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Yonsei Journal of Medical History

  • : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1997)~24권1호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 205
연세의사학
24권1호(2021년 06월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1한국전쟁기 의료지원 연구: 미 제8군 육군이동외과병원의 활동을 중심으로

저자 : 한봉석 ( Han Bong-seok )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 7-37 (31 pages)

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During the Korean War, medical support flooded from various countries and agencies, including the United States. However, this form of medical support was often summarized in the overall support of important participating countries, or its impact was assessed only in a few known cases. Thus, in the development of Korean medical history, the history of the 1950s and the implications of war were often not considered. In this paper, we would like to examine the medical support provided by the 8th U.S. Army during the Korean War―the military doctors, the composition and function of medical personnel, and the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH).
First, during the Korean War, the U.S. military did not have enough military doctors to send to Korea. Therefore, the U.S. military recruited more civilian doctors from the US mainland, and by the late 1950, it was able to secure enough of them. The 8th Army had also continued its research on preventive medicine, veterinary medicine, and dentistry after the war, based mainly on its experience in mainland Japan. It was in the late 1950, during the Korean War, that medical support by the 8th Army began in earnest.
Second, surgical hospitals, evacuation hospitals, and troops supporting evacuation were at the heart of the 8th Army's military operation. However, other fields, such as veterinary medicine, dentistry, preventive medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, and psychiatry, were also connected. However, the medical support of the 8th U.S. Army was provided mainly for combatants, and the recipients were differentiated in the order of Americans, North Korean POWs, and Koreans.
Third, the existence of MASH had a huge impact on the Korean medical community. Designed during World War II, the Mobile Surgical Hospital, which was put into full swing during the Korean War, was a place to visually witness the advanced medical care of the United States at that time. It was well known throughout the divisions and roles of mobile surgery hospitals that various advanced technologies for neurosurgery, anesthesia, psychiatry, and blood transfusions were utilized.
However, this does not reveal the full extent of medical assistance under the U.S. military. International organizations, including United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA), paid more attention to the “post-traumatic syndrome” of soldiers under treatment and paid more attention to rehabilitation medicine. Therefore, the nature of medical support during the Korean War will be more detailed and divided by subject and context, which can, then, be analyzed. In addition, with the participation of various subjects, including foreign private aid organizations, the contents and effects of medical support during the Korean War can be discussed in more detail.

KCI등재

2한국전쟁기의 의료구호기관: 거제 세브란스병원의 개원과 운영

저자 : 김영수 ( Kim Young-soo )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 39-62 (24 pages)

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This research aims to identify the characteristics and role of Koje Severance Hospital as a medical relief institution during the Korean War and to examine its status as a regional healthcare institution on Geoje (Koje) Island. To clarify that, this article confirms the opening process and operation of Koje Severance Hospital, a representative medical relief hospital during the Korean War. Based on the analysis of the newly collected documents, it shows the official reason the hospital was opened in Jangseungpo, Geoje Island. Severance Hospital was designated as a hospital on Geoje Island in late January 1951 to handle the United Nations Civil Assistance Corps Korea (UNCACK)'s public health affairs. The hospital was responsible for the free treatment of refugees and for UNCACK's public health affairs, including checking the health status of refugees, checking for infectious disease prevalence, patient care and isolation of infectious diseases, clinical testing, and dissection.
This project continued even after March 1952, when the reconstruction project of Severance Hospital in Seoul began. However, the hospital's operation deteriorated because the Ministry of Health's subsidies and a severance fund were not paid in time. The hospital was transformed into a local medical institution and moved to a new location from 1952-1953. Because there were very few medical institutions on Geoje Island, the hospital was maintained after the Korean War ended with the armistice. As a result, the Canadian Mission took over the management of the hospital and continued its medical activities, and a general practitioner (GP) who graduated from Severance Medical College took over as the hospital director and operated it until its closing in early 1970. The hospital used the name “Severance” until it closed, which suggests that Severance Hospital had a significant meaning in Geoje.

KCI등재

3한국전쟁, 서울역 세브란스의 재건

저자 : 이임하 ( Lee Im-ha )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 63-89 (27 pages)

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The departments and expert groups that achieved the greatest growth and results through the Korean war were medical ones. Thus, we could say that the roots of Korean medical history are the Korean War and the process of reconstruction. We investigate the reconstruction and restoration progress of Severance Medical College and Hospital, focusing on the interrelationship between the Korean War and medicine through this article. All medical colleges in Korea were expanded by UNCACK aid and support. In other words, they were supported by the 8th United States Army, which was the higher command of UNCACK. The path of Severance Hospital, which was private, and its college were outstanding during the Korean war. It included the following actions: returning to administrative capital more rapidly than the central administration, establishing the only hospital in Seoul for a time, and operating the college on Geoje Island.
Severance Hospital and College returned to Seoul from Geoje Island in February 1952. After their return, some of Korean Service Corps (KSC) were admitted to the hospital in March. Afterward, as the hospital treated war orphans and reopened in April 1952, the classes of the medical college were resumed in June. The outpatient department had around one hundred patients, and about sixty war orphans occupied wards for treatment there. The Severance Medical College returned rapidly to prewar status or even better, while other universities in Pusan were maintained as united universities in a wartime status.
The United Nations Command understood that Japan's medical system was inferior to a modern one. The Korean War caused a change in the Japanese-style medical colleges, hospital administration, and teaching methods previously used in Korea.

KCI등재

4공가파(孔家坡) 한간(漢簡) 「일서(日書)」 편에 보이는 주술적 의료 활동 고찰

저자 : 조용준 ( Cho Yong-jun )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 91-112 (22 pages)

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The main thesis of this research is to examine the shamanistic medical activities seen on the Rishu(日書) in the Kongjiapo(孔家坡) bamboo manuscripts and verify them against the Han dynasty's handed-down literature and other underground written documents, and research the characteristics.
In the Han dynasty, although medicine had developed into a specialized and professional form, it did not disengage from the ideology of shamanism in the society of the Han dynasty. In other words, the shamanistic treatment of diseases was one of the most important works of shamans because the specialized knowledge of medical treatment always interlaced with the method of superstitious and mediumistic treatment.
In addition, the scope and penetration of the concept of Yin-Yang and the five elements in ancient China were quite extensive and deeply rooted in China's cultural history. Therefore, the concept of Yin-Yang and the five elements occupies a position that could not be ignored in the formation of Chinese culture, and it has a profound impact on all aspects of Chinese culture, including the early development of traditional Chinese medicine.
This article discusses important characteristics of the shamanistic medical activities seen on the Rishu(日書) in the Kongjiapo(孔家坡) bamboo manuscripts, including the divination of illness and the application of the five elements(五⾏) principle at that time.
The origin and development of early Chinese medicine had an influence on ancient Korea, Japan, and other places. Through this research, we can learn more about the initial development stages of early traditional medicine in the ancient societies of East Asia.

KCI등재

5필립 피넬(1745-1826)의 정신의학 방법론에 드러나는 의학적 근대성

저자 : 강성은 ( Kang Seong-eun )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 의과대학 의사학과 의학사연구소 간행물 : 연세의사학 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 113-140 (28 pages)

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Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) was a leading figure in the modernization of psychiatry in the early nineteenth-century. This study intensely scrutinized the modern beginnings and clues revealed in Traite medico-philosophique sur l'alienation mentale, ou la manie (hereafter called Traite), the accumulation of his methodology of psychiatry. Hippocraticism was popular among physicians of the time in France. The Traite is heavily influenced by Hippocraticism, namely in the observation and the methodology of medicine expectante. The Hippocraticism in the Traite called for modernization and innovation in psychiatry, given that bloodletting and hydrotherapy were the mainstream methods at that time. The method of observation is embodied in the hospital statistics, medical illustrations, and patient lists in the Traite. All three were the result of the actualization of the practice of observation and moral treatment in daily clinical practice. These three did not omit the existence of patients. The characteristics of modern medicine originated in these three methodological approaches and were analyzed positivistically with the goal of theoretical psychiatric research by processing raw data obtained from clinical practice.
Meanwhile, the partnership between Dr. Pinel and patient/citizen, Jean-Baptiste Pussin (1745-1811), was highlighted in the Traite. In fact, the Traite can be read as a treatise of psychotic patients in the context of French Revolution. Pinel's attitude toward non-physician Pussin in the Traite was respectful and very receptive. Pussin was found to have engaged and been involved in medical research and healthcare as a patient specialist who shared his insight into other patients. Pinel also sought to break away from his internal limitations as a medical researcher by accepting this cooperation. His observations as a doctor could no longer expect further advances in psychiatry. This collaboration was an example of patient and public involvement that emerged in modern times when both patients/citizens and healthcare professionals contributed to medicine as experts. This was reflected by the medical authority revealed within the Traite. It should be noted that this co-working model in medical research and healthcare between the two was practiced in the early nineteenth-century. The effect of the mythe de Pinel once again made an imprint on our memories, as the epic of modern medicine is rediscovered here.

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