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The Journal of Western History

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수록범위 : 1권0호(1979)~66권0호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 444
서양사연구
66권0호(2022년 05월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

저자 : 김기훈 ( Kihoon Kim )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회 간행물 : 서양사연구 66권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-27 (27 pages)

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This paper examines the historical figure Catiline (L. Sergius Catilina), focusing on the research of the causes that have influenced on evaluating him and his life. For a long time, Catiline has been thought as a byname of the character who was one of the causes for the fall of Roman Republic in the 1st century BCE. According to the historical sources, especially to the Speeches against Catiline (Orationes in L. Catilinam quattuor) of Cicero, Catiline's conspiracy against the Republic was uncovered and oppressed completely by Cicero the consul himself in the year 63 BCE. Cicero, by the virtue of wellcontrolling the crises of the state, earned the honorable title, pater patriae.
Afterwards, Catiline was condemned to, figuratively speaking, damnatio memoriae, by Cicero's authoritative voices in the Speeches. The posterity, following Cicero's judgment, has reached a similar or rather more severe verdict on Catiline. However, one could reconstruct Catiline as the antihero for Cicero in the history of the later Roman Republic by reading history again. In other words, Cicero the winner took all and Catiline has been always remembered as the loser, but the latter must have had something for extenuation. There are some clues in Sallust's account on the events. His work, Bellum Catilinae sheds light on the series of events in 60's BCE including the Catiline's very conspiracy. But it is the history itself of Roman Republic that Sallust's historiography mainly focused on, not the personage. So one can interpret Sallust's works as a diagnosis on the phases of the later Roman Republic. In addition, if both Cicero and Catiline are, as it were. dramatis personae in a scene of Roman history, Catiline is significant antagonist for a protagonist Cicero. Their contrast seems to have provided attractable motives for the spin-off works subsequently. Catiline might have been unduly overcriticized as a heinous traitor, villain or rouge, as the aftermath has showed in the realm of the history, literature, education and arts for ages: e.g. Dante Alighieri's the monumental epic, La Divina Commedia, the teaching curriculum of Latin language, and the Cesare Macari's fresco work. Such a tradition has made the portrait of Catiline being permanent as unrecoverably negative one.
It is necessary to study Catiline's life and his own history, and if possible, there would be something to be modified or revised about him. Perhaps Catiline could never be acquitted for the charge, but he might have some excuses for the his own cause, as this research shows a clue for it. Because the history is also a daughter of time, as the ancient wise said veritas filia temporis.
(Seoul National University / daniel12@snu.ac.kr)

KCI등재

저자 : 안재원 ( Jaewon Ahn )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회 간행물 : 서양사연구 66권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 29-57 (29 pages)

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This paper tries to demonstrate the relationship of anti-intellectualism with conspiracy theory. For this, firstly, the paper provides a critical reading of the story of Polyphemus in Homer's Odyssey to show that anti-intellectualism is rooted on the one-eyed cognition that is confined by a certain idea, belief, experience, memory, information, interest, and ideology. The paper, then, attempts to read Cicero's The First Speech against Caitline from the viewpoint of conspiracy theory for demonstrating that it is supported and even authorized strongly by the theory of justice that reinforces the faction theory. To this, the paper adds another critical reading of Euripides' Heracles for showing the danger of fake news that is strongly tangled with conspiracy theory. These critical readings come to the confessing that it is not easy to reject the human identity of “homo conspirans”. The paper, however, strives to suggest how to fight against the anti-intellectualism endorsed by conspiracy theory, providing the philosophical training of suspension of all action and all opinion (epoche) and the rhetorical way of arguing both sides(in utramque partem dicere). On the basis of this, the paper contends that the history of humanities is to be summarized by the fighting and struggling of intellectualism against anti-intellectualism.
(Seoul National University / numeniu@snu.ac.kr )

KCI등재

저자 : 이용우 ( Yong-woo Lee )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회 간행물 : 서양사연구 66권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 59-98 (40 pages)

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This article attempts to examine a French documentary film directed by Alain Resnais in 1956, Night and Fog, and especially the historical context in which it was produced and accepted. The film was a typical historical movie in that it dealt the Nazi concentration camps in the 1930s and 1940s and showed the holocaust in World War II, and that it conveyed their history to the younger generations: it has been released on the TV public channels or for the secondary education in France for decades.
And the film was born in the midst of growing memories of the deportation by enacting national memorial day of the deportation, establishing a memorial of the martyrs of the deportation, and publishing a collection of the deportation survivors' testimonies. A rumor that this film was out of the nomination for the Cannes International Film Festival under the pressure of the West German Embassy gave rise to a great dispute and anger in French society in April 1956, thereby showing that the anti-German sentiment was still strong among the French. But the censorship taking issue with a scene that revealed the kepi of a French gendarme who guarded the camp at Pithiviers, was not highlighted by the press, thereby signifying that memories of 'the collaboration by the Vichy regime' were still suppressed. Since the 1980s when all the other memories were overwhelmed by memories of the holocaust, the film came to the fore as a pioneering holocaust movie. Although its title, “Night and Fog” implied the suppression of Resistance rather than the holocaust, and even the word “jew” hardly appeared in its narration, it can fall within the category of the holocaust film because it properly preserved and conveyed the essential images of the holocaust.
(Dongduk Women's University / greve@hanmail.net)

KCI등재

저자 : 박상철 ( Sang-chul Park )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회 간행물 : 서양사연구 66권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 99-140 (42 pages)

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World War I raised the need for large-scale recruitment of officers due to the general mobilization, the new formation of military units, and the enormous loss of troops. The Russian authorities mobilized retired or reserve officers, and hastily commissioned military academy cadets as officers. The short courses of military academies was opened and the Ensign School was established. And brave or educated soldiers or non-commissioned officers were promoted to officers. In this way, the Russian authorities were able to increase the number of officers in service approximately from 330,000 to 340,000. It can be said that the war efforts of the czar system were quite successful in this way.
However, this rapid expansion of the Russian officers' corps was coupled with the enormous loss of the officers' corps. As infantry officers at lower ranks and at the early period of the war experienced the most loss and regular officers were promoted to fill the vacancy in the upper positions, the number of regular officers in the infantry unit sharply decreased. The upper ranks of the Russian officers' corps were still mostly regular officers, but most infantry regiments were commanded by officers with not much administrative-commanding experience and experienced officers in the regiment was few. Therefore, it was difficult for the hierarchical leadership system within the officer corps to function effectively. On the other hand, wartime officers with low educational background hardly earned respect from the soldiers due to their lack of military knowledge and experience.
Therefore it would not be acceptable as a satisfactory explanation to suggest that the large influx of 'unqualified' wartime officers was the sole cause of the weakening of officers' control over their soldiers. The lack of command ability of regular officers who were quickly promoted to major commanding positions and the strategic incapacity of senior generals who took for granted huge human losses should be considered as the another causes. Moreover, the fact that the upper echelons of the Russian army officers consisted mainly of regular officers, while the lower tiers consisted of wartime officers had a negative effect on the unity of the officers.
While the number of hereditary aristocrats in the wartime officers declined sharply, the number of peasants increased rapidly. But this tendency was started before the war and only intensified during the war. The majority of hereditary aristocrats before World War I were not 'landlords' but 'service aristocrats' who made military service their sole or main means of livelihood. Therefore the proposition that the Russian officers represented the “bourgeois-landlord aristocracy” just before World War I cannot be admitted.
Finally, as almost educated or brave youngsters who had positive toward war became to serve as officers, soldiers or noncommissioned officers that would have had a potential influence among soldiers were reduced, which would have negatively affected the soldiers' attitudes and moods toward war.
(Chonnam National University / sachpak@jnu.ac.kr)

KCI등재

저자 : 이정하 ( Jeong-ha Lee )

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회 간행물 : 서양사연구 66권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 141-170 (30 pages)

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How does reflexive control affect state security and destabilize the government and entire society? And why is it currently so important in the concepts of information warfare, one of many features of the 21st century warfare?
Reflexive control is the process of transmitting specially crafted and probabilistic information to the enemy center, which is aimed at making a decision favorable to the aggressor. This operation can be successful only if the adversary does not realize that the premises on the basis of which it takes a given action are the result of external interference. In order to minimize the probability of discovering this manipulation, the entity applying reflexive control is obliged to create so-called reflexive models imitating the process of reasoning, self-awareness and potential behavior of the opponent. Each decision is a resultant of a subjective image existing in the consciousness of the decision maker, which is a mosaic of various elements. The subjective image of the situation in a given conflict available to each party is shaped primarily by the so-called information-psychological operation, which within the concept of reflexive control is obliged to provide the most precise information necessary to create the so-called reflexive model reflecting the opponent and imitating his behavior in a given situation.
The aim of this article is to explain the theoretical foundations, genesis and application of reflexive control methods in the sphere of information warfare, focusing on Russia's information-psychological operation.
(Chonnam National University / budennyi@gmail.com)

KCI등재

저자 : 공민우

발행기관 : 한국서양사연구회 간행물 : 서양사연구 66권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 171-203 (33 pages)

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