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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1989)~31권0호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 342
알타이학보
31권0호(2021년 06월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1만주어 'n형 어간'에 대한 형태론적 연구

저자 : 당천항 ( TANG Qianhang )

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-25 (25 pages)

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This article provides a comprehensive morphological study on the Manchu 'n-type stem'. 'n-type stem' refers to verb stems that end with the consonant n. This article discusses the formation and distribution of a series of allomorph such as '-mbu', '-kA/-ngkA', '-ndArA', '-kiyA', '-niyA', '-pi/-mpi', which are diachronically caused by 'n-type stem'. This article discusses the lexical composition of 'n-type stem' and points out that 'n-type stem' includes both simplexs and compound words (which formed through the affixes 'rAn', 'cun' 'liyan', 'šan'), and some words in 'n-type stem' are most likely to be Chinese loan words. In addition, through the reconstruction of 'n-type stem', there will be more corresponding for noun and verb can be determined as zero derivation.

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2만주어 문어 tuwaci '보니' 구문의 특이성

저자 : 박상철 ( Park Sangchul )

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 27-50 (24 pages)

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The purpose of this paper is to describe and provide an explanation for the unusual tense combination of the main clause predicate following tuwaci 'looking' converbial clause in Written Manchu.
In < Manwen Laotang 滿文老檔 >, which reflects early Written Manchu, past and non-past events are generally distinguished by the presence or absence of the suffix -HA. However, even when describing past events, examples in which the past tense marker -HA is not combined are frequently found in the main predicate that follows the tuwaci converbial clause. After investigating < Ilan gurun i bithe (三國志) >, it was confirmed that the nonpast tense was generally used in the main clause predicate in the case where the subject of the tuwaci clause was the third person. This can be understood as a strategy in which the author intentionally uses the non-past tense to convey the situation vividly, as if taking the perspective of the third person character. On the other hand, examples in which -HA is combined with the main clause predicate also appears. In this case, if the subject of the tuwaci clause is the first person, it can be seen that it was used in the past tense, aligned to the general Written Manchu tense system. Contrarily, if the subject is the third person, we found a restriction that -HA combines only with telic verbs. This means that in this position, there is no distinction between the past and the non-past tense according to the presence or absence of -HA.

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3Some comments on the word-building system in Udihe

저자 : Anna O. SAGAYDACHNAYA

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 51-64 (14 pages)

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Several means of word-building, such as suffixation, conversion, compound words, are discussed in the this paper. Suffixation is widely used in the Udihe because of its agglutinative nature. The interesting fact that in the Udihe language exists verbal suffix -mui 'odor, smell of something'. In contemporary language this formant is interpreted as derivational. But in fact, in our opinion, it is relic morphological way to express Evidence (phrases with this marker are mostly taken from folklore sources).
Conversion is the way of building words without any affixes. Some lexemes potentially have simultaneously verbal, adverbial and substantive meaning, but their concrete sense is realized in quite a wide context. Conversion is one of the causes of homonymy in Udihe.
One of the most interesting peculiarities of word-building in the Udihe language is existence of compound words. The paper is actual because this phenomenon is not studied in the language, and there are very few mentioning about it in Manchu-Tungusic languages in general. But in Udihe compound words are built by definite models that are quite typical for this language. Some of these linguistic models will be analyzed in the present paper.

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4Loanwords from the Puyo-Koguryoic languages of early Korea and Manchuria in Jurchen-Manchu

저자 : Andrew Shimunek

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 65-84 (20 pages)

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In this paper, I discuss three identifiable Puyo-Koguryoic loanwords in Jurchen-Manchu, including their earliest known philological attestations in Korean Peninsular Literary Chinese sources and in the earliest Jurchen texts.
As I will demonstrate, these words were probably borrowed into Jurchen-Manchu from Puyo-Koguryoic languages in connection with the states of Koguryo or Parhae, or with earlier Puyo-Tungusic ethnolinguistic interactions in northern Korea and Manchuria.

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5A study of the influence of Mandarin Chinese on Spoken Manchu

저자 : SHIM Jaehong

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 85-105 (21 pages)

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This paper aims to investigate the influence of Mandarin Chinese on the Manchu language by analyzing the meaning and distribution of the nominalizer -niŋ(ŋə) and the past participle -xə, in light of the meaning and the structure of Mandarin Chinese equivalents in the questionnaire used for Kim et al. (2008). From the mid-eighteenth century, the Manchu people began to speak Mandarin Chinese more actively than their own language. Consequently, their language has been heavily influenced by Mandarin Chinese in all linguistic aspects.
I tried to reveal some morphological influences of Mandarin Chinese on the language by clarifying the distribution patterns of the nominalizer -niŋ(ŋə) related to the past participle -xə and comparing it with Mandarin Chinese grammar.
I suggested that the Spoken Manchu grammar was highly influenced by the serial verb construction of Mandarin Chinese. And then, I also suggested that the Manchu nominalizer has been interpreted as an equivalent of the Mandarin Chinese particle de (的).

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6蒙古语和朝鲜语的数范畴

저자 : 道如娜 ( Dao Runa )

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 107-121 (15 pages)

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Compared with western languages, Mongolian and Korean, as Oriental languages, have their own unique characteristics. There are many studies about the number category of Altaic languages, including Mongolian and Korean. However, most of the previous studies have confined the number category to the framework of Indo European linguistics to analyze and understand its significance. This type of approach will not properly clarify the complex linguistic facts of the number category in Mongolian and Korean. Taking the number category of Mongolian and Korean as the research object, this paper makes a brief analysis from three perspectives: the opposition of numbers, the consistency of numbers, and the grammatical function of plural markers. By giving specific examples, it reanalyzes the previous views on number category, aiming to summarize the characteristics of number category, It also provides reference for the study of the number category and grammatical characteristics of other Altaic languages.

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7Some lexical properties in the dialects of the Xinjiang Oirats who transitioned from nomadic to settled culture

저자 : Batkhishig Sangidorj

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 123-140 (18 pages)

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The features of national mentality are commonly emerged in its language and more specifically in its idioms and idiomatic expressions. A study on idioms plays a prominent role in the studies on Mongolian lexicology. In addition to studies clarifying and explaining the meaning of Mongolian idioms thus identifying the features of national mentality, recently a number of comparative studies on idioms of two different languages have been published. The social disintegration that happened throughout history in Mongolia caused differences in language dialects of Mongolian ethnic groups. Some Mongolian nomads had moved to the settled culture earlier than others. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to clarify the distinctive features of two dialects of the same language that are coexisting in two different countries, cultures and social relations by examining their idioms. Studies on Mongolian idioms and proverbs and comparative studies with other languages have been published in the past, however this study is the first comparative study on idioms of two dialects within the Mongolian language. This paper aims to introduce the language status of Xinjiang Oirats and to explain language evolution by examining the semantic and lexical changes in idioms of two dialects of one language.

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8On the fluidity of bones in Mongolic and beyond

저자 : Juha JANHUNEN , Uluhan ÖZALAN

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 141-153 (13 pages)

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This paper examines the fact that the words for 'bone' in Mongolic and Tungusic belong to a formal class containing a marker that normally refers to uncountable homogeneous substances, especially liquids. While there may be several factors underlying this curious situation, some possible light is shed on the issue by Turkic data, which suggest a semantic confusion between 'bone' and 'bone marrow.' Another phenomenon that deserves attention in this context is the use of the concept of 'bone' to indicate genetic lineages or 'tribes' in the nomadic society.

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9The perception of word-initial aspiration contrasts in Mongolian: The effects of voice onset time and following vowels

저자 : Naoki UETA

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 155-175 (21 pages)

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The Mongolian language has an aspiration contrast in stops and affricates. The contrast in the word-initial position is adequately characterized by voice onset time (VOT) differences. In addition, some other acoustic characteristics, such as F0 and F1 in the following vowel, help to distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated consonants. However, it is unclear whether or to what extent VOT and the following vowel affect the perception of aspiration contrast in Mongolian. The present study carried out a perceptual experiment using three types of stimulus sounds and found that: (i) VOT alone cannot distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated consonants; (ii) following vowels significantly affect the distinctions derived between aspirated and unaspirated consonants; and (iii) following vowels are more effective than VOT in distinguishing aspirated and unaspirated consonants. These results confirm that the influence of acoustic features of the following vowel can contribute to the distinctions derived between aspiration contrasts in Mongolian from the perspective of perception.

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10蒙古语族语言的i 元音转折现象

저자 : 姜根兄 ( JIANG Genxiong )

발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 간행물 : 알타이학보 31권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 177-184 (8 pages)

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In the phonetic evolution of Mongolic languages, [i] is the vowel that is most affected by vowel assimilation and has the most phonetic changes. Especially in the first syllable, the vowel [i] changes more greatly. It is usually assimilated by the influence of the subsequent vowels and becomes the same or similar vowels as the subsequent vowels. The sound change of [i] is a common rule in the development of Mongolic languages and a feature in the historical development of spoken language. Judging from its nature, it is a regressive assimilation phenomenon in which the [i] of the first syllable is assimilated by the vowels of the subsequent syllables, and it is a harmonic sound change. The development process of [i] sound change has been going on for several centuries. Finally, it develops more orderly in Mongolian, but there are some exceptions in other languages. In Mongolic languages, the [i] vowel change before the rounded vowel is more frequent, while the [i] vowel change before the labial vowel is less. There are more transitions in Eastern Mongolian, and fewer transitions in Western Mongolian.

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