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성균관대학교 유교문화연구소> Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture

Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture update

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(2001)~37권0호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 404
Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture
37권0호(2022년 02월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1Philosophical Systematicity and Its Implications for Confucian and Comparative Philosophy

저자 : Justin Tiwald

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 5-14 (10 pages)

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2Confucian Meritocracy and Tongdong Bai's Against Political Equality

저자 : Bradford Cokelet

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 15-15 (1 pages)

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In his provocative book, Against Political Equality, Tongdong Bai challenges widespread western assumptions about the value of democratic egalitarian political structures and practices and proposes a creative Confucian alternative―a Confucian “mixed-regime” that melds Confucian meritocratic ideas with Western liberal ones. His discussions of concrete proposals for governmental structures, his creative cross-cultural philosophic arguments, and his sensitivity to domestic and international political issues yield an ambitious political vision that promises to challenge both liberals and meritocrats, east and west, and that bridges the divide between ideal and non-ideal theory. The book is primed to invigorate cross-cultural debates in philosophy and political science that are intellectually and practically relevant.
This special issue brings together four incisive critics who press Bai to develop and defend his views while situating them in cross-cultural philosophic context. The papers will be of use to scholars studying Bai's impressive book, but they will also be of interest to anyone who is thinking about the value of democratic egalitarianism, the nature and appeal of meritocracy, or how to understand and defend human rights in a cross-cultural context. The issue as a whole, including Bai's response, provides us with an excellent example of charitable but critical cross-cultural philosophic dialogue and are offered to inspire and enrich further work in the same vein.

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3How East Meets West: Justice and Consequences in Confucian Meritocracy

저자 : Thomas Mulligan

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 17-38 (22 pages)

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“Meritocracy” has historically been understood in two ways. The first is as an approach to governance. On this understanding, we seek to put meritorious (somehow defined) people into public office for the benefit of society. This understanding has its roots in Confucius, its scope is political offices, and its justification is consequentialist. The second understanding of “meritocracy” is as a theory of justice. We distribute in accordance with merit in order to give people the things that they deserve, as justice demands. This understanding has its roots in Aristotle, its scope is social goods broadly, and its justification is deontological. In this article, I discuss the differences―especially the conceptual differences―between these two, prima facie distinct, meritocratic traditions. I also argue that despite their differences, Eastern Meritocracy and Western Meritocracy are harmonious. In Section I of the article, I introduce the two meritocratic traditions through, in part, a highly abbreviated history of talk about “merit” and “meritocracy” in Chinese and Western philosophy. In Section II, I discuss a number of conceptual issues and partition meritocratic theories in accordance with their scopes and normative justifications. I also discuss two scenarios. In one scenario, Eastern Meritocracy appears to deliver the right result and Western Meritocracy, the wrong result. In the other scenario, vice versa. Finally, in Section III, I argue that Eastern Meritocracy and Western Meritocracy are each special cases of a single, compelling notion of “meritocracy.”

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4Natural Aristocracy, Instrumentalism, Equality and Excellence

저자 : Steven Wall

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 39-57 (19 pages)

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Tongdong Bai's Against Political Equality presents an interpretation of Confucian political morality, a critique of political equality and an argument in support of a form of meritocratic instrumentalism for politics. This paper sympathetically engages with Bai's discussion. It grants, but does not itself defend, his rejection of political equality. It distinguishes basic moral equality from the ideal of social equality, suggesting that Bai's view is compatible with the former, but not with the latter. It then distinguishes two understandings of political meritocracy: meritocratic instrumentalism and natural aristocracy. It clarifies natural aristocracy and presents a case for accepting it over meritocratic instrumentalism. Unlike the proponent of meritocratic instrumentalism, the proponent of natural aristocracy holds that those who are most fit to rule have a claim to rule over and above the instrumental advantages that their rule would secure. And, unlike the proponent of meritocratic instrumentalism, the proponent of natural aristocracy contends that relational values in politics have a role to play in the justification of political decision-making arrangements. Key to the discussion throughout is the challenge that the ideal of social equality poses to any defense of political meritocracy. The paper contends that natural aristocracy is better positioned to respond to this challenge than meritocratic instrumentalism. The paper concludes by relating natural aristocracy to the liberal idea of a social union of social unions and to Michael Walzer's ideal of complex equality.

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5In Defense of Political Equality: On Bai Tongdong's Against Political Equality

저자 : Yarran Hominh

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 59-90 (32 pages)

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Bai Tongdong's Against Political Equality argues for Confucian meritocracy over a pure democracy of equals. His arguments draw on a multiple modernities comparison between the Spring and Autumn Warring States period in China and early modernity in the West, and rest on a Mencian conception of human nature according to which humans are equal in moral potential but not in moral actuality. I argue that there is a crucial disanalogy between this Chinese early modernity and Western early modernity: the role of capitalism. In a similarly comparativist and modernist spirit, drawing on B. R. Ambedkar and M. K. Gandhi, I argue that this disanalogy challenges both Bai's critique of democracy and his positive account. Bai's failure to take into account the role of capitalism in Western modernity raises a challenge to the explanatory power of his Mencian conception of human nature with regard to the failings of contemporary democracies, namely that capitalism fosters the relevant features of our moral psychology that cause those failings. Further, without that grounding assumption, Bai's arguments against democracy cut equally against his Confucian meritocracy. The disanalogy also creates challenges for his positive proposal. Bai, I argue, provides an ideal theory of Confucian meritocracy at the same time as he provides a non-ideal theory of democracy. But, taking into account the non-ideal cultural and moral psychological features of capitalism, Bai's Confucian meritocracy is likely to fall into an unjust and oligarchic hierarchy.

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6Political Confucianism and Human Rights

저자 : Daniel P. Corrigan

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 91-116 (26 pages)

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This article examines the theory of human rights developed by Tongdong Bai in his Confucian-inspired political philosophy. Partly influenced by Rawls's “political liberalism,” Bai seeks to offer a “political conception” of Confucianism. However, Bai's methodological approach also deviates from Rawls's approach in certain key respects, and this has significant implications for his theory of human rights. The article begins with a comparison of Rawls's and Bai's methodological approaches. It then discusses how these competing methodologies are used by each philosopher to develop a theory of human rights and international relations. Finally, the article seeks to adjudicate these competing accounts of human rights. Notably, Bai does not follow Rawls in offering a “political conception” of human rights, one which recognizes the role of human rights in mediating international relations between states. While Rawls's political conception of human rights has been the subject of criticism, it is shown that even a revised version of this theory presents challenges for Bai's account. The article concludes by offering suggestions about how Bai's theory of human rights should be revised in order to adhere to his methodological approach. The issues raised in this article present a challenge not only for Bai, but for any attempt to develop a Confucian theory of human rights.

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7A Moderate, A-metaphysical, and Hierarchical Proposal to Save Liberal Orders―Response to Critics

저자 : Tongdong Bai

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 117-137 (21 pages)

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In this article, I respond to four critics of my book, Against Political Equality: The Confucian Case. Although sharing my concerns with democracy, Yarren Hominh argues that I fail to appreciate the role of capitalism in corrupting democracy. The cure I propose, then, is doomed to fail, and the real hope lies in the power to the working people. After clarifying our differences, I argue that the meritocratic design in my proposal can be considered to be a compromise before all people are lifted up, if they can ever be lifted up. Both Steven Wall and Thomas Mulligan criticize me from the “right,” pressuring me to adopt the position of natural aristocracy instead of merely defending meritocracy on a consequentialist ground. But considering myself to be a Wittgensteinian, my worry with concepts such as natural aristocracy and desert is that they will lead us back to a metaphysical and potentially oppressive path. Daniel Corrigan questions me on how I determine the content of rights, especially in light of how Rawls did it. On the one hand, I argue that the way Rawls “determines” the content of rights is metaphysical and even arbitrary, which is why I leave this issue aside completely. On the other hand, I argue that we should have more rights than liberal neutrality allows in order to preserve liberalism.

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8Confucian Ritual and Reduced Deviancy among Young People

저자 : Nicholas Lassi

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 139-179 (41 pages)

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This is a study of the connection between Confucian ritual and reduced deviancy among young people. Within Confucianism, rituals control behavior and reduce deviancy. Previous studies have linked family rituals with positive behavioral outcomes for young people across a range of developmental dimensions, prompting the current test applied to deviancy. Two main tests were conducted. In the first test, a ritual variable, “family routines,” was tested by negative outcome variables. This data was from the NLSY97, in the years 1997 to 2000, with a sample of 2,846 people. It was found that family routines were linked to reduced delinquency and substance use, even after controlling for gender, ethnicity, age, and so on. In the second test, a ritual variable, “how often the mother reads to the child,” was tested by negative outcome variables. This data was from the NLSY79CYA, in the years 1988 and 1998, with a sample of 1,087 mothers and children. It was found that ritualized mother-child reading was linked to reduced antisocial behavior and bullying, even after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and age.

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