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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(2000)~22권3호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 308
Journal of Cognitive Science
22권3호(2021년 09월) 수록논문
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SCOPUS

1Cats Climb Entails Mammals Move: Preserving Hyponymy in Compositional Distributional Semantics

저자 : Gemma De Las Cuevas , Andreas Klingler , Martha Lewis , Tim Netzer

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 311-353 (43 pages)

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To give vector-based representations of meaning more structure, an approach proposed in Piedeleu et al. (2015); Sadrzadeh et al. (2018); Bankova et al. (2018) is to use positive semidefinite (psd) matrices. These allow us to model similarity of words as well as the hyponymy or is-a relationship. To compose words to form phrases and sentences, we may represent adjectives, verbs, and other functional words as multilinear, positivity preserving maps, following the compositional distributional approach introduced in Coecke et al. (2010) and extended to the realm of psd matrices in Piedeleu et al. (2015), but it is not clear how to learn representations of functional words when working with psd matrices. In this paper, we introduce a generic way of composing the psd matrices corresponding to words. We propose that psd matrices for verbs, adjectives, and other functional words be lifted to completely positive (CP) maps that match their grammatical type. This lifting is carried out by our composition rule called Compression, Compr. In contrast to previous composition rules like Fuzz and Phaser (Coecke and Meichanetzidis, 2020) (a.k.a. KMult and BMult (Lewis, 2019a)), Compr preserves hyponymy. Mathematically, Compr is itself a CP map, and is therefore linear and generally non-commutative. We give a number of proposals for the structure of Compr, based on spiders, cups, and caps, and generate a range of composition rules. We test these rules on sentence entailment datasets from Kartsaklis and Sadrzadeh (2016), and see some improvements over the performance of Fuzz and Phaser. We go on to estimate the parameters of a simplified form of Compr based on entailment information from the aforementioned datasets, and find that whilst this learnt operator does not consistently outperform previously proposed mechanisms, it is competitive and has the potential to improve with the use of a less simplified version.

SCOPUS

2Solving Logical Puzzles in DisCoCirc

저자 : Tiffany Duneau

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 355-389 (35 pages)

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Finding a full solution to logical puzzles, from parsing the text to arriving at the answer, forms an active area of research in artificial intelligence. In this paper, we address an initial subset of these puzzles that take the form of constraint satisfaction problems, providing a method for solving them by encoding the puzzle meaning as a relation informed by the individual sentences that make up the puzzle text. To build this relation from the text we make use of a diagrammatic, distributional compositional framework called DisCoCirc. We then show that the puzzle solution can be extracted from this encoding with minimal extra work, as the logical form of the puzzle is modelled and evaluated as the meaning encoding is computed.

SCOPUS

3Analysing Ambiguous Nouns and Verbs with Quantum Contextuality Tools

저자 : Daphne Wang , Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh , Samson Abramsky , Víctor H. Cervantes

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 391-420 (30 pages)

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Psycholinguistic research uses eye-tracking to show that polysemous words are disambiguated differently from homonymous words, and that ambiguous verbs are disambiguated differently than ambiguous nouns. Research in Compositional Distributional Semantics uses cosine distances to show that verbs are disambiguated more efficiently in the context of their subjects and objects than when on their own. These two frameworks both focus on one ambiguous word at a time and neither considers ambiguous phrases with two (or more) ambiguous words. We borrow methods and measures from Quantum Information Theory, the framework of Contextuality-by-Default and degrees of contextual influences, and work with ambiguous subject-verb and verb-object phrases of English, where both the subject/object and the verb are ambiguous. We show that differences in the processing of ambiguous verbs versus ambiguous nouns, as well as between different levels of ambiguity in homonymous versus polysemous nouns and verbs can be modelled using the averages of the degrees of their contextual influences.

SCOPUS

4Talking Space: Inference from Spatial Linguistic Meanings

저자 : Vincent Wang-maścianica , Bob Coecke

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 421-463 (43 pages)

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This paper concerns the intersection of natural language and the physical space around us in which we live, that we observe and/or imagine things within. Many important features of language have spatial connotations, for example, many prepositions (like in, next to, after, on, etc.) are fundamentally spatial. Space is also a key factor of the meanings of many words/phrases/sentences/text, and space is a, if not the key, context for referencing (e.g. pointing) and embodiment. We propose a mechanism for how space and linguistic structure can be made to interact in a matching compositional fashion. Examples include Cartesian space, subway stations, chesspieces on a chess-board, and Penrose's staircase. The starting point for our construction is the DisCoCat model of compositional natural language meaning, which we relax to accommodate physical space. We address the issue of having multiple agents/objects in a space, including the case that each agent has different capabilities with respect to that space, e.g. the specific moves each chesspiece can make, or the different velocities one may be able to reach. Once our model is in place, we show how inferences drawing from the structure of physical space can be made. We also show how our linguistic model of space can interact with other such models related to our senses and/or embodiment, such as the conceptual spaces of colour, taste and smell, resulting in a rich compositional model of meaning that is close to human experience and embodiment in the world.

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