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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) update

  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 공학분야  >  토목공학
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  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 목재공업(~1979)→목재공학(1980~)

수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1973)~49권6호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 2,566
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)
49권6호(2021년 11월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1표지 및 목차

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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This paper reports a method to evaluate the residual strength of insect-damaged radiata pine lumber, such as the screw withdrawal strength as a semi-destructive method and a compression parallel to the grain test to assess the density changes after exposure to outdoor conditions. The screw withdrawal strength test was used as a semi-destructive method to estimate the residual density of decayed lumber. A compression parallel to the grain test was applied to evaluate the residual density. Three variables, such as the screw withdrawal strength, compression parallel to the grain, and residual density, were analyzed statistically to evaluate their relationships. The relationship between the residual density and screw withdrawal strength showed a good correlation, in which the screw withdrawal strength decreased with decreasing density. The other relationship between the residual density and compression parallel to the grain was also positively correlated; the compression parallel to the grain strength decreased with decreasing density. Finally, the correlation between the three variables was statistically significant, and the mutual correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between the three variables. Hence, these variables are closely correlated. The test results showed that the screw withdrawal strength could be used as a semi-destructive method for an in situ estimation of an existing wood structure. Moreover, the method might approximate the residual density and compression parallel to the grain if supplemented with additional data.

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본 연구에서는 문경 조령 주흘관(제 1관문) 목부재에 대해 수종과 연륜연대분석을 진행하여 재질과 건축역사를 조사하고자 하였다. 주흘관 목부재(84점)의 수종은 소나무류 76점, 잣나무류 5점, 전나무속 3점으로 확인되었다. 연륜연대분석은 코어링법을 이용하여 시료를 채취하였으며, TSAP프로그램으로 크로스데이팅을 하였다. 연륜연대분석 결과, 소나무류 목부재 59점에 대한 최외각 연도는 1708년 여름-1709년 늦가을, 1792년 여름-1794년 초봄, 1838년 늦가을-1840년 초봄, 1867년과 1872년 초봄-늦가을로 총 4개의 벌채시기가 확인되었다. 이러한 벌채시기들은 조선왕족실록, 주흘관중수기, 주흘관 성벽 각기의 수리기록과 일치한 것을 확인하였다. 일부 부재들은 수리기록과 벌채시기간의 약 10년 정도 차이가 나타나 당시 벌채한 목재를 저장하여 사용한 것으로 판단된다.


This study's objective was to conduct species identification and tree-ring dating of wooden elements used in Mungyeong Juheulgwan of Joryeong (Gate No. 1). Of the 84 wooden elements evaluated, 76 were confirmed to be hard pines, 5 were soft pines, and 3 belonged to Abies spp. For tree-ring dating, cores of the wooden elements were collected using a drill, and ring-width plots of individual samples were constructed using the TSAP software. The results of performing tree-ring dating for the outermost ring of 59 hard pine wooden elements revealed the following 4 felling dates: summer of 1708-late fall of 1709, summer of 1792-early spring of 1794, late fall of 1838-early spring of 1840 and 1867, and early spring-fall of 1872. These felling dates were found to be consistent with those in the construction and repair records of the Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Juhulgwan Jungsugi, and those engraved on Juhulgwan Walls. It is believed that some of the wooden materials harvested at that time were stored and used since there was a difference of approximately10 years between the repair records and felling dates.

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5Effects of Hot-Air Heat Treatment on the Surface Color of Phyllostachys bambusoides Bamboo

저자 : Hyoung-woo Lee , Eun-ju Lee

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 566-573 (8 pages)

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We investigated color changes on the outer surfaces of Phyllostachys bambusoides bam-boo by heat treatment under three different temperatures (180℃, 200℃, and 220℃) for three different durations (60 min, 90 min, and 120 min). A method of predicting the bam-boo surface color change after heat treatment was developed to provide valuable information and increase the added value of domestic bamboo products. The three average color parameters L*, a*, and b* decreased, and the overall color changes increased as the severity factor increased. The values of L* × a* × b* were highly related to the severity factor, and the optimal duration time for the desired bamboo surface color with a certain heat-treatment temperature could be estimated.

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전 세계적으로 불법목재 방지를 위한 국제적 노력이 확대되고 있으며, 우리나라는 국내에 수입·유통되는 목재의 합법성을 강화하기 위하여 2019년 '합법목재 교역촉진제도'를 시행하고 있다. 합법목재 교역촉진제도는 목재, 목재제품 등을 수입할 시 생산 국가, 수종, 벌채지 등에 대해 합법한 목재임을 입증하는 제도이다. 입증 방법에는 주로 DNA 분석 기술과 현미경을 이용한 해부학적 특징 분석이 함께 이용되고 있다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 다양한 목재제품 중에 우선적으로 합판의 해부학적 특성을 분석하여 수종 식별을 하였다. 공시재료는 합판 생산 기업의 합판(7, 9ply)을 취급하는 4업체를 선정하여 미송(Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco.) 및 낙엽송(Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carriere)합판을 구입하여 시료를 확보하였다. 각 회사의 합판을 약 1㎤ 크기로 절삭한 뒤, 표판부터 이판까지 하나의 단판으로 분리하여 광학현미경을 이용하여 3단면을 관찰하였다. 수종식별 결과, 침·활엽수 혼합 합판과 소나무류, 포플러류, 낙엽송·소나무류의 혼합으로 구성되어 있었다.
현미경법을 이용한 목재의 수종식별은 무분별한 불법 목재의 유통 및 불법 벌채 위험국가로부터 수입되는 합판을 비롯한 다른 여러 가지 목재 제품을 과학적으로 분석·검증할 수 있는 중요한 분야이다


International efforts to prevent illegally logged wood are expanding around the world. The “Legal Wood Trade Promotion System” was enacted in Korea in 2019 to strengthen the legal import and distribution of commercial wood in Korea. Since then, this system has promoted and ensured that the imported wood and wood products are legal with respect to the country of origin, wood species, and harvested area. As verification methods, DNA analysis technology and anatomical analysis using a microscope are mainly used in conjunction. Therefore, in this study, wood species of plywood were identified by analyzing the anatomical characteristics of various wood products for the first time. Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco.) and larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carriere) plywoods (7, 9 ply) were obtained from four companies that supply plywood in Korea. After cutting each company's plywood to a size of a bout 1 ㎤, the layers from top to bottom were separated into single layers, and three sections were observed using an optical microscope. The results revealed that the plywood was composed of a mixture of softwood and hardwood wood species, pine wood species, poplar wood species, or a mixture of larch and pine wood species. Identification of wood species using microscopy is important and can enable the scientific analysis and verification of various wood products, including plywood, imported from countries where the likelihood of indiscriminate distribution of illegal wood and illegal logging is high.

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7Identification of Sapstain Fungi on Weathered Wooden Surfaces of Buildings at Jangheung and Jeju Island

저자 : Jeonghee Yun , Hee Chang Shin , Won Joung Hwang , Sae-min Yoon , Yeong-suk Kim

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 591-601 (11 pages)

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Recently it is trend to increase wood use as carbon neutral materials, there is recognized to need necessarily durability improvement of wooden building. It is very rare to report existing on the identification of isolates causing discoloration in domestic weathered wooden building used for long period. The objective of this study was identification of fungi that cause discoloration on the exteriors of weathered domestic wooden buildings in the southern part of South Korea. Our findings can be helpful to establish protection technology for weather deterioration of domestic wooden buildings. Wood chip samples presumed to be contaminated with sapstain fungi were collected from the surface of wooden members used in wooden buildings at Jangheung, Jeollanam-do (two locations, #13 and #14), and Jeju Island (two locations, #31 and #33). The growth of microorganisms was confirmed by performing culture tests for the collected samples, and fungi were isolated, purified, and identified. The results indicated that the fungal strains isolated from wooden buildings #13 and #14 at Jangheung, Jeollanam-do, were 99.83% and 100% homologous to Aureobasidium melanogenum, respectively. For wooden building #31 at Jeju Island (two locations), the fungal strain isolated was 100% homologous to A. melanogenum, which is the same species isolated from the wooden buildings at Jangheung. The fungal strain isolated from wooden building #33 (Jeju Island) had 99.83% homology with A. pullulans, which is commonly found in wood degraded by weather or ultraviolet rays. Our findings can be utilized as a basis for establishing protection technology in domestic wooden buildings.

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8Posttreatment Effects of Castor Bean Oil and Heating in Treated Jabon Wood on Boron Leaching, Dimensional Stability, and Decay Fungi Inhibition

저자 : Trisna Priadi , Marini Dwi Lestari , Tekat Dwi Cahyono

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 602-615 (14 pages)

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Red jabon wood is a potential fast-growing species for veneer, furniture, and many other wood products, but its durability is very low. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of castor bean oil and heating on boron leaching, dimensional stability, and resistance to decay fungi in treated jabon wood. Red jabon wood was preserved with boron solutions containing 5% boron (boric acid, borax, or borax-boric acid). Following that, castor bean oil impregnation and heating were used as posttreatments. Furthermore, all the wood samples were tested in terms of leaching, dimensional stability, and resistance against Schizophyllum commune and Fomitopsis palustris fungi. This study discovered that boron compounds, castor bean oil, and heating treatments influenced the leaching, dimensional stability, and resistance of red jabon wood to decay fungi. The double impregnation of boric acid or borax and castor bean oil, followed by heating at 160℃, significantly reduced water absorption and leaching while increasing the dimensional stability and resistance of red jabon wood against the two tested decay fungi.

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일반인의 목재에 대한 인식개선은 목재이용 확대를 통한 목재문화 정착이라는 목표를 달성하기 위하여 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 목재문화 활성화를 위한 전략마련을 위한 기초연구로 일반인의 목재문화 체험현황과 요구사항에 대하여 설문조사를 수행하였다. 조사항목은 목재문화 인식, 목재문화 이용현황, 목재문화에 대한 선호와 요구, 목재문화의 하위분야 인식, 목재문화 자원에 대한 인식, 목재이용 트렌드, 목재관련 생활환경 등 7가지로 분류하였으며, 조사결과를 목재와 문화체험에 대한 인식, 유형별 목재문화자원에 대한 인식, 생활환경과 목재이용 트렌드, 목재문화에 대한 선호와 요구의 4가지로 구분하였다. 본 연구에서는 4가지로 구분된 항목 중 일반인의 목재와 문화체험에 대한 인식을 분석하였다. 일반인은 목재와 목재문화에 대하여 재료, 문화유산, 친환경 등의 이미지를 갖고 있으나 2가지를 크게 구분하지는 않았다. 목재이용은 인간의 신체와 정신에 긍정적 영향을 미친다고 판단하고 있으나 목재의 활용이 산림을 파괴하는 것이라는 인식을 응답자의 45%가 갖고 있었다. 또한 목재와 관련된 직업은 기술자 또는 기능인이라는 인식을 갖고 있으며, 목재교육전문가와 같은 교육자로서의 인지도는 상대적으로 낮게 조사되었다. 목재문화와 관련된 주요사업에 대한 인지도는 응답자의 50%에 미치지 못하였다. 응답자의 30%가 목공체험을 포함한 목재교육에 참여한 경험이 있었으며 대부분 수공구를 이용한 경험이 있었다. 목재문화프로그램을 통해 제작하고 싶은 것은 가구류, 소품류, 건축물 등이 있었다. 목재문화체험장에 대하여 알고 있는지에 대해 응답자의 23%가 인지하고 있다고 응답하였으며 이들 중 방문경험이 있는 경우는 약 50%이었다. 목재교육 전문가에게 요구되는 역량으로는 목공기술에 대한 응답률이 73%로 제일 높게 측정되었다. 일반인의 목재에 대한 인식을 개선하기 위하여 현대인은 체험에서 교육적 요소보다 오락적 요소를 중요하게 생각한다는 점을 고려할 필요가 있다. 보다 많은 일반인에게 목재문화 체험의 기회를 제공하기 위하여 오락적 요소를 포함한 다양한 콘텐츠의 개발과 이에 대한 적극적인 홍보가 필요하다고 판단된다.


Improving public awareness of wood is essential for achieving the goal of establishing wood culture by expanding the use of wood. This study presents a basic examination of the strategy of revitalizing wood culture and a survey of its current status and requirements. The survey was divided into seven categories: awareness of wood culture; use characteristics of wood culture; preference and demand for wood culture; awareness of sub-fields of wood culture; awareness of the cultural resources of wood; trends of wood utilization; and wood-related living environment. Based on the survey results, the study analyzed four items: awareness of wood and cultural experience; awareness of the cultural resources of wood; wood-related living environment and trends of wood utilization; and preference and demand for wood culture. In this study, the public awareness of wood and cultural experiences, the first of four items, was analyzed using the survey results. Generally, wood and wood culture are viewed as materials and a cultural heritage, respectively. Moreover, wood is ecofriendly. However, no substantial difference was observed between the two perceptions. Forty-five percent of the respondents reported that using wood exerts a positive effect on the body and mind. However, such use also destroys forests. Additionally, the recognition of wood-related workers, such as engineers or skilled workers, was relatively low compared with educators, such as wood education experts. Moreover, less than 50% of the respondents answered that major projects related to wood culture are well-known, whereas 30% participated in wood education, such as woodworking experience, where the majority required hand tools. Furniture, wooden accessories, and wooden buildings were among the objects that individuals intended to make through the wood culture program. Approximately 23% of the respondents were aware about the wood culture experience center, while approximately 50% had visited it. The response rate to woodworking technology was 73%, where the highest response was found for wood education experts. To improve public awareness about wood, the importance of entertainment factors over educational factors should be considered in the experience of individuals. To provide opportunities to experience wood culture for more individuals, developing and actively promoting various contents, including entertainment elements, are necessary.

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목재문화 활성화 전략을 수립하기 위한 기초연구로써 일반인의 목재문화에 대한 인식정도와 유형별 목재문화자원의 체험현황에 대한 설문조사를 진행하였다. 응답자의 31.4%가 목재문화자원에 대하여 궁궐, 사찰, 한옥, 문화재 등 문화유산의 이미지를 갖고 있는 것으로 조사되었다. 목재문화자원에 대한 이미지가 없다는 응답자 중에서 목재문화자원의 개념이 모호하기 때문이라는 응답이 40.2%이었으며, 목재문화자원 자체를 생각해본 적이 없다는 응답이 40.1%이었다. 7가지로 분류된 목재문화자원의 중요도는 문화유산, 목조건축, 문화시설, 문화행사, 목재제품, 문화교육, 문화콘텐츠의 순서로 나타났다. 목재문화자원을 체험하기 위한 정보의 필요성과 충분성에 대한 설문에서 응답자의 46.7%는 다양한 정보가 필요하다고 하였으며, 응답자의 64.8%는 충분한 정보가 제공되지 않는다고 하였다. 향후 1년 이내에 목재문화를 체험하고 싶은 의향은 대부분의 목재문화자원에서 과반 이상의 응답율을 나타냈으나, 실제로 7가지 목재문화자원에 참여하였던 빈도는 일상생활에서 사용되는 목재제품을 제외하면 20% 내외로 나타났다. 이러한 결과를 토대로 일반인이 목재문화자원을 체험할 수 있는 기회를 확대하고 보다 대중화하기 위해서 다양한 콘텐츠를 개발하고, 일반인에게 홍보할 수 있는 체계적인 전략수립이 요구된다.


In order to establish a strategy for revitalizing wood culture, a survey was conducted on the level of public awareness of wood culture and the experience of wood cultural resources by type. According to the survey, 31.4% of respondents had the images of cultural heritage such as palaces, temples, Hanoks, and cultural assets for wood cultural resources. The main reasons for having no image of wood cultural resources were the ambiguous concept and lack of interest in wood cultural resources. The importance of wood cultural resources classified into seven categories was in the order of cultural heritage, architecture of wood, cultural facilities, cultural festivals, wood products, cultural education, cultural contents. In the survey on the necessity and sufficiency of information on wood cultural resources, 46.7% of respondents needed more information to experience of wood cultural resources, while 64.8% of them had lacked information about wood cultural resources. More than half of the respondents wanted to experience of wood culture within next year, but about 20% of respondents participated in seven kinds of wood cultural resources, except wood products used in daily life. Based on these results, a systematic strategy should be developed to expand the opportunity for the public to experience of wood cultural resources and to promote them to public.

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