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The Journal of Chinese Historical Researches

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~141권0호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 1,605
중국사연구
141권0호(2022년 12월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

저자 : 오준석 ( Oh Jun Seok )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-23 (23 pages)

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With the disclosure of the specific law articles of the Qin and Han Dynasty, such as the Shuihudi Qin bamboo slips, Zhangjiajian Han bamboo slips, and Yuelu Qin bamboo slips, research on the history of the law of the Qin and Han Dynasty was carried out explosively, and the full picture of the law system of the Qin and Han Dynasty was also revealed. However, as it was revealed through the recently excavated Shuihudi Han bamboo slips and Hujiacaochang Han bamboo slips that the law of the Qin and Han Dynasty were divided into the criminal law and the additional law, a study to consider this in connection with the establishment of the nine chapter law is being done recently. This paper tried to examine the succession and origin relationship of the law system in the Qin and Han Dynasty by examining the contents and the background of the abolition of Qian law, which belonged to the criminal law until the reign of Emperor Wen of the Former Han Dynasty and was abolished before and after the reform of the criminal law.
In the case of Qian law, it is clear that it existed from the beginning of the Former Han Dynasty to the reign of Emperor Wen, but its specific details are unknown. However, through the Han Dynasty, there are various provisions related to the execution of the punishment in the contents of the punishment, especially whether or not the family to be included in the punishment together, the target area of the punishment, the punishment when fleeing from the punishment place or committing other crimes, etc. was inferred to have been included. It is unclear whether Qian law existed even in the Qin Dynasty. However, in this paper, by examining the provisions of law, which are thought to have been included in the criminal law, among the Qin Dynasty and there is a high possibility that Qian law's existence in the Qin Dynasty. It was understood that it was inherited as a descendant. In addition, as physical punishment were abolished through the reform of the criminal law of Emperor Wen of the Former Han Dynasty and the sentences of labor punishment were drastically reduced, there was no choice but to change the contents of the Qian penalty or the grade of punishment. Through this process, it was confirmed that law's code belonging to the Qin and Han dynasty was periodically added or abolished according to the changes of the times.

KCI등재

저자 : 鄭炳俊

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 25-64 (40 pages)

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使相是藩帅带宰相官衔, 使指节度使 (或观察使), 相指同平章事等. 元代胡三省注:“唐中世以后, 节度使ㆍ同平章事者则谓之使相”, “唐末, 凡节度使带平章事及检校三省长官ㆍ三公ㆍ三师者, 皆谓之使相”. 在此基础上贾玉英认为从唐后期到唐末期使相的概念得以扩张, 节度使从兼同平章事, 到兼同平章事ㆍ三省长官ㆍ三公ㆍ三师. 使相的范畴大致可分为三种. 一、'典型的使相', 节度使兼同平章事;二、'广义的使相', 节度使兼三师ㆍ三公等;三、名列使相时记载不详. 『唐会要』 卷1∼2, 帝号上ㆍ下中,唐代使相的名单按照皇帝顺序来登载. 从使相的任命来看, 无论是唐代使相的后期或末期, 普遍为'典型的使相', 和'广义的使相'携同运营. 这是和贾玉英见解的不同之处.

KCI등재

저자 : 韓知璇

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 65-100 (36 pages)

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蒙古的和平面临着“14世纪的危机” 与两次世界大战相比。黑死病和气候变化引发的环境变化带来了欧亚大陆的经济衰退, 元朝不得不在1367年结束。如果考虑到这种情况一直持续到16世纪新型贸易网络的出现, 全球化在 14 世纪和 15 世纪应该被视为停滞或停滞。
本文试图通过更详细地研究贸易网络对鼠疫传播的影响, 以各种方式了解传染源的传播模式。尤其是中亚、印度、滇藏等贸易网络的结合, 发现了致死率高的复杂感染的发生原因。有人指出, 中亚和云南、西藏贸易网络的定期整合增加了出现复杂性质的致命传染病的可能性。
然而, 瘟疫并没有破坏贸易网络本身, 也没有停止对材料的消耗。 13 世纪, 贸易网络上流传的信息带来了衣食住行的整体变化。即使在 14 世纪的危机中, 这些信息也通过贸易网络传播。对可怕瘟疫的恐惧传播了各种治疗方法和迷信处方, 以驱除不良能量并保持健康。这刺激了香水和珠宝以及治疗瘟疫所需的香料和药物的消费, 并证实贸易网络没有中断。

KCI등재

저자 : 南玟玖 ( Nam Min Gu )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 101-128 (28 pages)

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In the middle of sixteenth century, private trade was flourishing between Haicheng county and Manila. Fujian merchants had held priority to the trade, and the trade enabled them to earn enormous profits. Threatened by the robust activity of Chinese merchants, who had been extending their domain in Manila, Manila Spanish began to burst into massacre of Chinese merchants in 1603. It has been estimated that about twenty or thirty thousands of merchants were killed in the disaster. Some tensions were laid in the middle of the South China sea.
Unexpectedly, Manila began to reconcile its trade relation with China. Pedro de Acuña, the governor-general of the Spanish Philippines, dispatched a vessel called Santiago to Macao, where two letters written by Acuña were accompanied. One was sent to governor-general of Guangdong and Guangxi, the other to grand coordinator and provincial governor of Fujian. Two governors sent petitions to the Emperor, whereby he ordered Xu Xueju, the governor of Fujian, to respond in return to Acuña. A group of merchants involved in Manila trade were dispatched to Manila, where both could make agreement to restore the Manila trade impeded by fear of the massacre.

KCI등재

저자 : 姜元黙 ( Kang Won Mook )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 129-149 (21 pages)

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This present article examines the European missionaries' legal struggle to overturn the verdicts that resulted from the Calendar Case (曆獄 liyu) and recover the legal status of their religion to that of the pre-Calendar Case. Although the case ended and Europeans and their churches were kept relatively safe, this 'salvation' was not the result of acquittal from the charges the missionaries had faced during the Case, but of the Manchu emperor's interference instead. Thus, after the closure of the Calendar Case, Beijing missionaries had to make intense efforts to nullify the three confirmed charges and remove all vestige of the Calendar Case. By doing so, they expected the beginning of a new rosy era, like that of the Shunzhi period. However, the privileges the missionaries enjoyed during the Shunzhi reign were exceptional―ones possible only by imperial favour beyond legal boundaries.

KCI등재

저자 : 朴贊根 ( Park Chan Guen )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 151-201 (51 pages)

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The Qing Dynasty inherited the name 'zhìqián' from previous Chinese dynasties, which is the official coin of the dynasty. However, it was a unique feature of the Qing Dynasty that official coin('zhìqián') was called national treasure('guóbǎo') and added value. The Qing Dynasty continued to cast and drop official coins on the market for the cause of "attaching great importance to the system of the dynasty and benefiting the use of the people". However, just before entering the 19th century, the price of coins declined from the end of Qianlong, showing signs of a shift from high to low coin prices. Since the circulation of commercial coins was already at or above the appropriate level, official coins that were subsequently cast and dropped had to compete with illegal coins in circulation. However, it was not only coins secretly minted by the private sector but also small coins('xiǎoqián') cast by the government office that were pointed out as the reason for the decrease in the price of coins. In addition, allegations have been raised that small coins cast by the government office make coins secretly minted by the private sector available for circulation. This was something that local officials had to solve by exerting administrative power. In other words, the problem of falling the price of coins due to the distribution of illegal coins became a task for local governments, and the constant dropping of official coins became a task for the central government. At the same time, "benefiting the use of the people" became a legitimate saying that the people should only enjoy profits through official coins. Through the above process, Despite the deepening decline in coin prices, Qing Dynasty continued its existing monetary policy satisfactorily. This was maintained through the maintaining of the existing law that official coins should function as national treasure and the pushing the congestion of illegal coins out as a task that should solved by local governments.

KCI등재

저자 : 孫慈營 ( Son Ja Young )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 203-242 (40 pages)

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Anson Burlingame was the first American minister accredited to Beijing and the first official envoy of the Qing government to Western countries in 1868. The Burlingame mission visited 11 Western countries, and relevant records of their activities have remained to this day. Since its wide scope of activity had a negligible effect on the history of many countries, the Burlingame Mission has been studied in various fields of international academic circles.
The article deals with the studies and trends of research on the Burlingame mission from a global historical perspective and organizes them by field. The article divides the research fields of the Burlingame mission into three categories.
The first field is the history of politics and diplomacy. Anson Burlingame arrived in Washington, D.C., and as a representative of the Chinese side, signed The Burlingame Treaty with the United States, which greatly affected the politics and diplomacy of both countries. The research trend of the treaty reflects changes in political and diplomatic relations between China and the United States, which shows the varying tendency of Sino-American relations.
The second one is cultural history. Zhigang(志剛) and Zhang Deyi(張德彝), members of the Qing's first diplomatic corps, wrote journals that provide a rich description of Western countries in the nineteenth century, which made the journals attracted as one of the areas of the cultural history research. It is remarkable that the journals have been studied from the maritime history, one of the global historical perspectives.
Last but not least, the third one is comparative history. Some scholars have been interested in studying comparing the Burlingame mission with the Iwakura mission of Japan in that both of them were sent to the West around the same time. In particular, analyzing English-language newspapers, the studies, which read the viewpoint of Western countries regarding the missions of both countries at that time and compared both missions from the maritime history as well, opened a new horizon for the research of the East Asian missions.
It can be evaluated that these studies revealed the value of the Burlingame Mission in global historical research and offered the possibility of interdisciplinary studies on this subject.

KCI등재

저자 : 이한결 ( Lee Han Gyul )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 243-281 (39 pages)

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This thesis examines the political reform method of Du Yaquan -Editor-in-chief of 『Eastern Miscellany(東方雜誌)』 in the 1910s-, during the period before and after the Xinhai Revolution. To analyze his thoughts on politics of that time, I focused on 'Reducing Politics Policy(減政主義)', a political methodology advocated by Du Yaquan himself.
Before the Xinhai Revolution, Du yaquan viewed the Late Qing reforms had no practical effect. Although reform by Qing were focusing on institutional changes and adapting foreign politics. Du said that China needs is “Reducing Politics Policy” which is “consolidating and reducing government offices, reducing the number of officials, and reducing government affairs” as its core. Du thought that if the political reforms promoted by the Qing continued, it would lead to the “disappearance of politics,” which would then lead to a “collapsing of economy” since the vitality of society would be terminated. The important argument of the 'Reducing Politics Policy' was that, Chinese people must change the idea of government and politics being superior to society. And also the idea of government taking lead on society should be abandoned as well. Du claimed that 'Reducing Politics Policy', which opposes the quantitative increasement of politics, is “a new trend in various country's society and an old experience of Chinese politics”. He also insisted that political development in the true sense should be achieved through this method.
After the establishment of the Republic of China, Du's perception and assertion of politics faced a new phase. He pointed out that it is urgent to solve the problems which existed since late Qing, such as 'the problem of centralization, excessive foreign debt, and financial disorder'. These situation lead him to emphasize the need for 'Reducing Politics Policy'. After the establishment of the Republic of China, Du added new obejective for 'Reducing Politics Policy', which was to break down bureaucracy in China.

KCI등재

저자 : 朴正鉉 ( Park Jung Hyun )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 283-314 (32 pages)

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This paper analyzes the role that folk beliefs played during disasters during the Republic of China, and how the externalization of disasters combines with political objectives. In traditional Chinese society, folk beliefs were used as a means for the state to manage and control local communities.
Since the modern era, the influx of Western science and technology and knowledge has led to an objective recognition of natural phenomena. Folk beliefs during the Republic of China era were criticized for superstition and unscientific practices. When a disaster occurred, it was required to respond with scientific grounds and methods, not superstition. In 1928, the Nanjing National Government abolished popular religious worship as a national policy. As a result of these measures, various deities that the people believed in lost their legal status, and traditional folk beliefs were severely withered. However, during this period, as natural disasters and war continued, the people still relied on God in various ways.
The Nanjing National Government, which aimed to become a modern nation, recognized disasters as a national responsibility. The government tried to prevent and deal with disasters in a scientific way based on scientific understanding of disasters. The government has internalized disasters, recognizing that disasters are objects that humans can overcome, not genius disasters. However, due to continued disasters and lack of financial resources, the Nanjing National Government was unable to practice the internalization of disasters. Even during the period of the Nanjing National Government, disasters were still recognized as genius disasters and externalized. This allowed the government and bureaucrats to avoid responsibility, and folk beliefs still performed their former functions with the government's acquiescence. Since the modern era, Western scientific knowledge has spread, and the Chinese government has set the goal of establishing a Western-style modern nation-state. However, folk beliefs did not fit in with this and were cured by superstition, becoming the object of overthrow.

KCI등재

저자 : 鄭文祥 ( Chung Moon Sang )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 141권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 315-347 (33 pages)

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This article explains how the "Sinicization of education," which emerged as a hot issue in the educational community in the 1930s, was implemented in regular university curriculums. To do so, I analyze the modern parts from two history volumes by Lu Simian, a professor of history at Guanghua University. The first history book was published in 1923 and since the second volume, consisting of two volumes, was published in 1940 and 1944, I judged that analyzing the two volumes would reveal how the "Sinicization of education" issue was reflected in the history curriculum. The analysis results are as follows.
First, the history department of Guanghua University grew with the active support by President Zhang Souyong from the mid-1930s when it began to implement the goal of "Sinicization of education." The number of professors and students increased and the educational environment improved. Under the leadership of Professor Lu Simian, the history department strengthened research and educational activities.
Second, a remarkable achievement in educational activity was initiating the teaching of modern history in earnest. He aimed to promote national consciousness and patriotism through modern history education and systematically educate students about the nation's future. When Professor Lu Simian began teaching modern history in earnest, his perspective on history changed. Until the 1920s, he thought the purpose of historical research was to explain the causal relationship of historical facts, but in the 1930s, he thought that the purpose of historical research was to present the meaning of historical events, explain the current society through this and even look out into the future.
Third, he wrote modern history anew based on a changed view of history. The most significant change was to combine political history with cultural history. By doing so, he wanted to discover why China failed to accommodate Western culture and find cultural resources that could have transformed Chinese society, albeit belatedly. Another change in his writing of modern history was that his criticisms of Japan had become stronger. By doing so, he tried to reflect anti-Japanese nationalism, which emerged socially since the 1930s, to history writing and education. The last change is that he constructed the history after the 1911 Revolution focusing on the Guomindang. By excluding descriptions of the Chinese United Front or solidarity with the Soviet Union, he wanted to present the Guomindang as the player in solving China's current nationalist challenges.

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