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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) update

  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 공학분야  >  토목공학
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  • : 연속간행물
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  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 목재공업(~1979)→목재공학(1980~)

수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1973)~49권4호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 2,536
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)
49권4호(2021년 07월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1표지 및 목차

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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3Soda Pulping of Torch Ginger Stem: Promising Source of Nonwood-Based Cellulose

저자 : Herman Marius ZENDRATO , Yunita Shinta DEVI , Nanang MASRUCHIN , Nyoman J. WISTARA

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 287-298 (12 pages)

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Torch ginger (Etlingera elatior Jack) is a potential source of lignocellulose material for various derivative products. This study aims to determine the chemical components, ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl units (S/G) in lignin, and crystallinity of the biomass of torch ginger. The effects of soda pulping on the chemical characteristics of torch ginger pulp were also studied. Pulping of the chips was conducted with active alkali of 15%, 20%, and 25% and a Liquor-to-Wood (L/W) ratio of 4:1, 5:1, and 6:1. The impregnation and pulping times at maximum temperature (170℃) were 120 and 90 min, respectively. To assess the effect of treatments on the properties of pulping, a two-factorial experimental design was applied. Results showed that the content of α-cellulose and hemicellulose in the torch ginger was 48.48% and 31.50%, respectively, with an S/G ratio of 0.70 in lignin. Soda pulping changed the crystalline structure of the biomass from triclinic to monoclinic. Active alkali, L/W ratio, and interactions considerably influenced the observed responses. The degree of delignification increased with an increase in the loading of active alkali, which lead to a decrease in the kappa number of the pulp. An active alkali content of 25% and an L/W ratio of 6:1 resulted in the highest delignification selectivity with a kappa number of 2.78 and a yield of 24%. Given its cellulose content and ease of pulping, torch ginger can be a potential raw material for derivative products that require delignification as pretreatment. However, the increase in cellulose crystallinity should be considered when converting torch ginger to bioethanol.

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본 연구에서는 리그닌 기반 다공성 탄소(lignin-based porous carbon; LBPC)를 수산화칼륨(KOH)으로 활성화할 때 온도가 비표면적과 전기화학적 특성에 미치는 영향을 알아보았다. 리그닌과 acrylonitrile을 그라프트 중합으로 합성한 리그닌-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 공중합체를 전구체로 하여 LBPC를 제조한 후 LBPC를 KOH로 600, 700, 800, 900℃에서 활성화하여 활성화 처리한 LBPC (KA-LBPC-6, 7, 8, 9)를 제조하였다. KA-LBPC의 표면 특성을 알아보기 위해 주사전자현미경으로 관찰하였으며, 비표면적 분석을 통해 기공 특성을 파악하였다. 전기화학적 특성은 3전극 시스템으로 분석하였다. 실험 결과 SEM 사진상에서 활성화 처리에 의한 미세기공 형성을 관찰하였다. KA-LBPC-7의 비표면적은 2480.1 ㎡/g, 미세기공 부피는 0.64 ㎤/g, 중기공 부피는 0.76 ㎤/g으로 KA-LBPC 중에서 가장 좋은 기공 특성을 보였다. 전기화학적 특성 역시 2 mV/s의 주사속도에서 비정전용량이 151.3 F/g이었던 KA-LBPC-7이 가장 좋은 것으로 나타났다.


In this study, we investigated the effect of temperature on specific surface area and electrochemical properties when lignin-based porous carbon (LBPC) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) is activated. After preparing LBPCs using lignin-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) copolymer, which was synthesized by graft polymerizing lignin and acrylonitrile as a precursor, activated LBPCs (KA-LBPC-6, 7, 8, 9) were manufactured by activating LBPC with KOH at 600℃, 700℃, 800℃ and 900℃. To identify the surface characteristics of KA-LBPC, observations were made with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore characteristics were identified via specific surface area analysis. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using a three-electrode system. The experiment has shown that micropores formed by activation can be observed in SEM images. KA-LBPC-7 had the best pore characteristics among KA-LBPCs, with a specific surface area of 2480.1 ㎡/g, a micropore volume of 0.64 ㎤/g, and a mesopore volume of 0.76 ㎤/g. KA-LBPC-7 showed the best electrochemical properties with a specific capacitance of 151.3 F/g at the scan rate of 2 mV/s.

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본 연구에서는 제재부산물인 톱밥과 농업부산물인 왕겨의 이용방안을 검토하고자 친환경재료인 숯을 첨가하여 밀도별, 혼합비율별로 혼합보드를 제조하고 휨성능을 조사하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 톱밥과 왕겨 및 숯의 첨가율을 50:20:20, 수지첨가율을 10%로하여 밀도별로 제조한 혼합보드의 밀도가 0.5 g/㎤에서 0.7 g/㎤로 증가할수록 휨강도는 0.42∼3.24 N/㎟, 동적탄성계수는 94.5∼888.4 N/㎟ 그리고 정적탄성계수는 31.4∼220.7 N/㎟의 범위를 나타내, 밀도가 증가할수록 휨성능이 증가하여 밀도가 휨성능에 크게 영향을 끼쳤다. 밀도 0.6 g/㎤, 톱밥첨가율을 50%로 하고, 왕겨와 숯의 첨가율을 달리하여 제조한 보드에서 숯의 첨가율이 증가할수록 휨성능이 감소하는 경향을 나타냈다. 왕겨 및 숯의 첨가율과 휨강도, 공진주파수, 동적 및 정적 휨 탄성계수사이의 관계는 결정계수의 값(R2)은 각각 0.4562, 0.4310, 0.4589, 0.5847으로 다소 낮은 상관관계를 나타내 첨가율이 휨성능에 끼치는 영향은 적은 것을 알 수 있었다.


Purpose of this study is reviewing the use method for the sawdust (sawmilling by-product) and rice husk (Agriculture by-product) by adding charcoal, an eco-friendly material. Mixed composite boards were manufactured with those materials with each density and mixing ratio, and bending performance was investigated. When the addition ratio of sawdust, rice husk and charcoal is 50:20:20 and the resin addition ratio is 10%, as the density of the prepared mixed board ranges from 0.5 g/㎤ to 0.7 g/㎤, the bending strength was 0.42∼3.24 N/㎟, dynamic modulus of elasticity was 94.5~888.4 N/㎟, and the static modulus of elasticity was in the range of 31.4∼220.7 N/㎟. As the density increased, the bending performance increased, indicating that the density had a significant effect on the bending performance. In a board prepared by setting the density of 0.6 g/㎤, the addition ratio of sawdust to 50%, and the addition ratio of rice husk and charcoal at different ratios, the bending performance showed a tendency to decrease as the addition ratio of charcoal increased. The relationship between the addition ratio of rice husk and charcoal, bending strength, resonance frequency, and dynamic and static bending modulus showed a rather low correlation with the values of the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.4562, 0.4310, 0.4589, and 0.5847, respectively. Thus, we found that the effect of the addition ratio on the bending performance was small.

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6Preprocessing Miscanthus sacchariflorus with Combination System of Cone Grinder and Air Classifier

저자 : Hyoung-Woo LEE , Chang-Deuk EOM

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 328-335 (8 pages)

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Considerable differences exist in the characteristics of size reduction and classification because of biomass species. Miscanthus sacchariflorus (M. sacchariflorus) Goedae-Uksae 1 is not used efficiently because of the imperfections of the processing technology for this biomass. Therefore, for the best use of specific biomass, improvement in the feedstock preparation of the biomass for processing, such as pellet manufacturing, is necessary. In this study, a laboratory-scale cone grinder and air classifier were designed and combined to investigate the performance of the combination system for M. sacchariflorus. The average equivalent spherical diameter of particles showed a close relationship with air velocity for air classification. The air velocity range to classify proper particles for pelletization was determined to be 6.0-6.8 m/s. The mass ratios of the collected particles to feed mass for four lengths of chopped M. sacchariflorus were 45.1%:46.1%, 39.1%:46.6%, and 44.1%:52.8% at the first, second, and third steps in simulating the multistep combination system, respectively.

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본 연구는 고층 목조건축에 사용되는 대형 목재 패널인 CLT의 낮은 rolling shear strength를 개선하기 위해 hybrid CLT의 연구 개발 동향을 분석하였다. 이를 통해 CLT의 국산화를 위한 연구개발 방향에 활용 가능한 기초자료를 마련하고자 하였고, 낮은 rolling shear strength를 향상시키기 위한 방안으로 활엽수 층재 사용, 층재 배열 각도 변화, 구조용 목질복합체의 사용이 주를 이루고 있다. 활엽수 층재는 침엽수 보다 rolling shear strength와 shear modulus 모두 2배 이상의 높은 값을 나타내므로 활엽수 층재 사용 및 미이용 수종의 활용이 가능함을 확인하였다. 층재 배열 각도 변화에 따라 rolling shear stength 1.5배, shear modulus 8.3배, bending stiffness 4.1배 향상되어 층재 배열 각도를 감소시킴으로써 CLT 강도 향상을 확인하였다. 구조용 목질재료는 기존에 강도성능이 확보된 재료로 층재로 사용하였을 때 최대 MOR 1.35배, MOE 1.5배, rolling shear strength 2배 향상되었고, 층재 간의 접착강도 또한 집성재 블록전단강도 기준인 7.0 N/mm²을 확보할 수 있었다. 선행연구 결과를 통해 MOE 7.0 GPa, MOR 40.0 MPa 이상의 휨 특성을 가진 구조용 목질재료를 사용하였을 때 강도성능이 향상됨을 확인하였다. 이를 통해 구조용 목질재료 층재 강도 기준으로 판단하였다. rolling shear strength 개선하기 위한 최적의 방법은 기존 규격에 의한 강도값을 가진 구조용 목질재료의 적용이 가장 유리할 것으로 판단하나, 구조용 목질재료의 섬유 배열에 따른 CLT 층재 배열 방향, 층재 간 접착 강도 등에 대한 추가적인 연구가 필요하다.


In this study, hybrid CLT research and development trends were analyzed to improve the low rolling shear strength of CLT, a large wooden panel used in high-rise wooden buildings. Through this, basic data that can be used in research and development directions for localization of CLT were prepared. As a way to improve the low rolling shear strength, the use of hardwood lamina, the change of the lamina arrangement angle, and the use of structural composite materials are mainly used. Rolling shear strength and shear modulus of hardwood lamina are more than twice as high as softwood lamina. It confirmed that hardwoods can be used and unused species can be used. Rolling shear strength 1.5 times, shear modulus 8.3 times, bending stiffness 4.1 times improved according to the change of the layer arrangement angle, and the CLT strength was confirmed by reducing the layer arrangement angle. Structural wood-based materials have been improved by up to 1.35 times MOR, 1.5 times MOE, and 1.59 times rolling shear strength when used as laminas. Block shear strength between the layer materials was also secured by 7.0 N/㎟,which is the standard for block shear strength. Through the results of previous studies, it was confirmed that the strength performance was improved when a structural wood based materials having a flexural performance of MOE 7.0 GPa and MOR 40.0 MPa or more was used. This was determined based on the strength of layered materials in structural wood-based materials.
The optimal method for improving rolling shear strength is judged to be the most advantageous application of structural wood based materials with strength values according to existing specifications. However, additional research is needed on the orientation of CLT lamina arrangement according to the fiber arrangement of structural wood-based materials, and the block shear strength between lamina materials.

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본 연구는 거대억새의 활용방안을 찾기 위하여 거대억새 파티클로 보드를 제조한 다음 페놀수지를 함침한 후 수지함침율이 30 ± 2%, 40 ± 2%, 50 ± 2%, 60 ± 2% 인 함침보드를 탄화온도 800℃로 탄화하여 수지함침율에 따라 밀도 및 역학적 성질을 조사하였다. 밀도, 휨강도성능, Brinell경도 및 압축강도는 수지함침율이 증가 할수록 증가하여 거대억새 파티클로 제조된 세라믹의 물리 및 역학적 성질에 영향을 주었다.


For the purpose of finding new uses for Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens, this study first constructed boards with the particles of the plant and impregnated them with phenolic resin at resin impregnation rates of 30 ± 2%, 40 ± 2%, 50 ± 2%, and 60 ± 2%. The impregnated boards were then carbonized at the carbonization temperature of 800℃, after which their density and mechanical properties were examined according to the different resin impregnation rates. The results showed that density, flexural strength performance, Brinell hardness, and compressive strength increased as the resin impregnation rate increased, thus affecting the physical and mechanical properties of the ceramics made of M. sinensis var. purpurascens particles.

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9Cytotoxic Evaluation of the Essential Oils from Korean Native Plant on Human Skin and Lung Cells

저자 : Changhwan AHN , Yeong-Min YOO , Mi-Jin PARK , Youngseok HAM , Jiyoon YANG , Eui-Bae JEUNG

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 371-383 (13 pages)

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Plant essential oils are used in products such as fragrances and cosmetics due to their individual aromatic characteristics. Currently, essential oils are not only used in cosmetics but also in pharmaceutical products with anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, psychophysiological, or anti-aging effects. Despite their pharmaceutical properties, some studies reported cytotoxic effects in high doses. Therefore, for pharmaceutical purposes, the margin of safety of essential oils needs to be examined. Herein, we evaluated the IC50 of 10 essential oil from Korean native plants: Juniperus chinensis L. var. sargentii Henry, Citrus natsudaidai Hayata, Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus unshiu (Yu. Tanaka ex Swingle) Marcow, Artemisia capillaris Thunb, Aster glehnii F. Schmidt, Juniperus chinensis L, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold & Zucc, Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) D, and Cinnamomum loureirii. In addition, gene regulation of the cell-cycle gene and apoptosis marker CASP3 was examined at the IC50 level. The purpose of this study was to describe the toxic concentrations of essential oils extracted from Korean native plants, thereby providing toxic concentration guidelines for inclusion in a toxicity database and in the application of plant essential oils in various fields.

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10The Effect of Wood Extract as a Water-Soluble Fertilizer in the Growth of Lactuca sativa

저자 : Ji Young JUNG , Si Young HA , Jae-Kyung YANG

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 384-393 (10 pages)

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Recently, due to environmental and toxicity issues, there has been increasing attention on research regarding natural products that can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Wood extracts derived from the biorefining process contain various fertilizer ingredients. HPLC analysis revealed that wood extract contains approximately 5.2% hemicellulosic sugar. The growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) upon treatment with wood extract (extract obtained from steam-exploded pine) or water-soluble fertilizers containing different nutrients was analyzed in this study. After two weeks, the growth characteristics of lettuce as affected by wood extract or water-soluble fertilizers were significantly different. The effect of water-soluble fertilizers containing ascorbic acid, magnesium sulfate, citric acid, potassium nitrate, amino acids, or seaweed extract was less desirable than that of wood extracts regarding plant height (18.6 cm), number of leaves (10), leaf length (14.1 cm), shoot fresh wight (9.8 g/plant), root fresh weight (0.8 g/plant) and shoot dry weight (0.6 g/plant). The plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, shoot fresh wight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight of water-soluble fertilizers containing wood extract were significantly different compared to the control (plant height :13.5 cm, number of leaves : 7, leaf length : 9.4 cm, shoot fresh wight : 5.3 g/plant, root fresh weight : 0.7 g/plant, shoot dry weight : 0.4 g/plant, root dry weight : 0.07 g/plant). From these results, it was concluded that wood extract can be used as a potential water-soluble fertilizer to increase the yield of leafy vegetables.

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