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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~27권1호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 307
중앙아시아연구
27권1호(2022년 06월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

저자 : 정재훈 ( Jeong Jaehun )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-22 (22 pages)

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In 48, the North-South division of the Xiongnu greatly reduced the threat to Han dynasty(漢朝). The Han Dynasty tried to maintain its superiority by using the Southern Xiongnu(南匈奴) to keep the Northern Xiongnu(北匈奴) in check. In response, isolated Northern Xiongnu actively negotiated to overcome this situation. However, since then, the relationship has not been maintained as conflicts with Northern Xiongnu began in earnest. Ban Gu(班固) compiled a history book, Han Shu(漢書), as a family business. He also went further and participated in the Northern Expedition to actively solve the Xiongnu issue.
Ban Gu focused on solving the Xiongnu problem and wrote the Biology of Xiongnu, and supplemented the contents by accepting Sima Qian(司馬遷)'s records, Shi ji(史記), as they were. In addition, he tried to edit the contents by focusing on the establishment of measures to suppress the Xiongnu in his writings. This was different from Sima Qian, who tried to objectively describe the Xiongnu and provide accurate information. Ban Gu defined the Xiongnu as a 'barbarian' and tried to control them loosely(羈縻), emphasizing their differences from the position of disparaging them.
This perception and response to Ban Gu's Xiongnu also had a great influence on Fan Ye(范曄) who later recorded the Southern Xiongnu as an example, and this was further strengthened afterwards. This was a natural result of the stronger confrontation with the Xiongnu and eventually being ruled by them. It should be noted that, contrary to this negative position, the record of Sima Qian tried to provide objective information. This shows the difference between the two recorders and allows them to compare the characteristics of the two records. Considering the characteristics of these records, it is necessary to study the history of Xiongnu in the future.

KCI등재

저자 : 주경미 ( Joo Kyeongmi )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 23-61 (39 pages)

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From the early twentieth century, the so-called “animal style” art in ancient Central Asian nomadic culture has been studied by many scholars mainly focusing on Scythian cultural artifacts. Although the animal style art has been regarded as the representative and prevalent art style in many ancient nomadic cultures that originated in their natural environment, many scholars have contradictorily wanted to interpret the meaning of their characters and the manufactural regions as a result of the advanced cultural influences from the giant neighboring imperial states like ancient Persia or China. However, there are many disputes on the meaning and stylistic features of the “animal style” art in ancient Eurasian continent. In this paper, I classified the animals in the ancient Central Asian artifacts into two basic categories: animals that exist in the real world and fantastic animals that exist in the imaginations of the humans. In my opinion, the imaginary animals are more significant as those creatures might be the hybrids envisioned from varied features of several real-life animals to visually represent special, invisible, supernatural, or mythical existences.
In this paper, I will research on the iconographic features and cultural meaning of the fantastic animals in ancient Xiongnu artifacts, which were made in the later period of the ancient Central Asian animal style arts. These fantastic animals can be classified into four groups according to their zoomorphic features. The first group is related to the so-called Chinese dragon or serpent. The second group is related to the griffin or a monstrous vulture. The third group is related to feline-like beasts. The last group is related to the animal with one horn, or so-called unicorn. However, every fantastic animal in ancient Xiongnu artifacts reveals varied appearance and it is difficult to find similarities between them. Additionally, there are diverse visual transformations among the same groups based on the excavated regions. Many fantastic animals in Xiongnu artifacts are represented as a part of the “animal combat” scenes, but several examples are represented solely as themselves. The most important sole iconographic image is the winged animal with a horn, which was a new fantastic animal in Xiongnu culture excavated from Gol Mod II site in 2011. In Mongolia, this fantastic animal is called “Bers,” a kind of mythical animal in ancient Xiongnu culture. This fantastic animal is an original Mongolian creature in ancient Xiongnu period.
In the previous studies on the fantastic animals portrayed in ancient Xiongnu period, many scholars have strictly focused only on the influence of Han Chinese culture, disregarding the cultural and regional originalities of Xiongnu people and the traditionalism in the ancient nomadic culture. However, the material culture of Xiongnu people shows the diverse and vast interrelationships and exchanges across the entire Eurasian continent to the contemporary Egypt in the north of Africa. It means that the cultural interpretation on the Xiongnu culture must be a much wider view of the ancient nomadic culture than the narrow view of the ancient Chinese historical records written by the Chinese who might have been complete outsiders among the Xiongnu and ancient nomads. The famous fantastic animal from Gol Mod II site bears no relationship to the contemporary Han China, but it might have originated from the ancient Near East and Persia. According to the zoomorphic features, the animal iconography might be related to the ancient Near Eastern fantastic animal named “Lion-Griffin,” but the style is originally created in ancient Mongolia with many eccentric variations. In my opinion, this newly created fantastic animal of Gol Mod II site might be the antecedent model of “Simurgh,” the famous fantastic animal in the late Persian myth and culture.
The fantastic animal in the ancient Xiongnu period in Mongolia had represented diverse artistic styles according to the diverse regional culture and society. The ancient Xiongnu people communicated with and accepted many diverse neighboring cultures, simultaneously and creatively integrating them into their own culture. The fantastic animals in Ancient Xiongnu artifacts might have been recreated into new forms according to the original nomadic Mongolian lifestyle and myth. These imaginary representations of ancient Mongolian sites might be reinterpreted and reevaluated as the cultural historical material objects and mythical authorities originally created by the ancient Xiongnu people in their own regions.

KCI등재

저자 : 김동훈 ( Kim Donghun )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 63-84 (22 pages)

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The Karatepa Buddhist Temple, which played an important role in the propagation of Buddhism from India to East Asia, is located by the Amu Darya River to the southwest of Termez, a historic city in the south of Uzbekistan. For the purposes of this study, the archaeological survey and excavation projects of the archaeological site of Karatepa, which was the center of the Buddhist culture of the Kushan Empire in the first to third centuries AD, can be divided into four stages.
The first stage consists of a few small-scale surveys conducted in the 1920s and 1930s after it was discovered that the archaeological site was connected with the Buddhist culture of the Kushan Empire.
The second stage, ranging from the 1960s to the 1980s, consists of a series of detailed surveys and excavations conducted annually by academic institutions based in Moscow and Leningrad (present-day Saint Petersburg) of the Soviet Union, resulting in the discovery of stone caves built by digging into hills horizontally, and complexes of clay brick buildings with a courtyard and a stupa, some of which were built on the hills.
The third stage consists of joint excavations conducted by Japan and Uzbekistan in the 1990s and 2000s after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It was during this period that the characteristic features of the entire site were discovered through intensive surveys and excavations of the building complex around the northern hill. Unlike the complexes of caves and the buildings on the southern and western hills, the architectural remains on the northern hill consist of courtyards surrounded by galleries, with monks' dormitories outside them, and medium-size and large stupas around them.
The fourth stage consists of excavations conducted from 2011 to the present. The excavations conducted jointly by a Korean governmental agency, and the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, at three complexes of caves and buildings clustered on the southern slope of the southern hill of the site have revealed that they are the earliest building complexes at the site. An additional excavation of the northern hill conducted in cooperation with a team from Japan's Rissho University has also revealed that the buildings had been extant until the fifth century.
The Karatepa Buddhist Temple, the first Buddhist archaeological site to be discovered in Central Asia, remains the largest Buddhist heritage site in the region which played a central role in the spread of Buddhism. Since its discovery about one hundred years ago, the temple has become one of the most intensively studied Buddhist heritage sites in the region.
Given the significance of the Karatepa Buddhist Temple in the history of Buddhism, and the eastward migrations of Buddhism in particular, numerous archaeologists from all over the region visit the site in order to conduct additional surveys and excavations in the areas around the temple which have not yet been excavated. This study is expected to contribute to the effort to increase our knowledge of the site and to preserve it for future generations.

KCI등재

저자 : 이주형 ( Rhi Juhyung )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 85-115 (31 pages)

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The Buddha image was newly recognized and constructed as a concept and a category in a modern academic exploration named Buddhist art. Although they continued to exist for dedication and worship in vast areas in Asia where Buddhism was a dominant faith, they fell into oblivion in most parts of the Indian subcontinent, its birthplace. Especially in the northwestern part of the subcontinent commonly called Gandhāra, it was utterly unknown to its inhabitants for almost a thousand years. In this region, the discovery of Buddha images was not only an archaeological one, in which Buddha images were unearthed through modern excavations, but also their recognition in identity and formal configuration. This remarkable feat was gradually carried out during the nineteenth century mostly by Europeans, who were able to identify the Buddha in visual images with the help of the familiarity of examples of apparent affinities from other parts of Asia and the advancement of scholarly knowledge in the historicity of Buddhism in the subcontinent. This article explores the process of identifying Buddha images in Gandhāra focusing on various European authors who played crucial roles in this endeavor such as Mountstuart Elphinstone, James Prinsep, Horace Wilson, and Alexander Cunningham. Writings on the examples of the other parts of the subcontinent and Asia will also be discussed as the sources that provided significant references for identifying Buddha images as such.

KCI등재

저자 : 이평래 ( Lee Pyungrae )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 117-137 (21 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the early life and activities of Khaisan, an official from Kharchin, Inner Mongolia, who is a symbolic figure of the Mongolian independence and national unity movement in 1911. Khaisan's hometown is the first place where Chinese immigration began in Inner Mongolia. The migration of Chinese was accompanied by the clearing of pastures, and for this reason, conflicts between Chinese and Mongolians appeared sharply early in his hometown. In this situation, Khaisan moved to Harbin due to the conflict with Chinese, and from there went to Khuree again, and played a leading role in national independence, and was appointed as a high-ranking official of the new government to try to build a new country. However, his efforts for Mongolia's complete independence and national unity led to conflicts with Russia, a supporter of independence and pro-Russian officials, suffered political hardship, and returned to Beijing after independence was revoked by the Kyakhta Treaty in 1915.
In this respect, his life course shows almost all aspects of the rise and fall of Mongolian nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite this importance, studies on it are very few. In particular, there is a lack of account of his early life and why he left his homeland. So far, research has mainly explained the reason why he left his hometown only in conflicts with Chinese. However, data confirm that conflicts and confrontations within the Mongolian ruling class also urged him to leave his hometown. And this is one of the important reasons why the national unity movement developed with the Declaration of Independence was thwarted. With this in mind, I looked at the background of Khasan's growth and rise, the migration of Chinese and the resulting social changes in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia, and the background of his migration to Harbin.

KCI등재

저자 : Li Yong-sŏng

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 27권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 139-173 (35 pages)

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Tuvan belongs to the adaq-group of Turkic languages. Tuvan and its related dialects/languages can be collectively referred to as the so-called “Sayan-Turkic”. They are broadly divided into two groups: (A) the languages of the steppe region and (B) the languages of the taiga region. The Tuvans live mainly in the Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation. They also inhabit neighboring Mongolia and northern Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in China.
Supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant, two successive research projects were carried out by the Altaic Society of Korea. The material discussed in this paper was obtained from two field studies conducted on Jungar Tuvan on October 19, 21~22, 2004 and on April 28 ~ May 4, 2005. Of the words that the informants answered incorrectly at first, 40 were covered in the previous article, and the 62 words covered in this article can be classified as follows:
1. Cases where Chinese words are exactly homophonic up to the tone;
2. Cases where the informants misunderstood the pronunciation of Chinese words;
3. Cases where Chinese words are polysemous;
4. Cases where the informants did not know the exact meaning of Chinese words.

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