을 상평 양식을 구매하는 데에 보조하거나, 상평 광혜창(廣惠倉)을 충당하거나, 온 가족이 도망을 나간 가정에게 과세를 면제하여 생산에 의거하여 스스로 구제하게끔 동원하거나, 해당 부지의 저택에 이재민이나 취약 계층이 살도록 하여 재해 응급 보장과 진휼 능력을 제고하여 진휼 제도의 다원화와 규범화 발전을 촉진시켰다. 송대의 상속인이 없는 경작지의 회전과 이가 재해와 부상 진휼에서 발휘한 작용을 연구함으로써, 송대의 재해 예방과 그에 관련된 제도를 더 깊게 알아볼 수 있고 국가 관리 체계와 관리 능력의 현대화를 추진함에 있어서 우수한 전통문화의 지지를 제공할 수 있다.

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5명대(明代) 서상(書商)의 출판(出版) 경영(經營)에 대한 고찰(考察)

저자 : 徐元南 ( Seo Weon Nam )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 145-169 (25 pages)

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During the Ming Dynasty, with the development of commerce and the acceleration of the commodity economy, the demand for books increased significantly and their value as a commodity gradually increased. In particular, mainly in the Jiangnan region, books such as plays and novels were edited and published in large quantities, which greatly expanded the book publishing business. After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the publishing business gradually developed professionally and systematically, divided into publication and sales of books, forming a distribution system centered on wholesale and retail. In addition, with the development of the transportation system, the number of booksellers transporting islands nationwide through land and sea has increased.)(Booksellers of Ming Dynasty made economic profits by editing and publishing books tailored to the market demand from a merchant's point of view. After the Jiajing and Wanli periods, the publishing industry in the Ming Dynasty was reached its golden age and Bookseller at the center of it. Beginning in the middle and late Ming Dynasty,In order to survive under the free competition system, they engaged in various business activities and tried to secure a competitive advantage in the market. They achieved successful business results through publishing in line with market changes and social demands, and through the use of publication planning and sales methods to maximize profits, active promotions using advertisements, and customer service based on expertise. It can be evaluated that it was the result of the efforts of the merchants at the time that the book publishing business of the Ming Dynasty achieved the greatest prosperity. It can be evaluated that they played an important role in the economic development and cultural prosperity of the time, as well as in the preservation and succession of literature by participating in actual publication as well as in management.

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63.1운동시기(運動時期) 화상(華商)의 재산피해(財産被害)와 중일교섭(中日交涉)

저자 : 李學魯 ( Rhee Hak Ro )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 171-200 (30 pages)

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March the 1st movement was extended in all the region of Korea in 1919. Many overseas Chinese merchants were unintentionally involved in the demonstration movement, being damaged in property, especially in the region the movement was very fierce. Imperialist Japan ruthlessly suppressed the demonstration with arms, often inflicting damage to overseas Chinese merchants' property. We have several examples of it.
First we can discover the example of the Chinese merchant's property-damage in Cheon-ui market(天宜市場), Seosan of Chungcheong South Province. Some were beaten by Japanese police, and others suffered from property-damage, even though they did not have anything to do with the demonstration. The Chinese victims reported to the Chinese consul about their damage and loss, claiming for the Japanese compensation for their damage, and the apology of the policemen who had beaten them. However, Japanese authority refused the Chinese demand for compensation.
The second example is discovered in the event which happened in Sagang-li(沙江里), Songsan-myeon of Gyeonggido Province. The demonstration of this region is famous for its systematic organization and intensity, which caused the death of a Japanese policeman. Overseas Chinese merchants who suffered from property-loss was paid in small amount of money in the name of consolation bonus.
The third case is overseas Chinese merchants' loss in Ohsan-li(烏山里), Seongho-myeon of Suweon County. Japanese refused to compensate for their damage, insisting that the loss of their property did not have anything to do with the demonstration of March the 1st movement.
Generally Japanese used to refuse to compensate for the loss, denying that the overseas Chinese merchants in Korea suffered from the damage in property due to the March the 1st movement of Korean people and the suppression action of the Japanese. When the Chinese demanded repeatedly the compensation for the loss, Japanese sometimes paid a small amount of money in the name of consolation bonus.

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7중화인민공화국(中華人民共和國) 초기(初期) 탄판(攤販) 관리(管理) 연구 :상해시(上海市) 사례를 중심으로

저자 : 孫章勳 ( Sohn Jang Hun )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 201-228 (28 pages)

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The article examines how party-state governed street vendors in 1950's Shanghai. Street vendor[tanfan], usually refers to independent merchants on streets and neighborhoods, was one of the huge unorganized and uncontrolled group with a long history. In Republican period, Shanghai Police had tried to keep a lid on street vendors but it failed confronting with strong opposition among vendors and citizens. Previous studies on Shanghai street vendors pointed that close and inter dependent relationship between citizens and vendors was the primary reason of this failed governance. And it also attributed successive governance of street vendor after 1949 to the Shanghai party-state's assault on this relationship by individualization and thorough control of citizens. However, other than connection with citizens, street vendors had several characteristics to challenge the regime and party-state of Shanghai targeted at these. Shanghai Municipal Government recommended cooperative of street vendors in the context of denying small private economy and pursuing convenience of management. Although cooperative hurts street vendor's interests, street vendors surrendered and be integrated. To overcome vendor's mobility and disgregation, government organized them as street vendors committee[tanfan weiyuanhui] based on their business place and government affairs. The most differentiated policy was “Education of Patriotism and Law Abiding” against street vendors. During the mass movement, party-state encouraged street vendors to accuse each other's illegal acts. And it not only insulted disloyal street vendors but also forgave and promoted surrenderer in public. The procedure is usually taken against counter-revolutionaries, bad element, or corrupted cadres. It means that Chinese Communist Party regard street vendors as enemy of regime despite of petty scale of their business, which was almost no difference with laborer. This characterized the governance of street vendors by Chinese Party-state in 1950's.

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8남심신사 장헌정이 목격한 격동의 시대 ―《승재잡영》출현과 가치

저자 : 류원싱 ( Liu Wen Xing )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 229-242 (14 pages)

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근대 남심사회에 대한 학문적 토론은 주로 청 왕조에서 항일전쟁이 발생하기 이전까지이며, 기본적으로 1937년에서 1949년까지 상황에 관해서는 지역 엘리트와 사회 구조의 변화에 초점을 맞추고 있으며, 관련 역사적 자료가 없기 때문에 연구결과가 상당히 제한적입니다. 그러나 장헌정의 시집인 『승재잡영』은 마침 이 기간을 다루고 있어 남심사회 하층의 상황을 이해하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 이 내용은 『승재잡영』의 저자와 그의 시, 출판 과정과 역사 자료의 가치에 중점을 두고 있습니다.


As for discussion of modern Nanxun society, from the Qing dynasty to the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, scholars mainly pay close attention to the changes of local elites and social structure. In contrast, about the period from 1937 to 1949, research reports are fairly limited by the absence of relevant historical materials. It is very fortunate that poetic collections of Zhai Zhai Za Yong written by Zhang Xianting exactly involves the era, conduce to a better grasp of the general situation of the bottom of Nanxun society. In this article, I focus on three aspects below――the author, chronology of poetry, the process of publication and the value of historical materials.

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9『漢書』 「五行志」 譯註 Ⅵ

저자 : 權珉均

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 137권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 243-269 (27 pages)

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