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Journal of the Korean History of Science Society

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1979)~44권2호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 945
한국과학사학회지
44권2호(2022년 08월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

저자 : Jane Sung Hae Kim

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 265-296 (32 pages)

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In the winter of 1951, while the war was still raging in the Korean peninsula, the Government of Republic of Korea made a formal request to the United Nations Korea Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) to dispatch experts to help the war-ridden nation develop long-term plans for recovery and reconstruction. The UNKRA accepted this request and further took up the matter with the United Nations Assembly, which passed the motion to send expert missions in the areas requested by the South Korean government - agriculture, public health and education. To assist the war-damaged South Korea, experts were culled from three United Nations specialized agencies - the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This paper will examine these three plans drafted by the FAO, WHO and UNESCO in 1952 to explore how securitization of health or biosecurity was articulated in the planning for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of post-war Korea. The long-term plans of postwar rehabilitation and reconstruction by UNKRA have been cited as experiments in development and modernization. However, by applying the concept of securitization of health or biosecurity, this paper will show how the interpretation of health as a security matter was conceptualized by the international actors involved in the postwar reconstruction of Korea.

KCI등재

저자 : Donghyun Woo

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 297-319 (23 pages)

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This article examines how North Korean leadership in 1945-50 strove to popularize “people's science-technology 인민의 과학기술,” equipping an assertive attitude in matters of science and technology, arguing that the Soviet Union served as the most important point of reference that tremendously inspired, and to a lesser degree materially supported, North Korean planners to employ this attitude as a mobilization scheme. Drawing upon a range of previously unexamined Soviet archival sources and relevant North Korean publications, it is this author's intent to offer original narratives of how limited but crucial Soviet assistance undergirded North Korean leaders' quest for an advanced economy and how various North Korean actors understood and acted upon “people's science-technology.” Charting the intentions and roles of North Korean policy-makers, North Korean expert communities, and the Soviet authorities in the making of the culture of science and technology in early North Korea, the expectations and goals as perceived and practiced by the North Koreans are revealed in this research. Additionally, North Koreans' understanding of science and technology, which greatly boosted the country's extended engagement with the socialist bloc in the search for its own mode of continuing industrial development in the subsequent decade, is examined.

KCI등재

저자 : Hojye Kang

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 321-338 (18 pages)

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The 'Kumkhop General Foodstuff Factory for Sportspeople' has launched technological innovation policies in North Korea's food industry since 2010. The policies have been connected to the national development strategies, which means transferring military resources to civilians. This study examined how the economic development strategy emphasizing science and technology was implemented in individual companies in the food industry. It included automation and changes based on IT and CNC technology. In addition, it was confirmed that the rights of individual companies are being strengthened in the economic system that North Korea is developing, the Socialist System of Responsible Business Operation. Small but continued changes in the North Korean economy are shown by depicting some micro-activities of individual companies, corresponding to macro-policies. It could be possible that North Korea has been moving toward a technological innovation-friendly society.

KCI등재

저자 : John R. Garnett

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 339-364 (26 pages)

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In 1943, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) and Mexican government collaborated in the creation of the Mexican Agricultural Program (MAP) to boost the production of hybrid corn and wheat in Mexico. The MAP utilized a top down strategy in which it sought to provide largescale, affluent farmers with new seed technology to boost staple crop production intended for urban consumers that underpinned industrialization, principally in the middle- and upper-classes. The MAP's wheat program served as the model for the Green Revolution in the Global South beginning in the 1960s, and policymakers and philanthropists continue to evoke it today as a successful effort to combat rural poverty despite mixed results.
During the Green Revolution, farmers produced millions more tons of food using semidwarf wheat seed technology which possessed short, stiff straw that allowed farmers to transcend the biological constraints of conventional wheat. In particular, this wheat prevented a problem called lodging which meant farmers could now apply massive amounts of inorganic fertilizers, the byproduct of natural gas and oil production, to wheat fields. While the historiography of the Green Revolution credits the U.S. and RF with this innovation, the semidwarf characteristic derived from a Korean wheat seed technology that underwent protracted testing in Japan in the early twentieth century. Moreover, agrónomos, Mexican agricultural scientists, also played a prominent role in the MAP's wheat breeding program which gave rise to the Green Revolution. In particular, the treatment of Mexico as an environmental laboratory gave rise to an innovative practice called shuttle breeding which revealed unique characteristics in wheat and allowed MAP scientists to produce universal wheat. Mexico's environmental diversity meant a wheat that could grow widely in Mexico was easily adaptable around the world, especially the Global South.

KCI등재

저자 : Daniel Burton-rose

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 365-386 (22 pages)

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This article explores how the discipline of Environmental History can enhance the coherency of East Asian Studies as a field that is defined by geographical scope and linguistic ability, while simultaneously addressing intra- and transregional currents of people, practices, ideas, and objects. Concurrently, it asks how scholarship focused within East Asia can enrich the practice of Environmental History at local, regional, national, and global scales. The article is organized into four sections followed by a conclusion. The first section considers the nationally-focused synthetic works of Environmental History from which a broader picture of East Asia can be compiled. The following three sections examine different ways of clustering the practice of Environmental History within East Asia. These are: 1) early modern Sinograph texts on pharmacology and natural history; 2) cultural overlays in one locality over time; and 3) movement through space of objects alienated from their original context and people who bear culture-specific practices to different areas. The conclusion considers the challenges of training scholars in an interdisciplinary field with significant language demands.

KCI등재

저자 : Moon Manyong

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 387-391 (5 pages)

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KCI등재

저자 : Noma Mariko

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 393-413 (21 pages)

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The intention of this paper is to describe how the cattle industry in Japan had changed with the introduction of beef eating habits.
Before the Japanese Meiji Restoration, meat-eating had been formally prohibited. In practice, some people had opportunities to eat game, although livestock had been severely tabooed. In the Civilization and Enlightenment period of Japan, beef eating spread rapidly. It was mainly eaten in an indigenous cooking method called a beef “hot pot.” This cooking method influenced the development of beef fattening. In the pre-war period, farmers kept only a single cow for plowing, transporting, and collecting fertilizer, but the process of fattening was added later introduced to satisfy people's appetites for better-tasting beef. The goal of fattening had consistently been fatty meat. With the development of fattening technology, the ideal meat in the 1920s was fatty meat with intramuscular marbling. This beef-eating culture is inextricably linked with the fact that beef was first accepted as a hot pot dish in the modern era.
Cattle fattening in developed areas took place within the conventional system of cattle rearing, which involved single cattle rearing system combined with arable agriculture. The fact that multiple cattle rearing based on the Western model did not take root is not seen as a delay in the modernization of Japanese livestock breeding, but rather as a technical and managerial rationale for combining single-head rearing practices with the utilization of that cattle for arable agriculture.
Even though the indigenous cattle rearing system remained, the introduction of live cattle from colonial Korea brought complexities to the Japanese cattle industry. The importation of Korean cattle brought about a qualitative diversity as well as a quantitative expansion in terms of the supply of cheaper and leaner beef, and contributed to the change in consumption that has been termed the “popularization of meat eating.”

KCI등재

저자 : 陳玉箴 ( Chen Yujen )

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 415-435 (21 pages)

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This article examines the development of the baking industry and bread consumption in postwar Taiwan, particularly during the period of U.S. aid (1951-1965), which was a key period of technological and institutional change in baking. Focusing on the establishment of the wheat flour industry and new baking technologies, this article explores how these technologies were introduced and how their progress shaped bread as a “modern food”, and how the linkage with modernity affected the consumption of bread in Taiwan.
Since the 1950s, American aid and migrants from mainland China have both contributed to the establishment of a flour industry and modern bakeries. The flour industry in Taiwan faced drastic changes along with other countries in East Asia because of the new international political order in the postwar period. With the establishment of the Executive Committee on the Promotion of Flour and Wheat Food in Taiwan in 1962, the government adopted various methods to cultivate the demand for bread and Western pastry products. The Baking Training Institute established in 1967 was the most prominent institution in the development of baking skills and technology in Taiwan, also bringing intensive competition of between bakeries. In addition, the emergence of large-scale production of machine-made bread in the late 1970s further shaped the “fresh, hygienic, and inexpensive” image of bread, fostering its consumption in Taiwanese society.

KCI등재

저자 : Robert Winstanley-chesters

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 437-459 (23 pages)

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Fish have long been of importance to North Korea, vital to its developmental ambitions, and through structures of division such as the Northern Limit Line, also to its politics. Fish and seafood in general have been key elements in the cuisine and dietary practices of the Korean peninsula since the beginning of its recorded history. Korean food frequently has fish, molluscs and cephalopods at its heart, from more common forms such as jjigae stews 찌개, to the challenging san-nakji 산낙지 (live octopus). Fish is eaten everywhere on the Korean peninsula, though of course it is less frequently eaten in the interior and in mountainous areas. Fish and seafood products are also eaten across all social classes on the Korean peninsula and in Korean history. In particular miyeok 미역 or wind/beach dried kelp has long been a vital element in Korean cooking, and the drying of miyoek by coastal communities was a key element to many of those communities social and economic practices in previous sentences. Of course there were varieties of seafood and maritime products that only the rich and elite could afford, and places where such food could be bought and consumed naturally became rarefied and expensive places, and seafood became an important element in the rediscovered “Korean Royal Court Cuisine” 조선왕조 궁중요리 Joseon wangjo gungjung yori, which harked back to the food practices of the Joseon dynasty. North Korea itself claims or aspires to be a classless society and a political space where there are no elites, and where the memory of the Joseon dynasty is dismissed as a feudal aberration. This paper explores an element of the reality of North Korea dining and food consumption and practices, particularly around seafood. Considering the vital importance of fishing and seafood to North Korea, particularly as a source of revenue and goods for export, and the role of fish and maritime products as a vital source of protein in Pyongyang's conceptions of socialist developmental practice, the paper in particular considers the environmental and ecological histories of the seas around the north of the Korean peninsula in mind, as well as North Korea's history of aquaculture, and efforts to farm particular species like Sturgeon and Atlantic Cod. Having done this the paper seeks to understand what the presence of elite fish restaurants and dining places in Pyongyang, and the research and logistics required to support them mean within the nation's environmental and developmental history.

KCI등재

저자 : Kim Sung-hee

발행기관 : 한국과학사학회 간행물 : 한국과학사학회지 44권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 461-476 (16 pages)

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This study is to examine through Kanagaki Robun's Aguranabe how beef, which was considered a symbol of civilization, was accepted and what changes were made in society as a result in the early Meiji period. At the time of the publication of Aguranabe, Japanese society was implementing Westernization policies with the aim of “civilization enlightenment” and “national prosperity and defense” along with rapid changes in the political system. The primary elements discussed in Aguranabe are as follows. First, Aguranabe details the process of resolving the “Kegare,” which was considered to be a hindrance to the acceptance of beef. In the beginning of the Japanese Westernization campaigns, the government and educated individuals introduced beef in terms of a “new civilization,” which can be said to have been somewhat successful. The characters in Aguranabe testify that beef is a symbol of civilization as well as a healthy food product to consume. The second element in Aguranabe describes the irony in how the government and the highly educated at the time insisted on accepting a Western diet for those in power, however, the general public was also participating in this movement through consuming a beef “hot pot.” This point seems to have been overlooked thus far. It is also noteworthy that the beef hot pot that the general populace consumed was in a form that was more acceptable to them, rather than adopting the unfamiliar foreign cooking method and utensils. The third element that Aguranabe delineates is the perception of the “individual” that appeared in the space of a beef hot pot restaurant. The consumer experienced a sense of liberation by eating beef, overcoming status differences and becoming on par with those present. In particular, the Japanese populace predicted the birth of the individual that the Meiji society was constructing by their insistence of utilizing Western technology and expanding knowledge through newspapers.

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